Sulima coat of arms
|This article is a rough translation from Polish. It may have been generated by a computer or by a translator without dual proficiency.
See this article's entry on Pages needing translation into English for discussion.
|Alternative names||Oporów, Sulimita|
|Earliest mention||1352 (seal), 1397 (record)|
|Divisions||Gmina Oporów (former city)|
Sulima is a Polish coat of arms. It was used by several szlachta families in the times of the Kingdom of Poland and the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth. It was used by Zawisza Czarny, a famous Polish Knight, undefeated in numerous tournaments, who became a symbol of knightly virtues. Coat of arms entitled Sulkowski and Radomski families who came to the great importance as princes.
Coat of Arms of the shield across two parts divided on the surface area of half eagle black, with yellow field, with wings stretched, with the muzzle to the right blade rotates in the bottom and three stones in the red field on the helmet of Eagle crown half black, such as a shield.
Slightly more complicated is a contemporary description of a medieval coat of arms Sulima, by Joseph Szymanski, built in accordance with all the rules of the so-called.
It presented the original medieval version of the coat of arms. Version shaped in the 16th Century was in the upper field of gold. Here's a description of contemporary, designed with the principles blazonowania proposed by Alfred Znamierowski.
On the emblem Sulima made up so the two characteristic elements: the upper field - half black eagle and heraldic figures called stones or diamonds - (visualized as a square or rectangular diamonds gold-rimmed four-point) - located in the bottom field.
The first preserved in the sources present Sulima were on prints of three wax stamps documents from 1352 year and about 1360. Their owners were clergyman Kraków - the curator of the collegiate church of St. Michael's Castle - Francis. It is worth mentioning that both the earlier seal, coat of arms was a single-pole, deprived labrów and jewel. They are also known for the color of the coat of arms Sulima from this period.
Among several images of seal of the fourteenth century, mention must seal Stanislaus Gamrat from Klimontów applied under the act of union in Horodło in 1413. Sulimczyk that took his coat Lithuanian family named Rodywiła or Radziwiłł. It is not, however, about the progenitor of the famous later the Lithuanian aristocratic family coat of arms Trunks
At about the same time Sulim proudly presented Zawisza Czarny. Fighting with the Turks and performing various missions at the side of the king Sigismund, perhaps in reference to the emblem of the rulers of Germany, he gave half eagle in his coat of arms black color. From the figure Zawisza involves also the first color shot Sulima in this color. It went about 1,415 years to the Book of Bracka St. Christopher on the Arlberg in Tyrol (as compensation for the donation to the fraternity, unfolding care for travelers in excess of Alps). In addition to this color eagle, its weapon was a silver, as well as the top field. The eagle was also a silver headband. Box bottom was red, golden stones in a 2 and 1. It can be assumed that the Western illustrator inspired by the eagles Silesian (girdle and color), German (color) and Polish (color boxes). It is not known whether Labry and jewel were additive derived from the same or from Zawisza illustrator.
In the fifteenth century appearance Sulima immortalized three Western roles of arms. The most famous of these is the Burgundian armorial of the Golden Fleece by Jan de Saint Remy of about 1,435 years. Armorial repeats the color scheme of the famous' Book of Bracka , but the upper field is stylized so that it more closely resembles head. Armorial does not cite jew.el. Another Western armorials Codex Bergshammar and Armorial Lycenich of the twenties-thirties of the fifteenth century, publish a similar image, also stylizing the top box on the head.
At the same time in the country, images of Sulima had at that time already a clear division into two fields. An example here are the seals of the Władysław Oporow, bishop of Wrocław in the years 1435-1441. Images so stylized preserved also at the castle in the Oporowie.
An interesting variant of the look comes from the decoration of the reliquary of St. Barbara from the years 1484-1493. Shield, alongside the established division already has an additional element in the form of decorative fringes, the emblem is red, and the field - gold.
Subsequent elements of the full coat of arms next to labrów and jewel, appeared on the bell of the Dmosin and, dating back to 1,500 years, the foundation of a family member Oporowski. It is worth noting that this is the first presentation of Sulima labrami and the jewel in Poland. Additionally, the helmet was a crown.
