The Pearl (novel)

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The Pearl
Thepearl 1stus.jpg
First edition (US)
AuthorJohn Steinbeck
IllustratorJosé Clemente Orozco
Cover artistCover design: Micheal Ian Kaye; Artist: Ross Mcdonald
CountryUnited States, Mexico
LanguageEnglish, Spanish, Portuguese
Set inLa Paz, Baja California Sur, 1940s
PublisherThe Viking Press (US)
William Heinemann (UK)
Fondo de Cultura Económica (Mexico and rest of Latin America)
Publication date
1947
Media typePrint (Hardback & Paperback)
ISBN0-14-017737-X
OCLC27697348
First edition title page

The Pearl is a novella by American author John Steinbeck, first published in 1947.

It is the story of a pearl diver, Kino, and explores man's nature as well as greed, defiance of societal norms, and evil. Steinbeck's inspiration was a Mexican folk tale from La Paz, Baja California Sur, Mexico, which he had heard in a visit to the formerly pearl-rich region in 1940.[1]

In 1947, it was adapted into a Mexican film named La Perla and in 1987 into a cult Kannada movie Ondu Muttina Kathe. The story is one of Steinbeck's most popular books and has been widely used in high school classes.[2] The Pearl is sometimes considered a parable.

Summary[edit]

The Pearl, which takes place in La Paz, Mexico, begins with a description of the seemingly idyllic family life of the poor pearl fisherman Kino, his wife Juana and their infant son, Coyotito. Kino watches as Coyotito sleeps, but sees a scorpion crawl down the rope that holds the hanging hammock where Coyotito lies. Kino attempts to catch the scorpion, but Coyotito bumps the rope and the scorpion falls on him. Although Kino kills the scorpion, it still stings Coyotito. Juana and Kino, accompanied by their neighbors, go to see the local doctor, who refuses to treat Coyotito because Kino cannot pay enough to sustain the greedy life of the Doctor, and because the doctor holds racist views towards the poor Amerindians.

Kino and Juana take Coyotito down near the sea, where Juana uses a seaweed poultice on Coyotito's shoulder, which is now swollen. Kino dives for oysters from his canoe, hoping to find a pearl he can sell to pay the doctor. He finds a very large oyster which yields an immense pearl, and which he dubs "The Pearl of the World".

The news that Kino has found an immense pearl travels swiftly through the town of La Paz. Kino's neighbors begin to feel bitter toward him for his good fortune, but neither Kino nor Juana realize this feeling that they have engendered. Juan Tomas, Kino's brother, asks him what he will do with his money, and he envisions getting married to Juana in a church and dressing Coyotito in a yachting cap and sailor suit. He claims that he will send Coyotito to school and buy a rifle for himself. The local priest, hearing the news, visits and tells Kino to remember to give thanks and to pray for guidance. The doctor also visits, and although Coyotito seems to be healing, the doctor insists that Coyotito still faces danger and treats him. Kino tells the doctor that he will pay him once he sells his pearl, and the doctor attempts to discern where the pearl is located (Kino had buried it in the corner of his hut).

That night, a thief attempts to break into Kino's hut, but Kino drives him away. Juana warns Kino that the pearl will destroy them, but Kino insists that the pearl is their one chance for a better life and that tomorrow they will sell it.

The next day, Kino goes to sell his pearl. Unknown to him, and all the pearl fishers, the pearl dealers in La Paz are all employees of a single buying organisation. The dealers are employed to make it appear as though the prices offered are competitive when in fact they are kept very low and the natives are cheated. The dealers are aware through the gossip of the town that a big pearl has been found and have agreed to pretend it is a freak and worthless. They offer Kino a thousand pesos for the pearl when Kino believes that it is worth fifty thousand. Kino refuses to sell to the pearl dealers and decides to go to the capital instead. That night, Kino is attacked by more thieves, and Juana once again reminds him that the pearl is evil. However, Kino vows that he will not be cheated.

Later that night, Juana attempts to take the pearl and throw it into the ocean, but Kino finds her and beats her for doing so. A group of men accost Kino and knock the pearl from his hand. Kino defends himself with his knife. Juana watches from a distance and then sees Kino approaching her, limping. A thief whose throat Kino has slit lies dead in the bush. Juana finds the pearl on the path, and they decide that they must leave even if the killing was in self-defense as they will not get a fair hearing. Kino then finds that his canoe has been vandalized, their house has been searched, and the flimsy structure set on fire. The family take refuge with Kino's brother Juan Tomas and his wife Apolonia. They hide for the next day before setting out for the capital at night.

Kino and Juana travel through the night and when dawn approaches find a concealed place to rest in the bush . Kino fears pursuit and looking back spots a distant party approaching along the dirt road consisting of a man with a rifle on horseback and two skilled trackers on foot . The trackers miss their carefully concealed hiding place and go on along the road. Kino knows they will return to search more thoroughly so he and Juana leave the road and head into the mountains where they know they will leave fewer tracks on the rocky ground. They find a cave to hide in above a pool of water. At dusk the trackers arrive and make camp by the pool below them.

They realize the thieves will eventually find them, and having stolen the pearl, will have to kill them to hide their crime. They realise their only choice now is to attack first.

Juana and Coyotito hide in the cave while Kino goes down to kill the trackers with his machete. As Kino approaches unseen, the trackers hear a child's cry. They assume it is merely a coyote pup but shoot in the general direction of the cries to silence it. At that moment, Kino attacks, killing all three thieves in a frenzy.

However, Kino can hear nothing but the song of death in his head, for he has realized that it was Coyotito's cry that the trackers heard, and the shot had hit Coyotito.

Juana and Kino return heartbroken to the city of La Paz. Kino is carrying the rifle taken from one of the thieves he killed, while Juana carries the dead Coyotito in her shawl on her back. The two approach the Gulf, and Kino looks at the pearl for the last time and sees in it an image of Coyotito with his head shot away . In anguish, Kino hurls the pearl into the ocean.

It sinks to the bottom and is soon buried in the sand.

Setting[edit]

Steinbeck began writing the story as a movie script[3] in 1944, and first published it as a short story called "The Pearl of the World" in Woman's Home Companion in December 1945.[4] The original publication is also sometimes listed as "The Pearl of La Paz".[5] He expanded it to novella length and published it under the name The Pearl by Viking Press in 1947.[4] As he was writing the novella version, he was frequently travelling to Mexico where the film version,[6] co-written with Jack Wagner,[4] was being filmed. The film was also released by RKO in 1947 as a co-promotion with the book.[6]

The Pearl was loosely adapted in 2001 for a film directed by Alfredo Zacharias and starring Lukas Haas and Richard Harris which was released directly to video in 2005.[4]

Themes[edit]

Family-One of the major themes in the novel is family. Throughout the novel, the plot discusses how the family lives before and after the pearl. It is constantly the focus of the plot and many of the decisions are based on what would be best for the family. For example, the first thing that Kino desires to do with the money from the pearl is to give his wife and Coyotito a better life.[7] This money would pay for Coyotito’s education, better clothes, and better protection. Later, Kino also demonstrates devotion to his family by not selling to the pearl dealer. The second buyer was trying to get the pearl for less than it was worth, but Kino, with his family in mind, declined to search for a better deal. He always has his family in mind, whether it leads to warmth and happiness or destruction. It was the reason Kino got the pearl and, eventually, the reason why he threw it back into the ocean.

Good and Evil -One of the biggest themes in this novel is the one between good and evil. This theme is displayed in other themes as well and it is shown from the beginning to the end. In the beginning, Kino lives a life of simplicity and happiness but when he discovers the pearl, he believes that good will come from it. However, a sense of evil accompanies it. After that, Kino and his family were in a constant battle against evil to preserve the good that they enjoyed before.

