He was born in Montreal, Quebec, and studied graphic arts at Collège Ahuntsic. In 1983, Poulin received honourable mention as children's book illustrator in a competition held by Communication-Jeunesse. The following year, he was awarded "Best in Show". In 1985, he published his first book ah belle cité!/a beautiful city: abc; the paintings used to illustrate the book were shown at the Galerie l'Art Français in Montreal. His 1986 books Album de famille and As-tu vu Joséphine? received the Canada Council Children's Literature Prize for illustration. Album de famille also received the Prix Québec-Wallonie-Bruxelles de littérature de jeunesse. In 1989, he received the Vicky Metcalf Award for Literature for Young People.
- Peux-tu attraper Joséphine? (1987), won an award in a literary contest run by the Boston Globe; translated as Can You Catch Josephine?, won the Elizabeth Mrazik-Cleaver Canadian Picture Book Award and was named to the International Board on Books for Young People (IBBY) honour list
- Benjamin et la saga des oreillers (1989), received the Canada Council Children's Literature Prize for illustration
- Un voyage pour deux (1991), received a Mr. Christie's Book Award for illustration and was also named to the IBBY honour list
- Poil de serpent, dent d'araignée (1996), received a Mr. Christie's Book Award for illustration
- Petit zizi (1997), received the Prix illustrations jeunesse GLV
- Vieux Thomas et la petite fée (2000), received a Mr. Christie's Book Award for text and illustration and also received the Prix illustrations jeunesse GLV
- Un chant de Noël (2003), received the Elizabeth Mrazik-Cleaver Canadian Picture Book Award
- "Stéphane Poulin fonds". Library and Archives Canada.
- Criscoe, Betty L (1990). Award-winning books for children and young adults: an annual guide, 1989. p. 214. ISBN 0810823365.
- "Stéphane Poulin - Illustrateur". Library and Archives Canada.
- "Elizabeth Mrazik-Cleaver Canadian Picture Book Award". IBBY Canada.