27 July 1872
Jasika, Kruševac, Principality of Serbia
|Died||15 February 1942
Belgrade, Territory of the Military Commander in Serbia
|Known for||At Dawn
March on the Drina
Stanislav Binički (Serbian Cyrillic: Станислав Бинички, pronounced [stǎnislaʋ binǐt͡ʃkiː]; 27 July 1872 – 15 February 1942) was a Serbian composer, conductor, and pedagogue. A student of German composer Josef Rheinberger, he became the first director of the Opera Sector of the National Theatre in Belgrade in 1889 and began working with the Belgrade Military Orchestra a decade later. He composed the first Serbian opera, At Dawn (Serbian: Na uranku), in 1903. In 1911, Binički established the second Serbian Music School. He joined the Serbian Army following the outbreak of World War I and composed one of his most famous works, March on the Drina, following the Serbian victory at the Battle of Cer. He retired as head of the Opera Sector of the National Theatre in 1920 and died in Belgrade in 1942. He is considered one of the leading Serbian composers of the Generation of the 1870s.
Life and career
Stanislav Binički was born on 27 July 1872 in the village of Jasika, near Kruševac, Principality of Serbia. He studied in Belgrade and Munich with German composer Josef Rheinberger. Binički became the first director of the Opera Sector of the National Theatre in Belgrade in 1889. In 1899, he began collaborating with the Belgrade Military Orchestra. He enriched the orchestra's musical repertoire with pieces such as Franz Schubert's 8th Symphony, Richard Wagner's overture to Rienzi, Antonín Dvořák's Slavonic Dances, and Felix Mendelssohn's Italian Symphony. The first Serbian opera, At Dawn (Serbian: Na uranku), was written by Binički and premiered in 1903. Music critics John Warrack and Ewan West describe the opera as a pioneering work and praise Binički's ingenious use of contrasting musical styles to depict the struggle between Serbs and Turks.
In 1911, Binički established the second Serbian Music School from within the Singing Society Stanković. He went on to conduct the first Serbian performances of Ludwig van Beethoven's 9th Symphony and Joseph Haydn's Creation. He composed a piece titled Memorial Service in 1912. Binički's instrumental and stage music generally mixed Serbian, Middle Eastern and European—mostly Italian—elements. His choral works are mostly representative of Serbian folk music.
Encouraged by Binički, the National Theatre performed operas such as Il trovatore, Djamileh, Der Freischütz, Verther and Mignon during the 1913–14 operatic season. The National Theatre's work was interrupted by the outbreak of World War I in the summer of 1914. Binički joined the Serbian Army after war was declared. He composed what became known as March on the Drina shortly after the Battle of Cer to commemorate the Serbian victory. He dedicated it to his favourite commander in the army, Colonel Stojanović, who was killed in the fighting. His piece was initially titled March to Victory. Some scholars have hypothesized that Binički based his work on an Ottoman Turkish military march.
In 1915, Serbia was invaded by Austria-Hungary, Germany and Bulgaria. The Serbian lines quickly collapsed and the Serbian Army was forced to retreat through Albania. The Belgrade Military Orchestra subsequently lost all of its instruments and its entire music archive. Binički survived the retreat and managed to reach the Greek island Corfu, where he collected new instruments, reconstructed his scores and arranged a concert in the Corfu National Theatre. He and other Serbian musicians toured France in 1917, beginning with three concerts held in Paris. After the war, Binički returned to the Balkans and took part in a six-month tour through the towns of the newly created Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes. He retired as head of the Opera Sector of the National Theatre in 1920 and was succeeded by Stevan Hristić. He died in Belgrade on 15 February 1942.
Binički is considered one of the leading Serbian composers of the Generation of the 1870s. March on the Drina is one of his best known works. The song experienced widespread popularity during and after World War I and became one of the most famous Serbian nationalist songs.
Major works (Translations not available)
- Grivna — lyrics by A. Šantić.
- Kad ja vidjeh oči tvoje — J. Ilic.
- Da su meni oči tvoje — J. Ilić.
- o polju je kiša pala — J. Jovanović -Zmaj.<
- Spava moma
- Jorgovan grana procvala — A. Šantić.
- Na Liparu — Đ. Jakšić.
