Crown (heraldry)

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The coat of arms of Norway, with the royal crown displayed atop the escutcheon

A Crown is often an emblem of the sovereign state, a monarch's government, or items endorsed by it; see The Crown. Crowns may also be used by some republics.

A specific type of crown (or coronet for peerage in the British Isles) is employed in heraldry under strict rules. Indeed, some monarchies never had a physical crown, just a heraldic representation, as in the constitutional kingdom of Belgium.

Crowns are also often used as symbols of religious status or veneration, by divinities (or their representation such as a statue) or by their representatives, e.g. the Black Crown of the Karmapa Lama, sometimes used a model for wider use by devotees.

A crown can be a charge in a coat of arms, or set upon the shield to signify the status of its owner. So the royal crown which shows a Christian cross on a coat of arms means that his or her holder has power and direct protection from God; if you find crown of the Duke, the owner is not Duke necessarily rather someone who has received power and protection with its power. Crowns bearing bird feathers refer to ancient beliefs, according to which the birds had divine qualities like angels communicated with the worlds beyond the sky. In Italy there are rings that show the city walls used symbolically to remember the function that had the walls to protect the city. Thus the crown is a symbol of power and protection received from someone or something or means that the owner of the crown you show guarantees you power and protection.

As a display of rank[edit]

If the bearer of a coat of arms has the title of baron or higher (or hereditary knight in some countries), he or she may display a coronet of rank above the shield, usually below the helm in British heraldry, often above the crest (if any) in Continental heraldry.

In this case the appearance of the crown follows a strict set of rules. A royal coat of arms may display a royal crown such as that of Norway. Princely coats of arms display a princely crown and so on right down to the mural crown which is commonly displayed on coats of arms of towns and some republics. Other republics may use a so-called people's crown or omit the use of crowns altogether. The heraldic forms of crowns are often inspired by the actual appearance of the respective country's royal and princely crowns.

Ships and other units of some navies have a naval crown above the shield of their coats of arms.

Commonwealth usage[edit]

The coat of arms of the Barons Hawke displays a baronial coronet.

In formal English the word crown is reserved for the crown of a monarch whereas the word coronet is used for all other noble crowns.

In the peerage of the United Kingdom, the design of a coronet shows the rank of its owner, as in German, French and various other heraldic traditions. The coronet of a duke has eight strawberry leaves, that of a marquess has four strawberry leaves and four silver balls (known as "pearls", but not actually pearls), that of an earl has eight strawberry leaves and eight "pearls" raised on stalks, that of a viscount has sixteen "pearls", and that of a peerage baron or (in Scotland) lord of parliament has six "pearls". Between the 1930s and 2004, feudal barons in the baronage of Scotland were granted a chapeau or cap of maintenance as a rank insignia.[citation needed] This is placed between the shield and helmet in the same manner as a peers coronet. Since a person entitled to wear heraldic headgear customarily displays it in his coat of arms above the shield and below the helm and crest, this can provide a useful clue as to the owner of a given coat of arms.

Members of the British Royal Family have coronets on their coats of arms, and may wear them at coronations. They are according to regulations made by King Charles II in 1661 shortly after his return from exile in France (getting a taste for its lavish court style; Louis XIV started monumental work at Versailles that year) and Restoration, and vary depending upon the prince's relationship to the Monarch. Occasionally additional royal warrants vary the designs for individuals.

In Canadian heraldry, coronets are used to designate descent from United Empire Loyalists. A military coronet signifies ancestors who served in Loyalist regiments during the American Revolution, while a civil coronet is used by all others. The loyalist coronets are used only in heraldry, never worn.

Crown of Saint Edward (Heraldry).svg King - St. Edward's Crown Royal Crown of Scotland (Heraldry).svg King - Crown of Scotland Tudor Crown (Heraldry).svg King - Imperial/Tudor Crown Imperial Crown (Heraldry).svg Emperor - Imperial Crown of India
Coronet of the British Heir Apparent.svg Heir Apparent
Coronet of a Child of the Sovereign.svg Prince or Princess - brother, sister, son or daughter of a sovereign Coronet of a Child of the Heir Apparent.svg Prince or Princess - children of the Heir Apparent Coronet of a Grandchild of the Sovereign.svg Prince or Princess - children of other sons of the Sovereign. Coronet of a Child of a Daughter of the Sovereign.svg Other grandchildren of the Sovereign.
Coronet of a British Duke.svg Duke Coronet of a British Marquess.svg Marquess Coronet of a British Earl.svg Earl Coronet of a British Viscount.svg Viscount
Coronet of a British Baron.svg Peerage Baron/Lord of Parliament (Scotland) Cap of Maintenance.svg Feudal Baron (Scotland) Military Coronet of a Loyalist.svg Loyalists military coronet (Canadian) Civil Coronet of a Loyalist.svg Loyalists civil coronet (Canadian)

[1]

Continental usages[edit]

Precisely because there are many traditions and more variation within some of these, there are a plethora of continental coronet types. Indeed, there are also some coronets for positions that do not exist, or do not entitle use of a coronet, in the Commonwealth tradition.

