North American T-6 Texan variants

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North American T-6Gs of the Portuguese Air Force in a training flight, during the 1960s.

This article describes the different variants of the North American T-6 Texan.

BT Series[edit]

BT-9A at Langley
BT-14 in flight
Basic Trainer with 400hp Wright R-975-7 Whirlwind and new canopy. Dangerous stall resulted in a variety of unsuccessful fixes. 42 built.
Armed BT-9 with one cowl gun and one rear flexible gun, and modified canopy. 40 built.
Minor changes from BT-9, unarmed. 117 built. 1 modified as sole BT-9D which was modified as a prototype for BT-14 with new outer wing panels and other alterations.
Wright R-975-7, similar to the BT-9A with minor changes. 66 built
One prototype only, Intermediate step in development of the BT-14.
600hp Pratt & Whitney R-1340-41. First aircraft of batch of BT-9C completed as Y1BT-10.
Production version of Y1BT-10 - cancelled
lengthened all metal fuselage and new canopy, Pratt & Whitney R-985-25, 251 built.
27 BT-14s were re-engined with 400 hp (298 kW) Pratt & Whitney R-985-11.

BC Series[edit]

A North American BC-1, circa 1939.
North American BC-1
Basic Combat trainer version initial production version with 600hp R-1340-47 engine, Early examples had round rudder, later examples had square bottom rudder. 177 built
New longer semi-monocoque fuselage, new outer wing panels angled forward slightly, squared-off wingtips and triangular rudder, 93 built. Identifiable from later types by blister fairing between undercarriage.
One BC-1A fitted with an AT-6A wing centre section.
BC-1s converted to instrument trainers, 30 modified
Similar to BC-1A and AT-6, modified from NA-36 with details from NA-44, 3 bladed propeller.

AT Series (Texan)[edit]

North American AT-6A (Charge Number NA-78) in flight
AT-6 Texan
Advanced Trainer - same as BC-1A with minor changes, powered by a 600hp R-1340-47 and armed with forward-firing 0.3in machine gun, nine original started as BC-1As and 85 built.
Same as AT-6 but with 600hp R-1340-49 and removable wing centre section fuel tanks, 1847 built with 298 transferred to the United States Navy as the SNJ-3. Survivors re-designated T-6A in 1948.
Same as AT-6A but with 600hp R-1340-AN-1 and dorsal gun fitted as standard, 400 built.
Same as AT-6B but with material changes to low-alloy steel and plywood, 2970 built including transfers to the United Kingdom as the Harvard III.
Same as AT-6B but with a 24V DC electrical system, 4388 built including transfers to the United States Navy as the SNJ-5 and to the United Kingdom as the Harvard IIA. Redesignated T-6D in 1948.
One AT-6D re-engined with a 575hp V-770-9 V-12 inline engine for trials.
Same as AT-6D but with a strengthened airframe and minor modifications, 956 built including transfers to the United States Navy as the SNJ-6, Redesignated T-6F in 1948. Clear fixed rear canopy. Some went to Russia via Lend-Lease.
Noorduyn built lend-lease Harvards, 1800 built


North American A-27
Two-seat attack version of AT-6 with a 785hp R-1820-75 engine and five 0.3in machine guns (two in nose, one on each wing and one dorsal). Designation used for ten aircraft for Thailand impressed into United States Army Air Corps use.

T-6 (Texan)[edit]

USAF LT-6Gs during the Korean War.
AT-6As re-designated in 1948.
AT-6Cs re-designated in 1948 including 68 re-builds with new serial numbers.
AT-6D re-designated in 1948 including 35 re-builds with new serial numbers.
AT-6F re-designated in 1948.
Earlier model AT-6/T-6s re-built between 1949-1953 with improved cockpit layout, increased fuel capacity, steerable tailwheel, updated radios and a 600hp R-1340-AN-1 engine. Identifiable by simplified canopy framing. 2068 modified.
T-6Gs converted for battlefield surveillance and forward air controller duties, 97 modified. Nicknamed Mosquito.
T-6Fs converted T-6G standard.
Designation claimed to have been used for Canadian-built Harvard Mk 4s, however no proof has ever surfaced that this designation was ever used, and aircraft record cards and markings on aircraft called them Harvard 4s. Supplied to Belgian, France, Italy, Portugal and West Germany, 285 aircraft.
A single T-6F damaged in a crash during the Korean War that was rebuilt as a floatplane by the Republic of Korea Navy.[1]
Bacon Super T-6
A single AT-6F converted in 1956 with tricycle gear, bubble canopy and tip tanks; no production followed.[2]

NJ/SNJ Texan[edit]

