Soviet submarine K-219
US Navy photo of K-219 on the surface after suffering a fire in a missile tube
|Laid down:||28 May 1970|
|Launched:||8 October 1971|
|Commissioned:||31 December 1971|
|Fate:||Sunk by explosion and fire caused by seawater leak in missile tube, 3 October 1986, killing 4|
|Status:||Located in 18,000 ft. (6000 m) of water, Hatteras abyssal plain, North Atlantic Ocean|
|Class and type:||Yankee-class submarine|
|Length:||129.8 m (425 ft 10 in)|
|Beam:||11.7 m (38 ft 5 in)|
|Draft:||8.7 m (28 ft 7 in)|
|Propulsion:||2 × 90 MWt OK-700 reactors with VM-4 cores producing 20,000 hp (15 MW) each|
|Speed:||26 knots (48 km/h; 30 mph)|
|Test depth:||400 m (1,300 ft)|
|Complement:||120 officers and men|
K-219 was a Project 667A Navaga-class ballistic missile submarine (NATO reporting name Yankee I) of the Soviet Navy. It carried 16 (later 15) SS-N-6 liquid-fuel missiles powered by UDMH with IRFNA, equipped with an estimated 34 nuclear warheads.
K-219 was involved in what has become one of the most controversial submarine incidents during the Cold War.
On Friday 3 October 1986, while on an otherwise routine Cold War nuclear deterrence patrol in the North Atlantic 1,090 kilometres (680 mi) northeast of Bermuda, the 15-year-old K-219 suffered an explosion and fire in a missile tube. The seal in a missile hatch cover failed, allowing saltwater to leak into the missile tube and react with residue from the missile's liquid fuel. Though there was no official announcement, a published source (citing no sources) said the Soviet Union claimed that the leak was caused by a collision with the submarine USS Augusta. Augusta was certainly operating in proximity, but both the United States Navy and the commander of K-219, Captain Second Rank Igor Britanov, deny that a collision took place. K-219 had previously experienced a similar casualty; one of her missile tubes was already disabled and welded shut, having been permanently sealed after an explosion caused by reaction between seawater leaking into the silo and missile fuel residue. 
The authors of the book Hostile Waters reconstructed the incident from descriptions by the survivors, ships' logs, the official investigations, and participants both ashore and afloat from the Soviet and the American sides. The result was a novelized version of events.
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Shortly after 0530 Moscow time, seawater leaking into silo six of K-219 reacted with missile fuel, producing chlorine and nitrogen dioxide gases and sufficient heat to explosively decompose additional fuming nitric acid to produce more nitrogen dioxide gas. K-219 weapons officer Alexander Petrachkov attempted to cope with this by disengaging the hatch cover and venting the missile tube to the sea. Shortly after 0532, an explosion occurred in silo six.
An article in Undersea warfare by Captain First Rank (Ret.) Igor Kurdin, Russian Navy – K-219's previous XO (executive officer) – and Lieutenant Commander Wayne Grasdock, USN described the explosion occurrence as follows:
At 0514, the BCh-2 officer and the hold machinist/engineer in compartment IV (the forward missile compartment) discovered water dripping from under the plug of missile tube No. 6 (the third tube from the bow on the port side). During precompression of the plug, the drips turned into a stream. The BCh-2 officer reported water in missile tube No. 6, and at 0525, the captain ordered an ascent to a safe depth (46 meters) while a pump was started in an attempt to dry out missile tube No. 6. At 0532, brown clouds of oxidant began issuing from under the missile-tube plug, and the BCh-2 officer declared an accident alert in the compartment and reported the situation to the GKP (main control post). Although personnel assigned to other compartments left the space, nine people remained in compartment IV. The captain declared an accident alert. It took the crew no more than one minute to carry out initial damage control measures, which included hermetically sealing all compartments. Five minutes later, at 0538, an explosion occurred in missile tube No. 6.
