Terminal ventricle

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The terminal ventricle (ventriculus terminalis, fifth ventricle or ampulla caudalis) is the widest part of the central canal of the spinal cord that is located at or near the conus medullaris.[1] It was described by Stilling in 1859 and Krause in 1875.[2] Krause introduced the term fifth ventricle after observation of normal ependymal cells.[2] The central canal expands as a fusiform terminal ventricle, and approximately 8–10 mm in length in the conus medullaris (or conus terminalis).[3] Although the terminal ventricle is visible in the fetus and children, it is usually absent in adults.[1]

Detection and Diagnosis[edit]

Sometimes, the terminal ventricle is observed by MRI or Sonography in children less than 5 years old.[4] An MRI scan can be particularly helpful in its detection.

In pathological conditions, an MRI is useful at the level of the conus medullaris. Findings may be related to the following:

In some cases, the terminal ventricle may cause clinical symptoms due to its expansion.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "ventriculus terminalis".  |first1= missing |last1= in Authors list (help)[unreliable source?]
  2. ^ a b Liccardo G, Ruggeri F, De Cerchio L, Floris R, Lunardi P (June 2005). "Fifth ventricle: an unusual cystic lesion of the conus medullaris". Spinal Cord. 43 (6): 381–4. doi:10.1038/sj.sc.3101712. PMID 15655569. 
  3. ^ Williams & Warwick. Gray's Anatomy .THIRTY-SEVENTH EDITION.ISBN 0 443 04177 6[page needed]
  4. ^ Celli P, D'Andrea G, Trillò G, Roperto R, Acqui M, Ferrante L (March 2002). "Cyst of the medullary conus: malformative persistence of terminal ventricle or compressive dilatation?". Neurosurgical Review. 25 (1-2): 103–6. doi:10.1007/s10143-001-0203-8. PMID 11954762. 
  5. ^ a b "imaging in syringohydromyelia".  |first1= missing |last1= in Authors list (help)