United States Navy specification advanced trainer powered with 550hp Pratt & Whitney R-1340-6. Some re-engined with later versions of R-1340. Similar to BT-9, 40 built.
An early SNJ-1 at NAS Pensacola. Note the original form of the tail.
The SNJ-3C/-4C/-5C versions had an arrestor hook for carrier landings.
Similar to Harvard I but with BC-1 wing center section, metal-covered fuselage and late T-6 type wing, 16 built.
Same as SNJ-1 but with a R-1340-56 engine and changes to carburetor and oil cooler scoops, 61 built.
Same as AT-6A, 270 built and 296 transferred from USAAC.
SNJ-3 converted as deck landing trainers with tailhook arrester gear, twelve modified.
Same as AT-6C, 1240 built.
SNJ-4s converted as deck landing trainers with tailhook arrester gear.
AT-6Ds transferred from the USAAC, 1573 aircraft.
SNJ-5s converted as deck landing trainers with tailhook arrester gear.
AT-6Fs transferred from the USAAF, 411 aircraft.
Early models modified to T-6G standards in 1952.
An armed variant of the SNJ-7.
Order for 240 cancelled.


Harvard IIA
Restored Harvard II in wartime colours
Harvard I
Similar to BC-1 but without rear gun and with a 600hp R-1340-S3H1 engine, 400 aircraft.
Harvard II
Similar to BC-1A, 526 built, again without provision for rear gunner.
Harvard IIA (RAF & Commonwealth)
AT-6C, many with wooden rear fuselages when first delivered.
Harvard IIA (RCAF)
'Armed' Harvard II - Any RCAF Harvard II or IIB fitted with wing guns, rockets or bombs.
Harvard IIB
Noorduyn built Mk.II's, some to US orders as AT-16's for lend-lease. Transfers back from the USAAF (1800) and 757 built.
Harvard T.T. IIB
Target Tug - 42 aircraft built for the RAF by Noorduyn. Number probably included in II totals.
Harvard IIF
Bombing/gunnery trainer - One-off modified from Mk.II with bomb aimer's blister and AT-6 type cockpit.
Harvard III
AT-6D, 537 aircraft for RAF.
Harvard 4
Canadian development of Harvard II paralleling the T-6G, and built by Canadian Car & Foundry, 270 for the RCAF and 285 for USAF. Some publications refer to these as T-6J however the aircraft record cards do not use this designation.
Harvard 4K
Belgian designation for Harvard IIs and IIIs upgraded to roughly Harvard 4 specifications.
Harvard 4KA
Belgian designation for armed variant of 4K.

North American company designations[edit]

