Sybil Ludington

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Sybil Ludington
Ludington statue 800.jpg
Born(1761-04-05)April 5, 1761
DiedFebruary 26, 1839(1839-02-26) (aged 77)
Spouse(s)
Edmond Ogden (m. 1784)
Sybil Ludington commemorative stamp

Sybil Ludington (April 5, 1761 – February 26, 1839) is celebrated as a heroine of the American Revolutionary War. She reportedly rode to alert militia forces in the towns of Putnam County, New York and Danbury, Connecticut on the night of April 26, 1777 at age 16, warning of the approach of the British regular forces. The ride was similar to those performed by William Dawes, Paul Revere (Massachusetts, April 1775), and Jack Jouett (Virginia, 1781). Ludington reportedly rode more than twice the distance attributed to Revere and was much younger than the men. However, according to one historian, there is no contemporaneous evidence that these events occurred. However, she is mentioned of these achievement in her father's memoir, "Colonel Henry Ludington: A Memoir".[1]

Henry Ludington was a Colonel in the New York Militia, who had George Washington to dine several times at his home. On page 90 of Colonel Henry Ludington's Memoir, it relates that after a rider from Danbury came knocking in the middle of the night, the Colonel asked his daughter, Sybil, who just turned 16 on April 5, to alert the militia and have them meet at the home. This story was first published in 1880 by local historian Martha Lamb, to whom it was probably told by Ludington's descendants.[2][3][4] Her book has the earliest known reference to Ludington's ride. Ludington has been more widely celebrated since around 1900. Memorial statues honor her, and books have been written about her.

Contemporaneous sources suggest that the patriot army and the town of Danbury, Connecticut were already aware of the approaching British troops, as noted in The New-York Gazette and the Weekly Mercury, May 19, 1777,[5] which stated, "On Saturday, the 26th of April, express came to Danbury from Brigadier General Silliman, advising that a large body of enemy had landed the day before at sun set, at Campo, a point of land between Fairfield, and Norwalk, and were marching toward Danbury. Measures were immediately taken." But Ludington was the daughter of a militia colonel who needed to rally the hundreds of local troops under his command and needed time to plan the battle yet to come.

Childhood[edit]

Sybil was born in Fredericksburg (now Ludingtonville, New York), the first of 12 children.[6] Her parents were Abigail Knowles and Henry Ludington, who were first cousins. Sybil was conceived a year after the couple married. The small family moved to Dutchess County, New York, where the couple had more children. They lived on and farmed a very large piece of land.

Ludington's ride[edit]

On April 26, 1777, Sybil Ludington rode her horse Star 40 miles (64 km) through the night in Putnam County, New York to warn approximately 400 militiamen under her father's command that British troops were planning to attack Danbury, Connecticut,[7] where the Continental Army had a supply depot. On her way to gather her father's troops, she warned the people of Danbury.

Sybil's father had fought in the French and Indian War, and he volunteered to head the local militia during the American Revolution. Sybil had to move from town to town following her father, and unknowingly played an important role in the success of the colonies. The afternoon after she warned residents of Danbury, the British troops burned down three buildings and destroyed multiple houses, but did not kill many people. Little was told of Ludington's ride; the only record of this event was written by her great grandson. Her ride started at 9 p.m. and ended around dawn in a bad storm.[6]

Prior to her famous ride, Sybil saved her father from capture. A Loyalist named Ichobod Prosser and 50 other Loyalists tried to capture her father, but Sybil lit candles around the house and organized her siblings to march in front of the windows in military fashion, creating the impression of many troops guarding the house. The Loyalists fled. Also in her father's memoir, he states that Sybil and her sister would sit in the fields hidden with loaded rifles and pistols to guard the home from kidnappers who were after the their father. He had a 100 pound sterling bounty for his capture; a huge sum for the time. At the time this was Westchester County, and the boundary with the British was only about 25 miles away and no man's land where the terrorizing "cowboys" and 'skinners' roamed around White Plains, New York [8] [9]

She rode a total of 40 miles (64 km) in the hours of darkness, through Carmel, New York on to Mahopac, then to Kent Cliffs and Farmers Mills, and finally back home. She used a stick to prod her horse and knock on doors. She returned home soaked with rain and exhausted, but most of the 400 soldiers were ready to march.[10] The American militia arrived too late to save Danbury, but they were able to drive General William Tryon and his men to Long Island Sound.[10] Ludington was congratulated for her heroism by friends and neighbors and also by General George Washington.[11][12][13][14][15][16][17][18]

Close-up of smaller version of statue by Anna Hyatt Huntington; Offner Museum, Brookgreen Gardens, South Carolina
Grave of Sybil Ludington, bearing a spelling variation of her first name.