Paradox -The theme of paradoxes is displayed through Kino’s desires. Once Kino discovers the pearl, he begins to dream about what could come from this fortune as greed fills his head, but as he tries to carry out this plan, the good wealth also brings destruction to his family as he treats Juana poorly and is abusive. Though Kino desires good for his family, there is a paradox of an evil reality that he does not want. Kino tries to “avoid life’s inevitable tension” between these two but he finds that he cannot separate the good and the evil. In the end, the finding of the great prize causes him to lose another, his son.[8]

Perseverance -The theme of perseverance is demonstrated by many characters, but mainly Kino. Before he found the pearl, he was a noble and a very determined person who sought fortune for his family.[9] After he finds it, he is hoping to find it in a different way. Because Kino believes that this would save his family, he persists “though many obstacles”[7] that accompany the pearl. He perseveres to keep the pearl but, in the end, it was not worth keeping

Characters[edit]

Kino is the protagonist, and begins as a hard-working pearl diver. He has a wife, Juana, and a son, Coyotito. He is content with his life-style as a diver but is not wealthy until he discovers the pearl. After discovering the pearl, Kino gradually changes to become a completely different man. Though his family is still the center of his actions, he is also driven by his dreams of an escape from their poverty and desire give his son a better future. He quickly becomes obsessed with the material things that the pearl could bring. He is no longer content with his son being uneducated, or his family not being well-dressed. Instead of enjoying his family and their company, as he did in the beginning, he becomes discontent and always seeks more.[10] He is also driven by his desire not to be cheated or slighted. Kino is named for the missionary Eusebio Kino.[11]

Juana, Kino’s wife, is a secondary character. She is a loving woman who cares for her husband and son. Throughout the experience, she remains loyal to her family but also perceives the evil forces that the valuable pearl unleashes. For example, one night, she attempts to throw the pearl back into the ocean to bring back peace and happiness to her family, .[9]

Coyotito is Juana and Kino’s infant son. He is their only child, so his parents do everything they can to protect him. Despite his parents’ love and effort, he is subject to much harm, both before and after the pearl is found.

The Doctor is an unnamed character who symbolizes wealth, greed and manipulation. Before the pearl is found, he refused to heal Coyotito because the family was poor, though it would have been easy for him to do so. However, after the family have found the pearl, he personally visits them at home and acts in a much friendlier manner to them than at their first meeting. This is all down to his greed and his anticipation of a large fee. He uses the natives ignorance to his advantage by lying about how to treat Coyotito. He uses his visit to try to discern from Kino's glances where in the house the pearl may be hidden. The doctor is in stark contrast to the family and is the beginning of the evil that will be unleashed by the pearl.

Juan Tomas, Kino’s brother, is wise and loyal. In the beginning, Juan Tomas warns Kino of the destruction that wealth may bring,[9] demonstrating his love for his brother. When destruction does come, however, Juan Tomas does not turn away his brother but, instead, welcomes him in and protects him. He is one of the few characters that does not seek to gain from the pearl and shows he values the importance of family ties.

The pearl dealers also demonstrate greed and manipulation. This time in an organised way from the cartel for which they work. When Kino tries to sell the pearl, the pearl dealers conspire to refuse to take the pearl for its actual price. Instead, they say it is almost worthless. They heighten the difference between what Kino wants from the pearl and what it actually brings.[12] They force Kino to make the hazardous journey to the captal city to try and get a fair price for the pearl.

The thieves, are shadowy figures who attack Kino from the moment it becomes widely known he has a precious object. Kino never recognizes who they are. They harass and then follow the family right to the end of the story. They force Kino to fight and kill to defend himself and his family and keep the pearl his own. In the final scenes, in which Kino is tracked by a posse, it is not clear in the text whether the group are thieves, or law enforcement officers hunting Kino for his killing of the man on the beach.