- Mila sliko njena — A. Šantić.
- Dan za danom u nepovrat tone.
- Siđi mi draga, siđi — J. Jovanović – Zmaj.
- Imam jednu želju.
- Put oko sveta — B. Nušić
- Tašana — B. Stanković
- Zlato moje, srce moje
- Cvetala mi ruža
- Imam jednu želju 
- Kraljevo kolo
- Srpskoj slobodi — muški zbor
- Đido — po D. Jenku
- U kolu (Iz zbirke "Seljančice")
- Na Uranku — opera, in one act
- Jorgovan grana procvala
- Ekvinocijo — Uvertira — I. Vojnović
- Ježeva molitva
- Pesme iz Južne Srbije
- Svečani marš (Marš kraljeve garde)
- Potera — pesme
- Ljiljan i Omorika — bajka
- Taras Buljba
- Enon Arden — music by Richard Strauss — ar. teksta za recitaciju Stanislav Binički
- Pozdrav kraljevoj verenici – Partitura za mešoviti zbor, 1922
- Gardiski marš
- Duhovne pesme
- Marš na Drinu
- Paradni Mars
- Kosta Manojlović
- Petar Krstić
- Miloje Milojević
- Stevan Hristić
- Stevan Mokranjac
- Isidor Bajić
- Davorin Jenko
- Jovan Đorđević
- Josif Marinković
- Warrack & West 1996, p. 49.
- Milanović 2009, p. 30.
- Strimple 2005, p. 182.
- Tomašević 2009, p. 37.
- Milanović 2009, p. 20.
- Samson 2013, p. 264.
- Tomašević 2009, p. 45.
- Petrović, Žarko (3 March 2003). "Marš na Drinu: Stanislav Binički komponovao je jedan od najlepših marševa" [The March on the Drina: Stanislav Binički Composed one of the Most Beautiful Marches]. Glas Javnosti (in Serbian).
- Tomašević 2009, p. 39.
- Samson 2013, p. 337.
- Gordy 1999, pp. 128–129.
- 1924 sheet music cover, "Grivna", Geca Kon, Belgrade. Scribd.com (12 January 2013). Retrieved on 31 July 2014.
- 1924 sheet music cover, "Po polju je kisa pala", Geca Kon, Belgrade. Scribd.com. Retrieved on 31 July 2014.
- "Jorgovan grana procvala" sheet music, Jovan Frajt, Belgrade. Kompozicija Šantićeve pesme iz zbirke "Grivna". Scribd.com (12 January 2013). Retrieved on 31 July 2014.
- "Mila sliko njena" sheet music, Belgrade. scribd.com
- "Tasana" sheet music. Scribd. Scribd.com (12 January 2013). Retrieved on 31 July 2014.
- Kompozicije — Stanislav Binički. Riznicasrpska.net. Retrieved on 31 July 2014.
- 1922 sheet music, "Pozdrav kraljevoj verenici", Belgrade, 1922. Scribd.com (12 January 2013). Retrieved on 31 July 2014.
- Gordy, Eric D. (1999). Culture of Power in Serbia: Nationalism and the Destruction of Alternatives. University Park, Pennsylvania: Pennsylvania State University Press. ISBN 0-271-01958-1.
- Milanović, Biljana (2009). "Serbian Musical Theatre from the mid-19th Century Until World War II". In Rōmanou, Katy. Serbian and Greek Art Music: A Patch to Western Music History. Chicago, Illinois: Intellect Books. ISBN 978-1-84150-278-6.
- Samson, Jim (2013). Music in the Balkans. Leiden, Netherlands: Brill. ISBN 978-90-04-25038-3.
- Strimple, Nick (2005). Choral Music in the Twentieth Century. Milwaukee, Wisconsin: Hal Leonard Corporation. ISBN 978-1-57467-122-3.
- Tomašević, Katarina (2009). "Musical Life in Serbia in the First Half of the Twentieth Century: Institutions and Repertoire". In Rōmanou, Katy. Serbian and Greek Art Music: A Patch to Western Music History. Chicago, Illinois: Intellect Books. ISBN 978-1-84150-278-6.
- Warrack, John; West, Ewen (1996). The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Opera (3 ed.). Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-280028-0.