Such a case in French heraldry of the ancien regime, where coronets of rank did not come into use before the 16th century, is the vidame, whose coronet (illustrated) is a metal circle mounted with three visible crosses. (No physical headgear of this type is known.)

Helmets are often substitutes for coronets, and some coronets are worn only on a helmet.


Andorra[edit]

Crown of Andorra (Heraldic).svg Co-Princes

Bulgaria[edit]

Bulgarian Crown.svg Tsar Crown of Bulgarian Queen.svg Tsaritsa

France[edit]

Mural Crown of a French Capital.svg Capital Mural Crown of a French City.svg Department Capital[a] Mural Crown of a French Commune.svg Commune[a]

Ancien Regime[edit]

Royal Crown of France.svg King (after the 1500s) Crown of the Dauphin of France (variant).svg Dauphin of France Crown of a Royal Prince of the Blood of France (variant).svgChildren of the sovereign
(fils de France )
Crown of a Prince of the Blood of France (variant).svg Prince of the Blood
Crown of a Duke of France.svg Duke and Peer of France Crown of a Duke of France (variant).svg Duke Crown of a Marquis of France.svg Marquis and Peer of France Crown of a Marquis of France (variant).svg Marquis
Crown of a Count of France.svg Count and "Peer of France" Crown of a Count of France (variant).svg Count Old Crown of a Count (France & Belgium).svg Count (older) Crown of a Viscount of France (variant).svg Viscount
Crown of a Vidame of France.svg Vidame Crown of a Baron of France.svg Baron Crown of a Chevalier of France.svg Knight's crown Torse of a Chevalier of France.svg Knight's tortillon

Napoleonic Empire[edit]

Heraldic Crown of the First French Empire.svg Emperor
(1st Empire)
Imperial Crown of Napoleon Bonaparte.png Emperor
(2nd Empire)
Crown of a Napoleonic Prince Souverain.svg Sovereign
Prince
Biret prince.png Prince Biret duc.png Duke
Biret comte.png Count Biret baron.png Baron Biret Chevalier.png Knight Bonnet d`honneur.png Bonnet
d'honneur

July Monarchy[edit]

Crown of Orléans.svg King of the
French

Georgia[edit]

Iberian-Georgian crown.png Georgian Royal Crown, also known as the "Iberian Crown"

German-speaking countries[edit]

Holy Roman Empire[edit]

Heraldic Imperial Crown (Oldest design).svg Older Imperial Crown Heraldic Imperial Crown (Gules Mitre).svg Newer Imperial Crown Heraldic Royal Crown of the King of the Romans (c.1433-1486).svg Oldest Crown of the King of the Romans Heraldic Royal Crown of the King of the Romans (1486-c.1700).svg Older Crown of the King of the Romans
Heraldic Royal Crown of the King of the Romans (18th Century).svg Newer Crown of the King of the Romans Crown of St. Wenceslas.svg Crown of the King of Bohemia Archducal Coronet.svg Archducal hat Oldest Electoral hat.svg Oldest Electoral hat
Older Electoral hat.svg Older Electoral hat Ducal Hat.svg New Electoral hat & new Ducal hat Ducal Hat of Styria.svg Ducal hat of Styria T09 Herzog.svg Ducal crown
Princely Hat.svg Princely hat T12 Fürst.svg Princely crown T10 Landgraf.svg Crown of a Landgraf T11 Erbherzog.svg Crown of an heir to a duchy
Rangkronen-Fig. 15.svg Older crown of a Count Rangkronen-Fig. 18.svg Newer crown of a Count Rangkronen-Fig. 50.svg Older crown of a Baron/Freiherr Rangkronen-Fig. 27.svg Newer crown of a Baron/Freiherr
Rangkronen-Fig. 38.svg Older Crown of Nobility Rangkronen-Fig. 37.svg Newer Crown of Nobility