NAA Model
or Designation
Customer Engine Installed Number built/
NA-16 NA-16 USAAC (trials) Wright R-975-E3 Whirlwind (420 hp) 1 Prototype NX-2080, was open cockpit, received greenhouse canopy for trials
NA-18 NA-18 USAAC (trials) Wright R-975-E3 Whirlwind (420 hp) 1 (modified) Ex-NA-16, won against Seversky BT-8 and Curtiss-Wright CW-19R, to Argentina in 1937
NA-19 NA-19/BT-9 USAAC Wright R-975-7 Whirlwind (400 hp) 42 Minor changes from NA-18, new canopy
NA-19A NA-19A/BT-9A USAAC Wright R-975-7 Whirlwind (400 hp) 40 Armed BT-9 with one cowl gun and one rear flexible gun, and suitably modified canopy.
NA-20 NA-16-2H Trials, to Honduras (FAH) Wright R-975 Whirlwind (Unknown sub-type) 1 NC16025 originally intended as demonstrator for China
NA-22 NA-22 USAAC (rejected) Wright R-760ET (J-6-7) (225 hp) 1 Dangerously underpowered
NA-23 NA-23/BT-9B USAAC Wright R-975-7 Whirlwind (400 hp) 117 Unarmed. 1 modified as sole BT-9D as BT-14 prototype with new outer wings and other alterations.
NA-26 BC-1 Trials, to Canada (RCAF) Pratt & Whitney R-1340-S3H1 Wasp (550 hp) 1 Basic Combat Demonstrator NX18990 - no relation to later BC-1, first retractable gear variant, later modified with Yale parts.
NA-27 NA-16-2H to Fokker and
R. Netherlands AF
Pratt & Whitney R-1340-S2H1 Wasp (500 hp) 1 European demonstrator armed NA-26 with fixed gear.
NA-28 NJ-1 USN Pratt & Whitney R-1340-6 Wasp (550 hp) 40 USN specification up engined BT-9 as advanced trainer, some reengined with later R-1340 versions.
NA-29 BT-9C USAAC Wright R-975-7 Whirlwind (400 hp) 67 as per BT-9A with minor changes. First aircraft completed as Y1BT-10.
NA-30 BT-10 USAAC (Cancelled) Pratt & Whitney R-1340-41 Wasp (600 hp) 0 cancelled production version of Y1BT-10
NA-31 NA-16-4M/
Sweden (Flygvapnet) Wright R-975-E3 Whirlwind(420 hp)/
Piaggio P VIIc(525 hp)
137 BT-9C but different engine variant. Licence production (NAA built 1, ASJA 76, SAAB 60), Trialled undercarriage for Saab 21.
NA-32 NA-16-1A Australia (RAAF) Pratt & Whitney R-1340 Wasp 1 Fixed gear pattern aircraft similar to NJ-1 or Y1BT-10, not followed up.
NA-33 NA-16-2K/
Australia (RAAF) Pratt & Whitney R-1340-S1H1G (600 hp) 756 Retractable gear pattern aircraft for Australia, 1 built by NAA and 755 by Commonwealth Aircraft Corporation)
NA-34 NA-16-4P Argentina (FAA) Wright R-975-E3 Whirlwind (420 hp) 29 First major export order (not licence), had 2 cowl guns, a flexible rear gun and a radio mast
NA-36 BC-1 USAAC Pratt & Whitney R-1340-47 Wasp(500 hp) 177 Retractable undercarriage and first aircraft with square bottom rudder. Large DF loop between undercarriage, blister covering fuel transfer gear along centerline aft of wheel wells.legs.
NA-37 NA-16-4R/KXA1 Japan (IJN) (Evaluation) Pratt & Whitney R-985-9CG Wasp Junior (500 hp) 1 Technology demonstrator, unarmed, fixed landing gear and three bladed prop.
NA-38 NA-16-4M Sweden (Flygvapnet) Wright R-975-E3 Whirlwind (420 hp) 1 same as NA-31
NA-41 NA-16-4 China (ROCAF) Wright R-975 Whirlwind 35 Similar to BT-9C with short fabric covered fuselage, combat aircraft with two fixed forward guns and one flexible rear gun.
NA-42 NA-16-2A Honduras (FAH) Pratt & Whitney R-1340 Wasp (520 hp) 2
NA-43 NA-16-1G Brazil (Army) (Cancelled) Wright R-975 Whirlwind 0 Similar to BT-9C
NA-44 NA-44 to Canada (RCAF) Wright SG-1820-F52 Cyclone (750 hp) 1 Prototype two-seat export combat aircraft similar to BC-1A
NA-45 NA-16-1GV Venezuela (FAV) Pratt & Whitney R-1340 Wasp 3 Possibly originally built to Brazilian contract
NA-46 NA-16-4 Brazil (Navy) Wright R-975-53 Whirlwind(400 hp) 12 Similar to BT-9C with wingtip slats, small DF loop under fuselage.
NA-47 NA-16-4RW/KXA-2 Japan (IJN) (Evaluation) Wright R-975-E3 Whirlwind (420 hp) 1 Technology demonstrator
NA-48 NA-16-3C China (ROCAF) Pratt & Whitney R-1340 Wasp 15 Similar to NA-45
NA-49 NA-16-1E/
Harvard I
United Kingdom (RAF) Pratt & Whitney R-1340-S3H1 Wasp (600 hp) 400 Straight wing trailing edge, square rudder, short fabric covered fuselage, fixed rear canopy, no blister under wing center section
NA-50 NA-50 Peru (FAP) Wright R-1820-G3 Cyclone 7 Single-seat fighter, NA-16-5
NA-52 SNJ-1 USN Pratt & Whitney R-1340-6 Wasp(500 hp) 16 Short metal fuselage, square rudder, late wings, fixed rear on canopy
NA-54 BC-2 USAAC Pratt & Whitney R-1340-45 Wasp (600 hp) 3 Based on NA-36 with some improvements from NA-44, 3 bladed prop and two blister under wing center section.
