Trypanosoma vivax

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Trypanosoma vivax
Scientific classification
Domain: Eukaryota
(unranked): Excavata
Phylum: Sarcomastigophora
Class: Kinetoplastida
Order: Trypanosomatida
Genus: Trypanosoma
Species: T. vivax
Binomial name
Trypanosoma vivax

Trypanosoma caprae
Trypanosoma angolense

Trypanosoma vivax is a parasite species in the genus Trypanosoma. It causes the disease nagana, also known as animal trypanosomiasis, affecting cattle or wild mammals such as the nyala. It is mainly occurring in West Africa, although it has spread to South America.[1]

Symptoms of T. vivax include "rapid weight loss, lethargy, weakness, clumsiness, pale mucosa, swelling of superficial lymph nodes, anemia, and fluctuating pyrexia, causing[...]a drop in animal productivity."[2]

A novel proline racemase of medical and veterinary importance has been described in T. vivax (B8LFE4).[3]

The smallest variable surface glycoprotein (40 kDa in size) to date has been found in T. vivax, which bears little carbohydrate.[4]

It also produces vivapain, a cysteine peptidase.[5]


  1. ^ Batista JS, Rodrigues CM, García HA, Bezerra FS, Olinda RG, Teixeira MM, Soto-Blanco B (2011). "Association of Trypanosoma vivax in extracellular sites with central nervous system lesions and changes in cerebrospinal fluid in experimentally infected goats". Veterinary Research. 42 (63): 1–7. PMC 3105954Freely accessible. PMID 21569364. doi:10.1186/1297-9716-42-63. 
  2. ^ Camejo, María; Spencer, Lilian; Núñez, Armando (15 December 2014). "TNF-alpha in bulls experimentally infected with Trypanosoma vivax: A pilot study". Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology. 162 (3-4): 192–197. PMID 25464824. doi:10.1016/j.vetimm.2014.10.010. Retrieved 12 February 2015. 
  3. ^ Chamond N, Cosson A, Coatnoan N, Minoprio P (June 2009). "Proline racemases are conserved mitogens: characterization of a Trypanosoma vivax proline racemase". Mol. Biochem. Parasitol. 165 (2): 170–9. PMID 19428664. doi:10.1016/j.molbiopara.2009.02.002. 
  4. ^ Characterization of a small variable surface glycoprotein from Trypanosoma vivax. Gardiner P.R., Nene V., Barry M.M., Thatthi R., Burleigh B. and Clarke M.W, Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology, 1996, volume 82, issue 1, pages 1-11, doi:10.1016/0166-6851(96)02687-4
  5. ^ Vivapain : a cysteine peptidase from Trypanosoma vivax. Vather Perina, Thesis, 2010 (link)

Further reading[edit]

Camejo, Maria; Nunez, Armando; Spencer, Lilian (December 2014). "TNF-alpha in bulls experimentally infected with Trypanosoma vivax: A pilot study". Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology. 162 (3-4): 197. PMID 25464824. doi:10.1016/j.vetimm.2014.10.010. 

External links[edit]

"Trypanosoma vivax". National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI).