Tom Zé in São Paulo, Brazil, in 2007
|Birth name||Antônio José Santana Martins|
|Born||11 October 1936|
Irará, Bahia, Brazil
|Origin||São Paulo, Brazil|
|Genres||Avant-garde, experimental, folk, world music, tropicália (early)|
|Occupation(s)||Multi-instrumentalist, singer-songwriter, composer|
|Labels||Trama Records, Luaka Bop|
Tom Zé (Portuguese pronunciation: [ˈtõ ˈzɛ]; born Antônio José Santana Martins, 11 October 1936 in Irará, Bahia, Brazil) is a songwriter, multi-instrumentalist, and composer who was influential in the Tropicália movement of 1960s Brazil. After the peak of the Tropicália period, Zé went into relative obscurity: it was only in the 1990s, when the musician and label head David Byrne discovered an album recorded by Zé many years earlier, that he returned to performing and releasing new material.
Early life and career
Tom Zé grew up in the small town of Irará, Bahia in the dry sertão region of the country's Northeast. He would later claim that his hometown was "pre-Gutenbergian", as information was primarily transferred through oral communication. As a child, he was influenced by Brazilian musicians such as Luiz Gonzaga and Jackson do Pandeiro. Zé became interested in music by listening to the radio, and moved to the state capital of Salvador to pursue a degree. He later relocated to São Paulo and began his career in popular music there.
Much of his early work involved his wry impressions of the massive metropolitan area, coming as he did, from a small town in the relatively poor northeast.
Influential in the Tropicália movement, Zé contributed, along with Caetano Veloso, Gilberto Gil, Gal Costa, Os Mutantes, and Nara Leão, to the watershed Tropicália album/manifesto Tropicália: ou Panis et Circenses (1968). He also participated in a series of concerts with the musicians. After the Brazilian military government of the 1960s began to crack down on the musicians of Tropicália, Zé moved out of the public eye and began to experiment with novel instruments and composition styles. While the other major figures of Tropicália would go on to great commercial and critical success in later decades, Zé slipped into obscurity in the 1970s and 1980s.
In the early 1990s, Zé's work experienced a revival when American musician David Byrne discovered one of his albums, Estudando o Samba (1975), on a visit to Rio de Janeiro. Zé was the first artist signed to the Luaka Bop label and has so far released a compilation and two albums, all of which received positive reviews from critics in the United States.
In 2011, he collaborated with Javelin on the song "Ogodô, Ano 2000" for the Red Hot Organization's most recent charitable album Red Hot+Rio 2. The album is a follow-up to the 1996 Red Hot + Rio. Proceeds from the sales will be donated to raise awareness and money to fight AIDS, HIV and related health and social issues.
Remaining true to the experimental and Dada impulses of Tropicália, Zé has been noted for both his unorthodox approach to melody and instrumentation, employing various objects as instruments such as the typewriter. He has collaborated with many of the concrete poets of São Paulo, including Augusto de Campos, and employed concrete techniques in his lyrics. Musically, his work appropriates samba, Bossa Nova, Brazilian folk music, forró, and American rock and roll, among others. He has been praised by avant-garde composers for his use of dissonance, polytonality, and unusual time signatures. Because of the experimental nature of many of his compositions, Zé has been compared with American musicians such as Frank Zappa and Captain Beefheart.
One of his last efforts, though, has been a return to Bossa Nova, his Estudando a Bossa – Nordeste Plaza. Says Zé: "That music has inhabited my psyche for 50 to 60 years. Familiar and profound, yet somehow extraterrestrial in my mind. It had to come out, to be dealt with."
- 1968: Grande Liquidação
- 1970: Tom Zé (album)
- 1972: Se o Caso É Chorar
- 1973: Todos os Olhos
- 1976: Estudando o Samba
- 1978: Correio da Estação do Brás
- 1984: Nave Maria
- 1990: Brazil Classics, Vol. 4: The Best of Tom Zé - Massive Hits (Compilation)
- 1992: Brazil Classics, Vol. 5: The Hips of Tradition
- 1997: Parabelo (with Zé Miguel Wisnik)
- 1998: Com Defeito de Fabricação
- 1999: Postmodern Platos
- 1999: 20 Preferidas (Compilation)
- 2000: Série Dois Momentos (vols. 1, 2, and 15) (Compilation)
- 2000: Jogos de Armar
- 2002: Santagustin (with Gilberto Assis)
- 2003: Imprensa Cantada
- 2005: Estudando o Pagode – Na Opereta Segregamulher e Amor
- 2006: Danç-Êh-Sá
- 2008: Danç-Êh-Sá Ao Vivo (live)
- 2008: Estudando a Bossa – Nordeste Plaza
- 2009: O Pirulito Da Ciência – Tom Zé & Banda Ao Vivo
- 2010: Studies of Tom Zé: Explaining Things So I Can Confuse You
- 2012: Tropicália Lixo Lógico
- 2014: "Vira Lata na Via Láctea"
- 2016: "Canções Eróticas de Ninar"
- 2017: "Sem Você Não A"
- Neder, Alvaro. "Biography". Allmusic. All Media Guide. Retrieved 15 March 2008.
- Stark, Jeff (26 May 1999). "The politics of plagiarism". Salon.com. Retrieved 15 March 2008.
- Bahaina, Anna Maria (September 1992). "Tom Zé". Europe Jazz Network. Archived from the original on 3 August 2012. Retrieved 15 March 2008.
- Kelly, Jennifer (10 March 2006). "An Encounter with Tropicalia's Trickster: The Tom Zé Interview". PopMatters. Retrieved 15 March 2008.
- Williams, Kelvin Leander (2011). "ArtistInterviews: Tom Zé A Brazilian pop iconoclast".
- (in Italian) Mei, Giancarlo. Canto Latino: Origine, Evoluzione e Protagonisti della Musica Popolare del Brasile. 2004. Stampa Alternativa-Nuovi Equilibri. Preface by Sergio Bardotti and postface by Milton Nascimento.
- Rollefson, J. Griffith (26 June 2007). "Tom Ze's Fabrication Defect and the "Esthetics of Plagiarism": a postmodern/postcolonial "Cannibalist Manifesto"". Popular Music and Society. 30 (3): 305. doi:10.1080/03007760600834853.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Tom Zé.|
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- Official site (in Portuguese)
- Tom Zé on the Luaka Bop label website
- Tom Zé discography on Slipcue.com
- Tom Zé interview on ArtistInterviews.eu
- Biography on allmusic.com