Liechtenstein[edit]

Princely Hat.svg Prince of Liechtenstein

Austria[edit]

Mural crown (Bundesadler).svg Mural crown of the coat of arms of Austria Mural crown (Lower Austria).svg Mural crown of the State of Lower Austria

Austrian Empire

Imperial Crown of Austria (Heraldry).svg Emperor
Crown of St. Wenceslas.svg King of Bohemia T08 Grossherzog.svg Archducal crown (New) Archducal Coronet.svg Archducal hat (Older) Ducal Hat of Styria.svg Ducal hat of Styria Ducal Hat.svg New Ducal hat Princely Hat.svg Prince
Crown of a Duke of France (variant).svg Duke Crown of a Marquis of France (variant).svg Marquess Old Crown of a Count (France & Belgium).svg Count Crown of a Viscount of France (variant).svg Viscount Crown of a Baron of France.svg Baron Rangkronen-Fig. 38.svg Crown of Nobility

Germany[edit]

People's Crown (Germany).svg Volkskrone (People's Crown) Mural crown of the coat of arms of the Berlin boroughs.svg Mural crown of the arms of the Berlin boroughs

German Empire

State Crown of the German Empire.svg German State Crown Crown of the German Empress.svg Empress Crown of the German Crown Prince.svg Crown Prince
Crown of Wilhelm II of Germany.svg King of Prussia Bavarian Royal Crown.svg King of Bavaria Crown of Württemberg.svg King of Württemberg

Greece[edit]

Crown of the Kingdom of Greece.svg King

Hungary[edit]

Crown of Saint Stephen.svg Holy Crown of Hungary

Italy[edit]

Crown of Italian Province.svg Province Mural Crown of Italian City.svg City Mural Crown of Italian Comune.svg Municipality

Kingdom of Italy (1861-1946)[edit]

Crown of Savoy.svg King (crown of Savoy) Crown of Italian hereditary prince.svg Crown Prince (principe ereditario) Crown of Savoy-Aosta.svg Royal prince[b] Crown of Savoy-Genova.svg Prince of the blood
Crown of a Duke of France (variant).svg Duke Crown of a Marquis of France (variant).svg Marquess Crown of a Count of France (variant).svg Count Crown of a Viscount of France (variant).svg Viscount
Crown of a Baron of France.svg Baron Crown of a Chevalier of France.svg Noble Torse of a Chevalier of France.svg Hereditary Knight Rangkronen-Fig. 40.svg Patrician
Crown of Italian Province (Variant).svg Province Mural Crown of Italian City.svg City Mural Crown of Italian Comune.svg Municipality

Kingdoms of Naples, Sicily, Two Sicilies[edit]

Heraldic Royal Crown of the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies.svg King of Naples Heraldic Crown of Heir to the Throne of the Two Sicilies.svg Heir to the throne (Duke of Calabria) Heraldic Coronet of Princes and Princesses of the Two Sicilies.svg Prince and princess

Grand Duchy of Tuscany[edit]

Crown of Medici Grand Dukes of Tuscany.png Medici Grand Dukes of Tuscany

Other Italian states before 1861[edit]

Ströhl-Regentenkronen-Fig. 38.png Crown of San Marino Crown of the Napoleonic Kingdom of Italy.svg Crown of Napoleonic Italy Corona ferrea monza (heraldry).svg Iron Crown of Lombardy
Tiara3.png Papal Tiara Doza.png Doge of Venice Doge's Crown.svg Doge of Genoa

Low Countries[edit]

Netherlands[edit]

Rangkroon keizer.svg Emperor
Rangkroon Koning.svg King Rangkroon Koning.svg Prince
(Members of the Royal House,
children of the Monarch)
Rangkroon Kleinkinderen van Koning.svg Prince
(Members of the Royal House,
grandchildren of the Monarch)
Rangkroon Prins.svg Prince
(nobility, for titles granted after 1815)
Rangkroon Hertog.svg Duke Rangkroon Markies.svg Marquess Rangkroon Graaf.svg Count Antieke Gravenkroon.svg Count
(alternative style)
Rangkroon Burggraaf.svg Viscount Rangkroon Baron.svg Baron Rangkroon Ridder.svg Hereditary Knight
(Erfridder)
Rangkroon Ridder.svg Jonkheer

Belgium[edit]

The older crowns are often still seen in the heraldry of older families.

