The Monkey Wrench Gang
First edition cover
|Publisher||Lippincott Williams & Wilkins|
|August 1, 1975|
|Media type||Print (hardback & paperback)|
|Pages||352 pp (hardback edition)|
|ISBN||ISBN 0-397-01084-2 (hardback edition)|
|LC Class||PZ4.A124 Mo PS3551.B2|
|Followed by||Hayduke Lives|
The Monkey Wrench Gang is a novel written by American author Edward Abbey (1927–1989), published in 1975.
Easily Abbey's most famous fiction work, the novel concerns the use of sabotage to protest environmentally damaging activities in the Southwestern United States, and was so influential that the term "monkeywrench" has come to mean, besides sabotage and damage to machines, any sabotage, activism, law-making, or law-breaking to preserve wilderness, wild spaces and ecosystems.
In 1985, Dream Garden Press released a special 10th Anniversary edition of the book featuring illustrations by R. Crumb, plus a chapter titled "Seldom Seen at Home" that had been deleted from the original edition. Crumb's illustrations were used for a limited-edition calendar based on the book. The most recent edition was released in 2006 by Harper Perennial Modern Classics.
The book's four main characters are ecologically-minded misfits — "Seldom Seen" Smith, a Jack Mormon river guide; Doc Sarvis, an odd but wealthy and wise surgeon; Bonnie Abbzug, his young sexualized female assistant; and a rather eccentric Green Beret Vietnam veteran, George Hayduke. Together, although not always working as a tightly-knit team, they form the titular group dedicated to the destruction of what they see as the system that pollutes and destroys their environment, the American West. As their attacks on deserted bulldozers and trains continue, the law closes in.
The book was praised for its erudition, flair, down-home wit, and the accuracy of its descriptions of life away from civilization. Abbey made the West his home and was a skilled outdoorsman.
From a 21st-century viewpoint, the Gang in some ways bears little resemblance to the modern media's portrayal of environmentalists — the book's characters eat a lot of red meat, own firearms, litter the roadside with empty beer cans and drive big cars. (Abbey's habits were reportedly similar.) Abbey's politics are not "bleeding heart", and most of the characters dismiss liberalism: They attack American Indians as well as whites for their consumerism, and hold little regard for the Sierra Club. (Despite occasional contradictory evidence, Edward Abbey considered himself a liberal — "I'm a liberal, and proud of it," he wrote in Abbey's Road.)
For the Gang, the enemy is those who would develop the American Southwest — despoiling the land, befouling the air, and destroying nature and the sacred purity of Abbey's desert world. Their greatest hatred is focused on the Glen Canyon Dam, a monolithic edifice of concrete that dams a beautiful, wild river, and which the monkeywrenchers seek to destroy. One of the book's most memorable passages describes Abbey's character Seldom Seen Smith, as he kneels atop the dam praying for a "pre-cision earthquake" to remove the "temporary plug" of the Colorado River.
The book may have been the inspiration for Dave Foreman's and Mike Roselle's creation of Earth First!, a direct action environmental organization that often advocates much of the minor vandalism depicted in the book. Many scenes of vandalism and ecologically-motivated mayhem, including a billboard burning at the beginning of the book and the use of caltrops to elude a group of vigilantes, are presented in sufficient detail as to form a skeletal how-to for would-be saboteurs. The actions are presented in a larger-than-life format, because much of what Hayduke, and the rest of the characters in the story face are larger-than-life obstacles that require larger-than-life approaches. The types of actions are said to have influenced the formation of environmental organizations such as Greenpeace and the Earth Liberation Front.
- From the National Observer, "A sad, hilarious, exuberant, vulgar fairy tale... It'll make you want to go out and blow up a dam."[this quote needs a citation]
- From The New York Times, "Since the publication of The Monkey Wrench Gang, Mr. Abbey has become an underground cult hero."[this quote needs a citation]
- From The Washington Post, "One of the best writers to deal with the American West."[this quote needs a citation]
- From the Houston Chronicle, "What a thing of beauty is Edward Abbey's The Monkey Wrench Gang."[this quote needs a citation]
- Hayduke Lives continues the story from where The Monkey Wrench Gang left off.
Film, TV or theatrical adaptations
As of 2012, a film adaptation of the book, to be directed by Henry Joost and Ariel Schulman, was being planned. The film rights holders for the book filed suit against the producers of Night Moves, charging that the film's plot is significantly similar to the story of book. 
References in other media
In his book Screw Unto Others, George Hayduke states that Edward Abbey was his mentor, and mentions The Monkey Wrench Gang as the origin of the term monkeywrenching. Hayduke says The Monkey Wrench Gang inspired environmentalist David Foreman to help create Earth First!.
- AbbeyWeb: The Monkey Wrench Gang
- AbbeyWeb: The 1987 Monkey Wrench Gang Calendar
- Lindholdt, Paul (2015). Explorations in Ecocriticism: Advocacy, Bioregionalism, and Visual Design Ecocritical Theory and Practice. Lexington Books. p. 93. ISBN 9780739194997.
- "The Monkey Wrench Gang (2013)". The Monkey Wrench Gang (2013). IMDB.com. Retrieved 2011-08-01.
- Gardner, Eriq (September 14, 2012). "Producer Launches Legal War Over New Eco-Terrorist Film Starring Jesse Eisenberg". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved July 26, 2013.
- Patten, Dominic (September 15, 2012). "Night Moves Director, Producers, UTA Sued By Edward Pressman & Edward Abbey Widow For Copyright Infringement". Deadline.com. Retrieved July 26, 2013.
- Screw Unto Others, p. 77
- Cassuto, David N. "Waging Water: Hydrology vs. Mythology in The Monkey Wrench Gang." ISLE: Interdisciplinary Studies in Literature and the Environment 2.1 (1994): 13–36.
- Slovic, Scott. "Aestheticism and Awareness: The Psychology of Edward Abbey's The Monkey Wrench Gang." CEA Critic 55.3 (1993): 54–68.
- The Monkey Wrench Gang at the Internet Movie Database
- The environmentalist as macho, working class, cowboy: Edward Abbey's The Monkey Wrench Gang
- "Rereading: Robert Macfarlane on The Monkey Wrench Gang
- "As reviewed by Darren Botello-Samson, Department of Social Sciences, Pittsburg State University