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Soredia are common reproductive structures of lichens.[1] Lichens reproduce asexually by employing simple fragmentation and production of soredia and isidia.[2] Soredia are powdery propagules composed of fungal hyphae wrapped around cyanobacteria or green algae.[1] These can be either scattered diffusely across the surface of the lichen's thallus, or produced in localized structures called soralia.[3] Fungal hyphae make up the basic body structure of lichen.[2] The soredia are released through openings in the upper cortex of the lichen structure.[1] After their release, the soredia disperse to establish the lichen in a new location.[2]


  1. ^ a b c Eichorn, Susan E; Evert, Ray F; Raven, Peter H (2005). Biology of Plants. New York: W.H. Freeman and Company. pp. 289.
  2. ^ a b c Cook, Rebecca; McFarland, Kenneth (1995). General Botany 111: Laboratory Manual. Knoxville: University of Tennessee. p. 104.
  3. ^ Brodo, Irwin W.; Sharnoff, Sylvia Duran; Sharnoff, Stephen (2001). Lichens of North America. New Haven, CT, USA: Yale University Press. p. 762. ISBN 0-300-08249-5.