Royal Crown of Belgium (Heraldic).svg King
(and princes of
the royal family)
Crown of a Prince (Netherlands and Belgium).svg Prince
(nobility, for titles granted after 1815)
Princely Hat.svg Prince
(nobility, for titles granted during the ancien régime)
Rangkronen-Fig. 04.png Duke
Rangkronen-Fig. 15.png Marquess Crown of a Count of France (variant).svg Count Old Crown of a Count (France & Belgium).svg Count (older) Crown of a Count of the Low Countries (Ancien Regime).svg Count (oldest)
Rangkronen-Fig. 25.png Viscount Crown of a Baron (Low Countries, Holy Roman Empire, Russia).svg Baron Old Crown of a Baron of the Low Countries.svg Baron (older) Rangkronen-Fig. 34.png Hereditary Knight
(Chevalier/Erfridder)

Luxembourg[edit]

Crown of Luxembourg.png Grand Duke

Monaco[edit]

Princely Crown of Monaco.svg Prince

Poland and Lithuania[edit]

Koronamala.png King (New) Knize.png King (Older) Fuerst.png Prince Szlachecka korona.jpg Nobleman

Portuguese-speaking countries[edit]

Portugal[edit]

Portuguese Mural Crown - Capital.svg Capital (Lisbon) Mural Crown of City - Portugal.svg City Mural Crown of Town - Portugal.svg Town Mural Crown of Civil Parish - Portugal.svg Civil Parish
Mural Crown of Administrative Regions of Portugal.svg Administrative Region
(1930-1999)

Kingdom of Portugal (until 1910)

Heraldic Royal Crown of Portugal - Eight Arches.svg King Crown of the Heir Apparent of the Kingdom of Portugal.svg Crown Prince Crown of the Prince of Beira.svg Prince of Beira Coronet of a Infante - Kingdom of Portugal.svg Infante Coronet of a Duke - Kingdom of Portugal.svg Duke
Coronet of a Marquess - Kingdom of Portugal.svg Marquess Coronet of Count - Portugal.svg Count Coronet of a Viscount - Kingdom of Portugal.svg Viscount Coronet of Baron - Portugal.svg Baron

Brazil[edit]

Brasilian Mural Crown - Capital.svg Brasilian Mural Crown - City.svg Brasilian Mural Crown - Town.svg Brasilian Mural Crown - Village.svg
Capital[a] City[a] Town[a] Village[a]

Empire of Brazil

Imperial Crow Brazil.svg Emperor Coronet of the Imperial Prince of Brazil.svg Prince Imperial Coronet of a Prince of Brazil.svg Prince Coronet of a Duke of Brazil.svg Duke
Coronet of a Marquess of Brazil.svg Marquess Coronet of a Count of Brazil.svg Count Coronet of a Viscount of Brazil.svg Viscount Coronet of a Baron of Brazil.svg Baron

Romania[edit]

Romanian Mural Crown - Capital.svg Romanian Mural Crown - City.svg Romanian Mural Crown - Town.svg Romanian Mural Crown - Village.svg
Capital City Town Village

Former Kingdom of Romania[edit]

Steel Crown of Romania.svg King (The Steel Crown of Romania)

Russia[edit]

Heraldic Imperial Crown of Russia.svg Emperor Finnish grand ducal crown.svg crown of the grand duchy of Finland Monomakh hat.svg Monomakh Crown Princely Hat.svg Prince
Crown of a Count of France (variant).svg Count Rangkronen-Fig. 27.svg Baron Rangkronen-Fig. 30.svg Baron (alternative style) Rangkronen-Fig. 38.svg Crown of Nobility

Nordic countries[edit]

Denmark[edit]

Royal Crown of Denmark.svg King Crown of the Crown Prince of Denmark.svg Crown Prince Crown of a Prince of Denmark.svg Prince
(royal family)
T02 Danish Duke.svg Duke
T03 Danish Marquis.svg Marquess T04 Danish Count.svg Count T05 Danish Baron.svg Baron T06 Danish Nobility.svg Crown of Nobility

Finland[edit]

During the Swedish reign, Swedish coronets were used. Crowns were used in the coats of arms of the historical provinces of Finland. For Finland Proper, Satakunta, Tavastia and Karelia, it was a ducal coronet, for others, a comital coronet. In 1917 with independence, the coat of arms of Finland was introduced with a Grand Ducal coronet, but it was soon removed, in 1920. Today, some cities use coronets, e.g. Pori has a mural crown and Vaasa a Crown of Nobility.