Two sailors were killed outright in the explosion, and a third died soon afterward from toxic gas poisoning. Through a breach in the hull, the vessel immediately started taking on sea water, quickly sinking from its original depth of 40 metres (130 ft) to eventually reach a depth in excess of 300 metres (980 ft). Sealing of all of the compartments and full engagement of the sea water pumps in the stricken compartments enabled the depth to be stabilised.
25 sailors were trapped in a sealed section, and it was only after a conference with his incident specialists that the Captain allowed the Chief Engineer to open the hatch and save the 25 lives. It could be seen from instruments that although the nuclear reactor should have automatically shut down, it was not. Lt. Nikolai Belikov, one of the reactor control officers, entered the reactor compartment but ran out of oxygen after turning just one of the four rod assemblies on the first reactor. Twenty-year-old enlisted seaman Sergei Preminin then volunteered to shut down the reactor, to be enabled by operating under instruction from the Chief Engineer. Working with a full-face gas mask, he successfully shut down the reactor. A large fire had developed within the compartment, raising the pressure. When Preminin tried to reach his comrades on the other side of a door, the pressure difference prevented him from opening it, and he subsequently died of asphyxiation in the reactor compartment.
In a nuclear safe condition, and with sufficient stability to allow it to surface, Captain Britanov surfaced K-219 on battery power alone. He was then ordered to have the ship towed by a Soviet freighter back to her home port of Gadzhiyevo, 7,000 kilometres (4,300 mi) away. Although a towline was attached, towing attempts were unsuccessful, and after subsequent poison gas leaks into the final aft compartments and against orders, Britanov ordered the crew to evacuate onto the towing ship, but remained aboard K-219 himself.
Displeased with Britanov's inability to repair his submarine and continue his patrol, Moscow ordered Valery Pshenichny, K-219’s security officer, to assume command, transfer the surviving crew back to the submarine, and return to duty. Before those orders could be carried out the flooding reached a point beyond recovery and on 6 October 1986 the K-219 sank to the bottom of the Hatteras Abyssal Plain at a depth of about 6,000 m (18,000 ft). Britanov abandoned ship shortly before the sinking. K-219's full complement of nuclear weapons was lost along with the vessel.
In 1988, the Soviet hydrographic research ship Keldysh positioned itself over the wreck of K-219, and found the submarine sitting upright on the sandy bottom. It had broken in two, aft of the conning tower. Several missile silo hatches had been forced open, and the missiles, along with the nuclear warheads they contained, were gone.
Preminin was posthumously awarded the Order of the Red Star for his bravery in securing the reactors. Britanov was charged with negligence, sabotage, and treason. He was never imprisoned, but waited for his trial in Sverdlovsk. On 30 May 1987, Defense Minister Sergey Sokolov was dismissed as a result of the Mathias Rust incident two days earlier, and replaced by Dmitry Yazov; the charges against Britanov were subsequently dismissed.
Hostile Waters film
In 1997, the British BBC television film Hostile Waters, co-produced with HBO and starring Rutger Hauer, Martin Sheen, and Max von Sydow, was released in the United States by Warner Bros. It was based on the book by the same name, which claimed to describe the loss of K-219. In 2001, Captain Britanov filed suit, claiming Warner Bros. did not seek or get his permission to use his story or his character, and that the film did not portray the events accurately and made him look incompetent. After three years of hearing, the court ruled in Britanov's favor. Russian media reported that the filmmaker paid a settlement totaling under $100,000.
After the release of the movie, The U.S. Navy issued the following statement regarding both the book and the movie:
The United States Navy normally does not comment on submarine operations, but in the [sic] case, because the scenario is so outrageous, the Navy is compelled to respond. The United States Navy categorically denies that any U.S. submarine collided with the Soviet Yankee Class submarine K-219 or that the Navy had anything to do with the cause of the casualty that resulted in the loss of the Soviet Yankee-class submarine.