NA-55-1 BC-1A USAAC Pratt & Whitney R-1340-47/-49 Wasp (600 hp) 83 Bought for researve and Air National Guard units.
NA-56 NA-16-4 China (ROCAF) Pratt & Whitney R-1340 Wasp 50 Similar to NA-55 (long metal fuselage, fixed gear and engine differences)
NA-57 NA-57/
NAA 57 P-2
France (Armée de l'Air) Wright R-975-E3 Whirlwind (420 hp) 230 Improved NA-23, many captured and used by Germany, some retained by Vichy France
NA-58 BT-14/BT-14A USAAC Pratt & Whitney R-985-25 Wasp Junior 251 Similar to Harvard II except for fixed undercarriage and smaller engine. 27 re-engined with 400 hp (298 kW) Pratt & Whitney R-985-11 as BT-14A
NA-59 AT-6-NA USAAC Pratt & Whitney R-1340-47 Wasp (600 hp) 94 First examples converted from NA-55 while still on production line, some examples had small DF loop installed
NA-61 NA-16-1E/
Harvard I
Canada (RCAF) Pratt & Whitney R-1340-S3H1 Wasp (600 hp) 30 Later fitted with extended exhaust for cabin heater
NA-64 NA-64/
NAA 64-P2/
Yale I
France (Armée de l'Air) Wright R-975-E3 Whirlwind (420 hp) 230 119 to Canada (RCAF) as Yale I, briefly used by France, many captured by Germany
NA-65 SNJ-2 USN Pratt & Whitney R-1340-36 Wasp 36 Blister covering fuel transfer gear along centerline aft of wheel wells
NA-66 Harvard II United Kingdom (RAF) Pratt & Whitney R-1340 Wasp 600 as per NA-59 but fixed rear canopy and no rear gun, also to RNZAF and RCAF, Southern Rhodesia
NA-68 NA-50A/P-64 Thailand (RTAF) Wright R-1820-77 Cyclone (870 hp) 6 Short outer wing panel angled much further forward than earlier types. Diverted with start of Pacific war to USAAF as P-64
NA-69 NA-44/A-27 Thailand (RTAF) Wright R-1820-75 Cyclone (745 hp) 10 Fully armed as attack aircraft. Diverted with start of Pacific war to USAAF as A-27
NA-71 NA-16-3 Venezuela (FAV) Pratt & Whitney R-1340-S3H1 Wasp (550 hp) 3 Two nose guns and rear gun, no wing guns.
NA-72 NA-44 Brazil (Army) Pratt & Whitney R-1340-AN1/S1H1 Wasp (600 hp) 30 Attack bomber, fitted with small DF loop under fuselage.
NA-74 NA-44 Chile (FACh) Pratt & Whitney R-1340 Wasp 12 Attack bomber, fitted with small DF loop under fuselage.
NA-75 Harvard II Canada (RCAF) Pratt & Whitney R-1340 Wasp 100 Follow on order to NA-66
NA-76 Harvard II United Kingdom (RAF) Pratt & Whitney R-1340 Wasp 450 Originally ordered by France, taken over by RAF, many to RCAF
NA-77 AT-6A/SNJ-3 USAAC, USN Pratt & Whitney R-1340 Wasp 637
NA-78 AT-6A/SNJ-3/3C USAAC, USN Pratt & Whitney R-1340 Wasp 568 As NA-77, first aircraft built in Texas, and to use name "Texan"
NA-79 SNJ-2 USN Pratt & Whitney R-1340-56 Wasp 25
NA-81 Harvard II United Kingdom (RAF) Pratt & Whitney R-1340 Wasp 125 same as previous RAF Harvard II order.
NA-84 AT-6B USAAC Pratt & Whitney R-1340-AN-1 Wasp (600 hp) 400
NA-85 SNJ-3 USN Pratt & Whitney R-1340 Wasp 0 Cancelled duplicate of NA-78 for record purposes.
NA-88 AT-6C/AT-6D/XAT-6E
USAAC/USAAF, USN Pratt & Whitney R-1340 Wasp/Ranger V-770 9331 (last 800 as NA.121) AT-6D used 24 volt electrics, vs previous 12 volt systems. XAT-6E used Ranger V-770.
NA-119 AT-6D Brazil (FAB) Pratt & Whitney R-1340 Wasp 81 20 examples built in Brazil under licence
NA-121 AT-6D/AT-6F USAAF, USN Pratt & Whitney R-1340 Wasp 4378 800 AT-6Ds, 211 SNJ-5, 956 AT-6F and 411 SNJ-6. AT-6F and SNJ-6 have clear fixed rear canopy section
NA-128 AT-6D USAAF, USN Pratt & Whitney R-1340 Wasp 0 Canceled orders to have been built in Texas.
NA-168 T-6G/LT-6G USAF/US ANG Pratt & Whitney R-1340 Wasp 109 Re-manufactured and updated from earlier versions. Mostly internal but canopy simplified slightly.
NA-182 T-6G/LT-6G USAF/US ANG Pratt & Whitney R-1340 Wasp 824 as per NA-168, Re-manufactured/updated.
NA-186 Harvard 4 Canada (RCAF)/US MDAP Pratt & Whitney R-1340 Wasp 555 Design Data for Canadian Car and Foundry possibly to build Harvard IV or T-6G, sole new post war production.
NA-188 T-6G/LT-6G USAF/US ANG Pratt & Whitney R-1340 Wasp 107 Re-manufactured and converted from earlier versions.
NA-195 T-6G/LT-6G USAF/US ANG Pratt & Whitney R-1340 Wasp 11 Re-manufactured and converted from earlier versions.
NA-197 T-6G USAF/US ANG Pratt & Whitney R-1340 Wasp 110 Re-manufactured and converted from T-6D.
NA-198 SNJ-8 USN Pratt & Whitney R-1340 Wasp 0 Cancelled Contract for SNJ-8 (similar to T-6G)


  1. ^ Davis 1989, p.54.
  2. ^ Hagedorn 2009, p.169.