Reception and analysis[edit]

These publications praised the novel as a "major artistic triumph" and emphasizes how Steinbeck understands "the universal significance of life." This novel did not have as great of a review later on. Though many still believe that Steinbeck's work was a unique reflection on "the human experience," there are others who disagreed. Now, people like Warren French criticize the novel for "lacking both insight and worth."[13]

It is not only used to teach students about literature, but it is also used to discuss important lessons about life. Many believe that the book is the easiest of Steinbeck's books to teach because the lessons are simple, yet significant,[12] so, generally, students that are in middle school or early high school study this novel.[14] Teachers intend to teach their students to go deeper than surface level to learn about both the simplicity and complexity of the novel. They emphasize the themes of the book to allow the student to learn more than just literacy.

Jackson Benson writes that The Pearl was heavily influenced by Steinbeck's interest in the philosophy of Carl Jung.[5] Steinbeck wrote that he created the story of The Pearl to address the themes of "human greed, materialism, and the inherent worth of a thing."[3]

The Fleming & John song "The Pearl" was based on this story.

The American composer Andrew Boysen's Concerto for Trombone and Wind Symphony (2004) was inspired by The Pearl.[15]

References[edit]

  1. ^ The Pearls of La Paz, Kristian Beadle, Pacific Standard magazine, July 6, 2010
  2. ^ Simmonds, Roy S. "Steinbeck's The Pearl: A Preliminary Textual Study. ", Steinbeck Quarterly 22.01-02 (Winter/Spring 1989): 16–34.
  3. ^ a b Hayashi, Tetsumaro (1993). A New Study Guide to Steinbeck's Major Works With Critical Explications. Scarecrow Press. pp. 174–. ISBN 9780810826113. Retrieved 30 January 2013.
  4. ^ a b c d Railsback, Brian E.; Meyer, Michael J. (2006). A John Steinbeck Encyclopedia. Greenwood Publishing Group. pp. 284–. ISBN 9780313296697. Retrieved 30 January 2013.
  5. ^ a b Benson, Jackson J. (1990). The Short Novels of John Steinbeck: Critical Essays With a Checklist to Steinbeck Criticism. Duke University Press. pp. 143–. ISBN 9780822309949. Retrieved 30 January 2013.
  6. ^ a b "Steinbeck Quarterly 1989, Vol. 22, No. 01-02". Ball State University. Retrieved 30 January 2013.
  7. ^ a b Caswell, Roger (September 2005). "A Musical Journey through John Steinbeck's The Pearl: Emotion, Engagement, and Comprehension". Journal of Adolescent and Adult Literacy. 49 (1): 62–67. doi:10.1598/JAAL.49.1.7. Retrieved 25 June 2019.
  8. ^ Gladstein, Mimi (4 December 2009). "Fish Stories: Santiago and Kino in Text and Film". Wiley Online Library
  9. ^ a b c Steinbeck, John, and JoseÌ Clemente Orozco. The Pearl. Penguin Books, 2017
  10. ^ Meyers, Michael (1 March 2004). ""Wavering Shadows: A New Jungian Perspective in Steinbeck's the Pearl". Steinbeck Review. 1: 132.
  11. ^ Schultz, Jeffrey D.; Li, Luchen “Critical companion to John Steinbeck” (2009-01-01)
  12. ^ a b Reed, Arthea J.S. "A Teacher's Guide to the Penguin Edition of John Steinbeck 'The Pearl". Penguin: 1-5
  13. ^ 'Schultz, Jeffery D. (1 January 2009). Critical companion to John Steinbeck.
  14. ^ Meyers, Michael (2005). "Diamond in the Rough: Steinbeck's Multifaceted Pearl". Steinbeck Review. 2 (2): 42–56.
  15. ^ Boysen Jr., Andrew (2008). Concerto for Trombone and Wind Symphony (Liner Notes). Nic Orovich, University of New Hampshire Wind Symphony. Belchertown, MA: Harrison Digital Productions. p. 1. OCLC 315826087.

Further reading[edit]