Ludington married Edmond Ogden in 1784 when she was 23, and they had a son named Henry. Edmond was a farmer and innkeeper, according to various reports. In 1792, the family settled in Catskill, where they lived until her death on February 26, 1839 at the age of 77. She was buried near her father in the Patterson Presbyterian Cemetery in Patterson, New York.[6] Her tombstone shows a different spelling of her first name.

Ludington was first written about in an 1880 book about the New York City area by local historian Martha Lamb. She relied on numerous primary sources, including letters, sermons, genealogical compilations, wills, and court records to document Ludington's life.[19] She did not, however, provide documentation, and there are no known written references to Ludington's ride prior to her book.

Historian Paula Hunt has provided a detailed history of the Ludington story and how it has been presented in the media. She does not pronounce on whether the story is accurate. She does state that many popular details were "fictions", such as the horse named Star, the stick in her hand, and the 40-mile distance.[20] Hunt writes:

Sybil's ride embraces the mythical meanings and values expressed in the country's founding. As an individual, she represents Americans' persistent need to find and create heroes who embody prevalent attitudes and beliefs.[21]

In 1996, the national Daughters of the American Revolution said that the evidence was not strong enough to support their criteria for a war heroine, and they removed a book about her from their headquarters bookstore. The DAR chapter near her historic home says that her exploit was documented, and it continues to honor her. Paula Hunt concludes, "The story of the lone, teenage girl riding for freedom, it seems, is simply too good not to be believed."[22]

Legacy and honors[edit]

In 1935, New York State erected a number of historic markers along Ludington's route. A commemorative statue sculpted by Anna Hyatt Huntington was erected near Carmel, New York in 1961. Smaller versions of the statue were erected on the grounds of the Daughters of the American Revolution headquarters in Washington, D.C., on the grounds of the public library in Danbury, Connecticut, and in the Elliot and Rosemary Offner museum at Brookgreen Gardens, Murrells Inlet, South Carolina.[23] In 1975, Ludington was honored with a postage stamp in the "Contributors to the Cause" United States Bicentennial series.[6]