The first performance Sulima with a top field gold comes from the portrait of Peter Gamrat from the years 1541-1545. Here, however, the top field more like a head. Division two-pole and gold upper field shows while so-called. Herbal Arsenalski from about 1535 to 1555. In addition, the stones are all silver. Although silver tincture upper field appears even in the sixteenth century, but it can be assumed that the tincture of gold then became dominant. Much of the merits of a new compendium of heraldic from 1584 - Herby Polish knights Bartosz Paprocki. It shows the image of the coat of arms full, but does not identify the color of stones. In addition, due to an error engraver, eagle jewel and emblem is facing to the left, which was amplified in later times.
Moreover, this herb meet on several Gothic tombstones, among others in Gniezno and Circle, as an architectural detail several churches and a castle in Oporów near Kutno, as well as a symbol of the founders of the various ecclesiastical jewels - precious chalice, books.
Decline fourteenth century brought in the first written mention of the coat of arms Sulima. In 1397, the name of the family and the coat of arms appeared in court records province łęczycki (record de cleynodio Sulima). For the same year it comes the first mention of a kindred Sulimów in court records Konin. Since then repeatedly scrolled in various writings heraldic, sometimes with a terse description of the coat of arms in Latin or Polish, for example. Pol Horla and trzi kamene (1423)  eagle with three stones (1568 year), or three stones s pools eagle v black box (1580). Particularly noteworthy so far unexplained mention of the black box. Perhaps it is a closer vague variation.
Description Sulima was also the first Polish armorial - Gem attributed to Jan Długosz with 60s fifteenth century. Interestingly, Dlugosz describes the coat of arms without the distribution of the field. It is possible that simply omitted this detail description, or based on older depictions.
According to Maria Kowalska Bobowski-name coat of arms comes from the personal name (name) Sulima, Sulim (from 1394 is present in the sources Sulima with erysipelas, undoubtedly a member of this family).
For reliable can be regarded as hypothesis Wladyslaw Semkowicz derived the name of Sulima (such as topographic) from the village of nest Sulimów in Wielkopolska Sulina under Kleck in the district of Gniezno, parish Dębnica. Another village with a similar name - Sulimów (now Sulmów) was in the district of Sieradz, parish Goszczanów. It is known from written sources until 1391. And far away, geographically, from Łęczyca goods of different families of the arms known from a later period. Not too far away, but from here (about 30 km in a straight line) to Sieradz Ostrowska near Uniejów - the village associated with Sulimami already in 13th in.
Black eagle as a symbol of strength was the emblem of the Roman emperors and German.
According to legend, given by Leopold von Ledebur progenitor Sulimitów was added to the coat of arms of three precious stones to show the community of blood with his two brothers, from whom he had to distinguish by name and emblem.
Jan Dlugosz hypothesized  repeated later by other heralds (Paprocki, Bielski, Okolski, Niesiecki), allegedly Sulimczycy were knights migrant from Germany. Would testify about the black eagle, allegedly referring to the heraldry of kings and emperors of the Reich. Niesiecki even gives an example of Prussian family Slomff that in one of the fields czterodzielnego coat of arms was half black eagle and writes about them as relatives Sulimczyków. This hypothesis, however, is today called into question by some historians: it is not meet so. Criterion imino , which clearly shows that the names of the earliest mentioned Sulimitów were purely Polish (e.g. Strzeszko, Budzisław, Wierzchosław).
This article has been prepared on the basis of reliable sources, especially classical and contemporary armorials. However, you should pay attention to the frequent occurrence of assigning the wrong families of noble coats of arms, especially intensified during legitimacy nobility against offensive Herold me, which was then fixed in turn issued armorials. The identity of the names does not mean belonging to the family coat of arms. Membership in the can clearly determine only study genealogy.
The list of names contained in the article (in infoboksie right) comes from 'Herbarium Polish' 'Tadeusz Gajl. This is so far the most comprehensive list of herbownych, constantly replenished by the author of the new editions of Herbarium. Occurrence on the list of names does not necessarily mean that a particular family sealed the coat of arms Sulima. Often, the same names are the property of many families representing all the states of the former Republic, i.e. The peasants, burghers, nobility.
