Spatial cognition

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Spatial cognition is concerned with the acquisition, organization, utilization, and revision of knowledge about spatial environments. These capabilities enable humans to manage basic and high-level cognitive tasks in everyday life. Numerous disciplines (such as Psychology, Geographic Information Science, Artificial Intelligence, Cartography, etc.) work together to understand spatial cognition in humans and in technical systems. Spatial cognition studies have helped to link cognitive psychology and neuroscience together. Scientists in both fields work together to figure out what role spatial cognition plays in the brain as well as the neurobiological infrastructure that surrounds it. Spatial cognition is closely related to how people talk about their environment, find their way in new surroundings, and plan routes.[1] It has been found that neurological and neuropsychological problems are linked to a difference in spatial behavior[2].[3]

Spatial Cognition in Genders[edit]

Spatial Cognition can be different depending on your gender. There have been many experiments that have concluded this theory. These experiments show that men tend to have a better since of direction that women. When tested it showed that men, on the second time through courses, were able to analyze visual cues more than the women subject could

In a study of two congeneric rodent species, sex differences in hippocampal size were predicted by sex-specific patterns of spatial cognition. Hippocampal size is known to correlate positively with maze performance in laboratory mouse strains and with selective pressure for spatial memory among passerine bird species. In polygamous vole species (Rodentia: Microtus), males range more widely than females in the field and perform better on laboratory measures of spatial ability; both of these differences are absent in monogamous vole species. Ten females and males were taken from natural populations of two vole species, the polygamous meadow vole, M. pennsylvanicus, and the monogamous pine vole, M. pinetorum. Only in the polygamous species do males have larger hippocampi relative to the entire brain than do females[4]. This study shows that spatial cognition can vary depending on your gender.

Our study aimed to determine whether male cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis; cephalopod mollusc) range over a larger area than females and whether this difference is associated with a cognitive dimorphism in orientation abilities. First, we assessed the distance travelled by sexually immature and mature cuttlefish of both sexes when placed in an open field (test 1). Second, cuttlefish were trained to solve a spatial task in a T-maze, and the spatial strategy preferentially used (right/left turn or visual cues) was determined (test 2). Our results showed that sexually mature males travelled a longer distance in test 1, and were more likely to use visual cues to orient in test 2, compared with the other three groups[5]. Study shows that men tend to have a better sense of direction than women which could lead to men having a higher spatial cognition level than women.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Thora Tenbrink, Jan M. Wiener and Christophe Claramunt Representing space in cognition: interrelations of behaviour, language and formal models. Oxford University Press, 2013.
  2. ^ Hemakumara, GPTS. and Rainis, R. 2018. Spatial behaviour modelling of unauthorised housing in Colombo, Sri Lanka. KEMANUSIAAN the Asian Journal of Humanities25(2): 91–107, https://doi.org/10.21315/kajh2018.25.2.5 Spatial Behaviour Modelling of Unauthorised Housing in Colombo, Sri Lanka | Request PDF. Available from: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/327864214_Spatial_Behaviour_Modelling_of_Unauthorised_Housing_in_Colombo_Sri_Lanka [accessed Sep 27 2018].
  3. ^ Denis, Michel & Loomis, Jack. Perspectives on Human Spatial Cognition: Memory, Navigation, and Environmental Learning. Psychological Research, 2007.
  4. ^ Jacobs, Lucia F.; Gaulin, Steven J. C.; Sherry, David F.; Hoffman, Gloria E. (1990). "Evolution of Spatial Cognition: Sex-Specific Patterns of Spatial Behavior Predict Hippocampal Size". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 87 (16): 6349–6352. Bibcode:1990PNAS...87.6349J. doi:10.1073/pnas.87.16.6349. ISSN 0027-8424. JSTOR 2356205. PMC 54531. PMID 2201026.
  5. ^ Jozet-Alves, Christelle; Modéran, Julien; Dickel, Ludovic (2008). "Sex Differences in Spatial Cognition in an Invertebrate: The Cuttlefish". Proceedings: Biological Sciences. 275 (1646): 2049–2054. doi:10.1098/rspb.2008.0501. ISSN 0962-8452. JSTOR 25249764. PMC 2596364. PMID 18505716.

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