Tinospora cordifolia, which is known by the common names heart-leaved moonseed, guduchi and giloy, is an herbaceous vine of the family Menispermaceae indigenous to the tropical areas of India, Myanmar and Sri Lanka.
There are many common names for this species in different languages. Punjabi: گلو (Gllow), Telugu: తిప్ప తీగ (Tippa-teega), Tamil: சீந்தில் கொடி (Shindilakodi), Malayalam: ചിറ്റമൃത് (Amruthu, Chittamruthu), Kannada: ಅಮೃತ ಬಳ್ಳಿ (Amrutha balli), Khmer: បណ្តូលពេជ្រ (bândaul pich), Sinhala: Rasakinda, Thai: บอระเพ็ด (boraphét), Pali: galocī, Hindi:geloy (गिलोय), guruc (गुरुच), gurcha, Gujarati: galac, garo, Sanskrit: guduchi, amrta (अमृत), cinnodbhava (छिन्नोद्भवा), Marathi: Guduchi (गुडूची), gulvel (गुळवेल), Odia: Guluchi, Myanmar: ဆင်တုံးမနွယ် Nepali: Gurjo (गुर्जो).
It is a large, deciduous extensively spreading climbing shrub with several elongated twining branches. Leaves simple, alternate, exstipulate, long petioles up to 15 cm long, roundish, pulvinate, both at the base and apex with the basal one longer and twisted partially and half way around. Lamina broadly ovate or ovate cordate, 10–20 cm long or 8– 15 cm broad, 7 nerved and deeply cordate at base, membranous, pubescent above, whitish tomentose with a prominent reticulum beneath. Flowers unisexual, small on separate plants and appearing when plant is leafless, greenish yellow on axillary and terminal racemes. Male flowers clustered, female usually solitary. Sepals 6, free in two series of three each, the outer ones are smaller than the inner. Petals 6 free smaller than sepals, obovate and membranous. Fruits aggregate of 1-3, ovoid smooth drupelets on thick stalk with sub terminal style scars, scarlet or orange coloured.
Columbin, tinosporaside, jatrorhizine, palmatine, berberine, tembeterine, tinocordifolioside, phenylpropene disaccharides, choline, tinosporic acid, tinosporal, and tinosporon have been isolated from Tinospora cordifolia.
Endophytic fungi regarded as a fascinating group of organisms colonize the living, internal tissues of their host (usually higher plants) without causing any harmful effects. A recent study has shown that 29 endophytes belonging to different taxa were present in the samples collected from T. cordifolia.
Endophytes have been known to enhance resistance of host plants against insects, herbivores, pathogenic fungi, bacteria, virus, mediated by fungal alkaloids. Novel antibiotics, antimycotics, immunosuppressants, and anticancer compounds are only a few examples of what has been found after the isolation, culture, purification, and characterization of some choice endophytes in the recent past. The potential prospects of finding new drugs that may be effective candidates for treating newly developing diseases in humans, plants, and animals are great.
Research has shown that extracts of endophytic fungus Nigrospora sp. (Ascomycota: Sordariomycetes) from a native plant Tinospora cordifolia had considerable insecticidal property on Spodoptera litura (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), a polyphagous pest. This preliminary information on insecticidal properties of Nigrospora sp. may further be used for imparting resistance in plants against insects.
- http://famepharma.com/famemyanmar/heartleavedmoonseed/[full citation needed]
- Sinha, Kirti; Mishra, N P; Singh, J; Khanuja, S P S (July 2004). "Tinospora cordifolia (Guduchi), a reservoir plant for therapeutic applications: A Review". Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge 3 (3): 257–70.
- http://www.frlht.org/rasayana/node/43[full citation needed]
- Mishra, Ashish; Gond, Surendra K.; Kumar, Anuj; Sharma, Vijay K.; Verma, Satish K.; Kharwar, Ravindra N.; Sieber, Thomas N. (2012). "Season and Tissue Type Affect Fungal Endophyte Communities of the Indian Medicinal Plant Tinospora cordifolia More Strongly than Geographic Location". Microbial Ecology 64 (2): 388–98. doi:10.1007/s00248-012-0029-7. PMID 22430503.
- Strobel, G.; Daisy, B. (2003). "Bioprospecting for Microbial Endophytes and Their Natural Products". Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews 67 (4): 491–502. doi:10.1128/MMBR.67.4.491-502.2003. PMC 309047. PMID 14665674.
- Thakur, Abhinay; Kaur, Sanehdeep; Kaur, Amarjeet; Singh, Varinder (2012). "Detrimental effects of endophytic fungus Nigrospora sp. on survival and development of Spodoptera litura". Biocontrol Science and Technology 22 (2): 151–61. doi:10.1080/09583157.2011.646952.
- Caldecott, Todd (2006). Ayurveda: The Divine Science of Life. Elsevier/Mosby. ISBN 0-7234-3410-7. Contains a detailed monograph on Tinospora cordifolia (Guduchi) as well as a discussion of health benefits and usage in clinical practice. Available online at http://www.toddcaldecott.com/index.php/herbs/learning-herbs/364-guduchi
- http://www.ayurvedacollege.com/articles/students/Guduchi Guduchi: The one who protects the body