The Sybil Ludington 50k Run has been held in Carmel, New York each April since 1979, a 50-kilometre (31 mi) foot race. The course of the race approximates her historic ride, and finishes near her statue on the shore of Lake Gleneida, Carmel.[24] In 1993, composer Ludmila Ulehla wrote the chamber opera "Sybil of the American Revolution" based on the story of Ludington's ride.[25]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Eschner, Kat. "Was There Really a Teenage Female Paul Revere?". Smithsonian. Smithsonian. Retrieved 26 April 2019.
  2. ^ Paula D. Hunt, "Sybil Ludington, the Female Paul Revere", New England Quarterly, vol. 88, No. 2, p. 190
  3. ^ Martha Joanna Lamb; Mrs. Burton Harrison (1880). History of the City of New York: The century of national independence, closing in 1880, vol. 2. A. S. Barnes. pp. 159–60, vi.
  4. ^ Magazine of Western History. 1893. p. 479.
  5. ^ The New-York Gazette and the Weekly Mercury, May 19, 1777
  6. ^ a b c d Profile, Historic Patterson website; accessed February 23, 2015.
  7. ^ Lisa Tendrich Frank (2013). An Encyclopedia of American Women at War: From the Home Front to the Battlefields, Volume 1. ABC-CLIO. p. 365.
  8. ^ Porath, Jason (2016). Rejected Princesses. Dey St. p. 19. ISBN 9780062405371.
  9. ^ Ludington, Henry. Colonel Henry Ludington: A Memoir. Text "Johnson, Willis Fletcher1907 https://archive.org/details/colhenrylud00johnrich" ignored (help)
  10. ^ a b Sybil Ludington: a Revolutionary Hero, traverseforwomen.com; accessed February 23, 2015.
  11. ^ Sybil Ludington article by Jone Johnson Lewis, Women's History
  12. ^ Sybil Ludington – Her Midnight Ride, lindseywilliams.org; accessed February 23, 2015.
  13. ^ Miller, p. 18, "Later, America's general George Washington came to Sybil's house to thank her."
  14. ^ Moore, p. 300, "Afterward, General George Washington made a personal visit to Ludington's Mills to thank Sybil for her courageous deed."
  15. ^ Macmillan/McGraw-Hill, "Biography – Sybil Ludington 1761–1839", Unit 3, Chapter 5, The American Revolution "Later, Sybil was thanked personally by General George Washington".
  16. ^ Binkley, p. 18, "Afterward, General George Washington made a personal visit to Ludington's Mill to thank Sybil for her courageous deed."
  17. ^ Smithsonian Source – Confirmation Readings (Sybil Ludington)
  18. ^ Weatherford, p. 31, "... After the battle at Danbury, George Washington and French General Rochambeau came to the Ludington home personally, to thank Sybil."
  19. ^ Lamb. History of the City of New York:. pp. v–vi.
  20. ^ Paula D. Hunt, "Sybil Ludington, the Female Paul Revere", The New England Quarterly, vol. 88, No. 2, p. 207.
  21. ^ Paula D. Hunt, "Sybil Ludington, the Female Paul Revere: The Making of a Revolutionary War Heroine." New England Quarterly (2015) 88#2 pp. 187–222, quote p. 187 online
  22. ^ Hunt, pp. 213, 217–18, quote on p. 222.
  23. ^ Willicox, Kathleen (2014). "Sybil Ludington: NY's Lesser-known (Teenage, Female) Paul Revere". New York Makers Magazine. Retrieved May 17, 2017.
  24. ^ Sweeney, Bob; McCurtin, Ellen. "Sybil Ludington 50k". Sybil Ludington 50k Run. Bob Sweeney, & Ellen McCurtin. Retrieved 4 July 2016.
  25. ^ "Sybil Ludington". Encyclopedia of World Biography. Gale. July 8, 2016. Retrieved June 15, 2017.

Sources[edit]

  • Binkley, Marilyn R., Reading Literacy in the U.S.: Findings from the IEA Reading Literacy Study, DIANE Publishing, 1996, ISBN 0-7881-4512-6
  • Black, Virginia Morrow, Gallop To Glory, Brockagh Books, 2017 ISBN 9781530913244
  • Bohrer, Melissa Lukeman, Glory, Passion, and Principle: The Story of Eight Remarkable Women at the Core of the American Revolution, Simon and Schuster, 2003, ISBN 0-7434-5330-1
  • Hunt, Paula D., "Sybil Ludington, the Female Paul Revere: The Making of a Revolutionary War Heroine," New England Quarterly 88 (June 2015), 187–222.
  • Johnson, Willis (1907). Colonel Henry Ludington. L.E. and C.H. Ludington (original from Harvard University).
  • Ludington, Henry, "Colonel Henry Ludington: A Memoir" Johnson, Willis Fletcher 1907 page 90-92. https://archive.org/details/colhenrylud00johnrich/page/n125 ISBN 10-0548540381 Parameter error in {{ISBN}}: Invalid ISBN. Template:ISBN-13: 978-0548540381
  • Miller, Brandon Marie, Growing Up in Revolution and the New Nation, 1775 to 1800, Lerner Publications, 2003, ISBN 0-8225-0078-7
  • Moore, David W., Developing Readers and Writers in the Content Areas K-12, Pearson/Allyn and Bacon, 2006,ISBN 0-205-49474-9
  • Weatherford, D., Milestones : A Chronology of American Women's History. New York: Facts on File, 1997, ISBN 0-8160-3200-9

External links[edit]