Satakunta.vaakuna.svg Ducal coronet
Satakunta
Savonia coat of arms.svg Comital coronet
Savo

Norway[edit]

Heraldic crown of the King of Norway.svg Heraldic crown of the King Crown of the King of Norway.svg Physical crown of the King Crown of the Queen of Norway.svg Physical crown of the Queen Crown of the Crown Prince of Norway.svg Crown Prince T02 Danish Duke.svg Duke
T03 Danish Marquis.svg Marquess T04 Danish Count.svg Count T05 Danish Baron.svg Baron T06 Danish Nobility.svg Crown of Nobility

Sweden[edit]

Svenska kunglig krona (korrekt).svg King Heraldique Suede Couronne Prince Héritier.svg Crown Prince Heraldique Suede Couronne Prince.svg Duke
Grevlig rangkrona.svg Count Friherrlig rangkrona.svg Baron Obetitlad adel.svg Crown of Nobility

Serbia[edit]

Crown of Serbia.svg King of Yugoslavia

Spanish-speaking countries[edit]

Spain[edit]

Heraldic Royal Crown of Spain.svg King National arms design Heraldic Royal Crown of Spain (Version of the Royal Arms).svg King Monarch's arms design Royal Crown for the Aragonese Terriories.svg King (Aragon, Catalonia, Balearics, Valencia) Heraldic Crown of the Prince of Asturias.svg Crown Prince
Heraldic Crown of the Spanish Heir Apparent as Prince of Girona.svg Crown Prince (Aragon, Catalonia, Balearics, Valencia) Heraldic Crown of Spanish Infantes.svg Infante Crown of Spanish Infantes for the Aragonese Terriories.svg Infante (Aragon, Catalonia, Balearics, Valencia) Heraldic Crown of Spanish Grandee.svg Grandee of Spain
Heraldic Crown of Spanish Dukes (Variant 1).svg Duke Heraldic Crown of Spanish Marqueses (Variant 1).svg Marquess Heraldic Crown of Spanish Count.svg Count Heraldic Crown of the Spanish Viscounts.svg Viscount
Heraldic Crown of Spanish Barons.svg Baron Heraldic Crown of Spanish Lords.svg Señor/Don (Lord) Heraldic Crown of Hispanic Hidalgos.svg Hidalgo (Nobleman) Torse of a Chevalier of France.svg Knight's burelete

Mexico[edit]

Crown of Mexico (I).svg Emperor (1st Empire)
Crown of Mexico (II).svg Emperor (2nd Empire)

Non-European usages[edit]

Egypt before 1953[edit]

Crown of the Khedive of Egypt.svg Khedive (-1914) and Sultan (1914-22)
Heraldic Royal Crown of Egypt.svg King (1922-53)

Siam and Thailand[edit]

Great Crown of Victory (heraldry).svg Great Crown of Victory of the Kings of Siam and Thailand
Phra Kiao Colored.svg Phra Kiao (princely coronet, also the emblem of King Chulalongkorn)

Other examples[edit]

Imperial Crown of Ethiopia.svg Imperial Crown of Ethiopia Royal Crown of Hawaii.svg Royal Crown of Hawaii American Coronet.svg American Coronet Pahlavi Crown of Imperial Iran (heraldry).svg Crown of the Shah of Persia
Crown of Tahiti.svg Royal Crown of Tahiti Royal Crown of Tonga.svg Royal Crown of Tonga Congo crown.svg Twig crown of the

Republic of the Congo

[2]

Catholic Church[edit]

Multinational[edit]

Astral Crown.svg Astral crown Camp Crown.svg Camp crown Celestial Crown.svg Celestial crown Eastern Crown (Heraldry).svg Eastern crown
UK Mural Crown (Common).svg Mural crown Corona Navalis.svg Naval crown

As a charge[edit]

In heraldry, a charge is an image occupying the field of a coat of arms. Many coats of arms incorporate crowns as charges. One notable example of this lies in the Three Crowns of the arms of Sweden.

Additionally, many animal charges (frequently lions) and sometimes human heads also appear crowned. Animal charges gorged (collared) of an open coronet also occur, though far less frequently.

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f This standard has many exceptions.
  2. ^ The dukes of Genoa were granted the privilege to use a crown of royal prince though they were only princes of the blood

References[edit]

  1. ^ Boutell, Charles (1914). Fox-Davies, A.C., ed. Handbook to English Heraldry, The (11th ed.). London: Reeves & Turner. pp. 104–156. 
  2. ^ Ströhl, Hugo Gerard (1899). Heraldischer Atlas. Stuttgart.