Some of the common names there are for families of assumed to coat the road adoption. The first (not counting Rodywiła) documented an adopted (year 1506) was a councilor Jan Baytel (Beutel) of Toruń. In 1522 Sulimitą became Stanislaw Vitreator (Glazier - Szklarzewski), while four years later - Fedor Dawiłowicz of Vitsyebsk and children and brothers - Saul Emanuel and Jerzy Zylajewiczami. They were adopted by Peter and John Służewski Gamrat. With the adoption came a coat of Felix of Trynczy 1540, but it made the gem varieties (see variant versions aristocratic and alternative representations of the coat of arms). New Sulimitów admitted to the family until the end of the First Republic. Anthony, Christopher and Valentine Deymów knighted and given Sulima 1768  George Trublajewicza year later, and Melchior, Gaspar and John Szajowskich (Szajewskich) in 1776.
Sulima was used by several families of foreign origin, including Tatar and Armenian.
Stanislaw Dziadulewicz lists Tartar origin family kniaziowską Ułanowiczów (who have come from Jasiek Kazkowicza an older line of princes Kryczyńskich; name is the name of the village Ułanowicze had taken in the period 1640-1650 Adam). He mentioned, too, that in 1819 Ignatius Ułanowicz Sulima (who wrote the Ullanowicz and using the nickname "on Solms') filed an application to the Senate of the Polish Kingdom to grant him the title of earl because of that his father in various transactions, the official took the title and that was registered even in metric as Count. The Commission of the Senate in 1824, evidence recognized and awarded it. Zablocki name as the name of a family of Tatar origin lists service Polish Tartars .
Armenian origin by Louis Corvinus was supposed to be a family Jaśkiewiczów. With this family were to be among others: Jan - court physician of King Stanisław August Poniatowski, Jagiellonian University professor, Joseph - the judge rights of Armenian in Lviv 1765, king's secretary, Gabriel and Francis Xavier - secretaries of the king.
It is worth mentioning published in 1855 a book of Russian heraldry Alexander Borisovich varnish 'Heraldry Russian' '. The author cites the names there of the Russian nobility, which took over some of the Polish coat of arms. Among them is Sulima. The paint does not explain how such a takeover occurred. What is certain is that few Polish families settled in Russia. Native Russian families could receive the Polish coats of arms on the principle of assimilation images of their own. Coat of arms Sulima had the varnish to seal the family: Bantysz-Kamienski, Guriew and Sabłukow (of unspecified variety). Herb Sulima, as one of the 271 Polish nobility coats of arms has been absorbed by the Russian heraldry.
Origin and occurrence coat
The earliest mention of evolution and the image of the coat of arms
Notable bearers of this coat of arms include:
- Zawisza Czarny
- Władysław Oporowski
- Igor Stravinsky
- Piotr Gamrat
- Popiel family
- Sułkowski family
- Radomski family
- Felix Dzerzhinsky
Coat of arms of Primate Władysław Oporowski
Sulima on the painting of Piotr Gamrat
Sulima on the painting of Władysław Oporowski
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- Section The earliest mention and the evolution of the image of the coat of arms, unless otherwise indicated, is based on: T. Pietras (2000). Sulima - Oporowski herb and its evolution until the end of the sixteenth century, [in] Oporów. Status of research. Materials symposium organized on the occasion of the 50th anniversary of the Museum Oporów 22 November 1999 year, the ed. G. Kin-Rzymkowski. pp. 79–106.
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- This whole section, unless otherwise indicated, too: T. Pietras (2008). "On the issue of origin Sulimów Łęczyca". Yearbook region. Lodz. 55: 11–40.
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- Wajs, Anna (2001). genealogical materials, ennoblement, indygenaty in the collection of the Central Archives of Historical Records in Warsaw. Warsaw: DiG. p. 122. ISBN 83-7181-173-X.
- Wajs, Anna (2001). genealogical materials, ennoblement, indygenaty in the collection of the Central Archives of Historical Records in Warsaw. Warsaw: DiG. p. 116. ISBN 83-7181-173-X.
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