|Blackcap (Sylvia atricapilla)|
The Sylvioidea are a clade of passerine birds, one of at least three major clades within the Passerida along with the Muscicapoidea and Passeroidea. It contains about 1300 species including the Old World warblers, Old World babblers, swallows, larks, bulbuls, and perhaps the tits. Members of the clade are found worldwide, but fewer species are present in the Americas.
The superfamily Sylvioidea was first proposed in 1990 in the Sibley–Ahlquist taxonomy of birds. More recent studies have failed to support the inclusion of some families such as the treecreepers, wrens and allies but do support the addition of the larks.
Some of the families within the Sylvioidea have been greatly redefined. In particular, the Old World warbler family Sylviidae and Old World babbler family Timaliidae were used as wastebin taxa and included many species which have turned out not to be closely related. Several new families have been created and some species have been moved from one family to another.
List of families
It is not yet certain if the three families above belong in the Sylvioidea and they are sometimes treated as a separate superfamily, Paroidea.
- Panuridae: the bearded reedling; formerly classed as a parrotbill but seems to be closest to the larks.
- Nicatoridae: nicators; have been classed as bulbuls in the past but appear to have no close relatives.
- Alaudidae: larks
- Pycnonotidae: bulbuls
- Hirundinidae: swallows and martins
- Pnoepygidae: pygmy wren-babblers; apparently unrelated to other babblers.
- Macrosphenidae: African warblers such as longbills and crombecs; a recently proposed family whose composition is still uncertain.
- Cettiidae: bush warblers
- Aegithalidae: long-tailed tits
- Phylloscopidae: leaf warblers:
- Acrocephalidae: reed warblers and allies
- Locustellidae (or Megaluridae): grassbirds and allies
- Donacobiidae: the black-capped donacobius; previously classed as a wren but probably closest to the Megaluridae or Bernieridae.
- Bernieridae: Malagasy warblers; a new family formally named in 2010.
- Cisticolidae: cisticolas and allies
- Scotocercidae: streaked scrub warbler
The following groups form a single babbler radiation and it is not yet certain how many separate families should be recognized. Gelang et al. proposed a division into two families, Sylviidae and Timaliidae, with Timaliidae being divided into four subfamilies. The list of the International Ornithological Congress provisionally recognizes five families.
- Timaliidae: tree babblers
- Pellorneidae: ground babblers
- Leiothrichidae: laughingthrushes and allies
- Sylviidae: Sylvia warblers and allies
- Zosteropidae: white-eyes and allies
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- Sibley, C.G. & Ahlquist, J.E. (1990): Phylogeny and Classification of Birds. A Study in Molecular Evolution. Yale University Press, New Haven and London.
- Alström, Per; Ericson, Per G.P.; Olsson, Urban; Sundberg, Per (February 2006). "Phylogeny and classification of the avian superfamily Sylvioidea". Mol. Phylogenet. Evol. 38 (2): 381–397. doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2005.05.015. PMID 16054402.
- Boyd, John H. (2010): Sylvioidea, Aves — A Taxonomy in Flux. Retrieved 2010-01-07.
- Johansson, U.S., Fjeldså, J.; Bowie, R.C.K. (2008). Phylogenetic relationships within Passerida (Aves: Passeriformes): a review and a new molecular phylogeny based on three nuclear intron markers. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 48, 858–876.
- Gelang, Magnus; Cibois, Alice; Pasquet, Eric; Olsson, Urban; Alström, Per; Ericson, Per G.P. (May 2009). "Phylogeny of babblers (Aves, Passeriformes): major lineages, family limits and classification". Zoologica Scripta. 38 (3): 225–236. doi:10.1111/j.1463-6409.2008.00374.x.
- Robertson, Don, ed. (2005). "AFRICAN WARBLERS Macrosphenidae". Creagrus. Retrieved 2017-02-09.
- Remsen, J.V. Jr.; Cadena, C.D.; Jaramillo, A.; Nores, M.; Pacheco, J.F.; Robbins, M.B.; Schulenberg, T.S.; Stiles, F.G.; Stotz, D.F.; Zimmer, K.J. (2011). A classification of the bird species of South America, Version 4. American Ornithologists' Union. Retrieved 2010-01-07.
- Cibois, Alice; Normand, David; Gregory, Steven M.S.; Pasquet, Eric (2010) Bernieridae (Aves: Passeriformes): a family-group name for the Malagasy sylvioid radiation, Zootaxa, 2554: 65-68.
- Gill, F; Donsker, D., Eds. (2010): Babbler families and general, IOC World Bird Names. Retrieved 2010-01-07.