Traditional Welsh poetic metres

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The traditional Welsh poetic meters consist of twenty four different types of poetic meter, called Y Pedwar Mesur ar Hugain in Welsh. They are all written in cynghanedd of varying degrees of complexity.

Although called "traditional," they were compiled – and later redefined at least once – in the Late Middle Ages and omit some of the older forms such as the englyn milwr. Only a few of them were widely used by the professional poets (Beirdd yr Uchelwyr), and the use of some of the more complicated ones is confined to occasional poems of technical virtuosity dating to the end of the Middle Ages.

The twenty four traditional Welsh poetic meters are:

  • Awdl-gywydd
  • Byr-a-thoddaid
  • Cadwynfyr
  • Clogyrnach
  • Cyhydedd Fer
  • Cyhydedd Hir
  • Cyhydedd Naw Ban
  • Cyrch-a-chwta
  • Cywydd Deuair Fyrion
  • Cywydd Deuair Hirion: see Cywydd
  • Cywydd Llosgyrnog
  • Englyn Proest Cyfnewidiog
  • Englyn Proest Cadwynog
  • Englyn Unodl Crwca
  • Englyn Unodl Union: see Englyn
  • Gorchest Beirdd
  • Gwawdodyn Byr
  • Gwawdodyn Hir
  • Hir-a-thoddaid
  • Rhupunt Byr
  • Rhupunt Hir
  • Rhupunt Hwyaf
  • Tawddgyrch Cadwynog
  • Toddaid

See also[edit]