An article on the U.S. Navy's website posted by Captain 1st Rank (Ret.) Igor Kurdin (former XO of K-219) and Lieutenant Commander Wayne Grasdock denied any collision between K-219 and Augusta. Captain Britanov also denies a collision, and he has stated that he was not asked to be a guest speaker at Russian functions, because he refuses to follow the Russian government's interpretation of the K-219 incident.
In a BBC interview recorded in February 2013, Admiral of the Fleet Vladimir Chernavin, the C-in-C of the Soviet Navy at the time of the K-219 incident, says the accident was caused by a malfunction in a missile tube, and makes no mention of a collision with an American submarine. The interview was conducted for the BBC2 series The Silent War.
The following casualties were directly attributed to the incident:
|Died 3 October 1986|
|Petrachkov, Alexander V.||Captain, Third Rank||Weapons officer|
|Kharchengo, Igor K.||Seaman||Machinist|
|Smaglyuk, Nikolai||Seaman||Weapons Division|
|Preminin, Sergei A.||Seaman||Reactor Team|
|Died later from health complications resulting from the incident|
|Karpachev, Vladimir N.||Captain Lieutenant||Commander's Deputy|
|Markov, Vladimir P.||Captain, Third Rank||Communications Officer|
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to K-219.|
- Ramana & Reddy 2003, p. 131
- Irza 2004
- Captain 1st Rank (Ret.) Igor Kurdin, Russian Navy; Lt. Cmdr. Wayne Grasdock, USN (Fall 2005). "Loss of a Yankee SSBN". Undersea Warfare. 7 (5). Archived from the original on 23 July 2013.
- Huchthausen, Peter; Kurdin, Igor; White, Allen (1997). Hostile Waters. St. Martin's Press. p. 24. ISBN 0312966121.
- Huchthausen; Kurdin; White. Hostile Waters. p. xi.
- Huchthausen; Kurdin; White. Hostile Waters. p. 93.
- Huchthausen; Kurdin; White. Hostile Waters. p. 97.
- Kurdin & Grasdock 2005.
- "Soviet Submariner Gave His Life For Peace Officers Nominate Seaman For U.S. Heroism Medal".
- Offley 2007, p. 112
-  Archived 5 February 2012 at the Wayback Machine.
- Huchthausen; Kurdin; White. Hostile Waters. p. 333.
- Irza, John (2004). "Soundings". IEEE Oceanic Engineering Society. Archived from the original on 16 December 2004. Retrieved 29 November 2004.
- "U. S. Navy: Hostile Waters". Retrieved 15 May 2011.
- Kurdin, Igor; Grasdock, Wayne (Fall 2005), "Loss of a Yankee SSBN", Undersea Warfare 2005 Vol. 7, No. 5
- Huchthausen; Kurdin; White. Hostile Waters. pp. 338–341.
- USN statement on Hostile Waters
- Книга памяти – К-219 (in Russian)
- Kurdin, Igor; Grasdock, Wayne (Fall 2005), "Loss of a Yankee SSBN", Undersea Warfare, 7 (5), archived from the original on 5 February 2007. (archived from on 2007-02-05).
- Huchthausen, Peter; Kurdin, Igor; White, R. Alan (1997), Hostile Waters, London: Arrow Books, ISBN 0-09-926966-X
- Irza, John (2004), "Soundings", IEEE Oceanic Engineering Society, XXXVIII (4), archived from the original on 16 December 2004, retrieved 29 November 2004
- Offley, Edward (2007), "5. The Russians are Coming", Scorpion Down: Sunk by the Soviets, Buried by the Pentagon : the Untold Story of the USS Scorpion, Westview Press, pp. 109–142, ISBN 978-0-465-05185-4 ISBN 0-465-05185-5.
- Ramana, M. V.; Reddy, C. Rammanohar (2003), Prisoners of the Nuclear Dream, Orient Longman, ISBN 978-81-250-2477-4, ISBN 81-250-2477-8.