Banu Fazara

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The Banu Fazāra
(Arabic: بنو فزارة)
Ghatafani Arab tribe
NisbaAl-Fazari
Descended fromFazāra ibn Dhubyān ibn Baghīd ibn Rayth ibn Ghaṭafān ibn Saʾd ibn Qays ʿAylān ibn Mudar ibn Nizar ibn Ma'add ibn Adnan
Parent tribeDhubyan (patrilineal)
Jusham (matrilineal)[1]
Branches
  • Banu Shamkh[2]
  • Banu Uday
  • Banu Mazen
  • Banu Saad
  • Banu Zalim
ReligionIslam (post 630s)

The Banu Fazara or Fazzara or Fezara or Fezzara (Arabic: بنو فزارة, romanizedBanū Fazāra) were an Arab tribe whose original homeland was Najd.

Origins of the tribe[edit]

According to Arab genealogical tradition, the progenitor of the Banu Fazara was Fazāra ibn Dhubyān ibn Baghīd ibn Rayth ibn Ghaṭafān. Thus the tribe belonged to the Dhubyan branch of the Ghatafan, making the Fazara a north Arabian tribe.[3] Its ancestral pasture grounds were in the Wadi al-Rumma region of the Najd in central Arabia.[3]

In the modern day, the Fazara section of the Sudanese Arabs are camel-nomadic Arab tribes who live in the pastures of North Kordofan. They include the Shanabla, Majaneen, Bani-Jarrar, and Bani-Dhubian.[4]

Umm Qirfa[edit]

Umm Qirfa Fatima[5] was a leader of the Banu Fazara Arab tribe from Wadi Al-Qura.[citation needed]

Ancient genealogies described Umm Qirfa as a member of the Banu Fazara.[6] She married into the Banu Badr.[6] According to Ibn Ishaq and al-Tabari, Umm Qirfa was wealthy.[6] She was described as being an old woman with high social status and wife of Malik ibn Hudhayfa ibn Badr al-Fazari.[7][6] After her thirty horsemen were defeated by Zayd ibn Haritha,[8] Muhammad ordered Qirfa[9] or her children[10] to be slaughtered "by putting a rope into her two legs and to two camels and driving them until they rent her in two..."[11] Two of her limbs were torn in to two by four camels, her severed head was later paraded all over the streets of Medina.[12][9]

Allah’s Messenger sent Zayd to Wadi Qura, where he encountered the Banu Fazarah. Some of his Companions were killed, and Zayd was carried away wounded. Ward was slain by the Banu Badr. When Zayd returned, he vowed that no washing should touch his head until he had raided the Fazarah. After he recovered, Muhammad sent him with an army against the Fazarah settlement. He met them in Qura and inflicted casualties on them and took Umm Qirfah prisoner. He also took one of Umm’s daughters and Abdallah bin Mas’adah prisoner. Ziyad bin Harithah ordered Qays to kill Umm Qirfah, and he killed her cruelly. He tied each of her legs with a rope and tied the ropes to two camels, and they split her in two.

— Al-Tabari, Michael Fishbein - The History of al-Tabari, 8 (The Victory of Islam), SUNYP, pp. 95-97, 1997

Her brothers were executed and her daughter Um Zaml described as being "prettiest girl in Arabia"[13] was captured by Salama b. Al-Akwa, who then presented her beauty to Muhammad. On this, Muhammad remarked "What girl did you take, oh Salama?" Salama responded "A girl, O messenger of God with whom i hope to ransom a woman of ours from Banu Farazara", after being asked the same question repeatedly, Salama quickly sensed that Muhammad wanted the girl for himself so he offered the girl to Muhammad, however Muhammad instead gifted the girl to Hazn b. Abu Wahb,[14] his maternal uncle, for "private use". This union bore them, Abdu'l-Rahmān b. Hazn.[15]

But the story is transmitted through weak chains of transmission.[16]

As for the first narration, which was mentioned by al-Tabari, the sequence of its chain of transmission is as follows:[16]

Muhammad bin Hamid Al-Razi Ibn Ishaq Abdullah bin Abi Bakr

There are two problems with the chain. Muhammad ibn Hamid al-Razi considered unreliable transmitter by Al-Nasa'i , Abu Ishaq al-Jawzjani, and others.[16] Also, Ibn Ishaq narrates it on the authority of Abdullah Ibn Abu Bakr, even though the time difference between them was 69 years.[16]


As for the story about the daughter of Umm Qarfa, it was mentioned by Al-Waqidi,[16] who is a liar according to Muslim hadith scholars. Al-Waqidi has been condemned as an untrustworthy narrator and has been frequently and severely criticized by scholars, thus his narrations have been abandoned by the majority of hadith scholars.[17] Yahya ibn Ma'een said: "Al-Waqidi narrated 20,000 false hadith about the prophet". Al-Shafi'i, Ahmad ibn Hanbal and Al-Albani[18]said: "Al-Waqidi is a liar" while Al-Bukhari said he didn't include a single letter by Al-Waqidi in his hadith works.


On the other hand the story goes against the Prophet Muhammad's orders to merciful killing and forbid mutilation.

Fight in the name of Allah and in the way of Allah. Fight against those who disbelieve in Allah. Fight, do not embezzle the spoils; do not break your pledge; and do not mutilate (the dead) bodies; do not kill the children.

— Sahih_Muslim, Hadith No.1731


Verily Allah has enjoined goodness to everything; so when you kill, kill in a good way and when you slaughter, slaughter in a good way. So every one of you should sharpen his knife, and let the slaughtered animal die comfortably.

— Sahih Muslim, Hadith No.1955

References[edit]

  1. ^ "بنوجشم بن معاوية بن بكر بن هوازن - ..ٌ::ٌ:: النسابون العرب ::ٌ::ٌ".
  2. ^ "ص153 - كتاب أنساب الأشراف للبلاذري - نسب بني فزارة بن ذبيان - المكتبة الشاملة الحديثة".
  3. ^ a b Watt 1991, p. 873.
  4. ^ MacMichael, Harold (1922). A History of the Arabs in the Sudan And Some Account of the People who Preceded them and of the Tribes Inhabiting Dárfūr. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9780511696947.
  5. ^ Smith, Margaret (30 July 2001). Muslim Women Mystics: The Life and Work of Rabi'a and Other Women Mystics in Islam. Oneworld Publications. p. 151. ISBN 9781851682508.
  6. ^ a b c d De Premare 1994, p. 23.
  7. ^ Ibn 'Abd Rabbih (2012). The Unique Necklace, Volume 3. trans. Issa J. Boullata. UWA Publishing. p. 6. ISBN 9781859642405.
  8. ^ Mubarkpuri, Safi-ur-Rahman (5 August 2002). The Sealed Nectar (Biography of the Prophet). Darussalam Publications. p. 152. ISBN 9781591440710.
  9. ^ a b Ibn Isḥāq, Muḥammad; Guillaume, Alfred (5 August 1978). The life of Muhammad: translation of Ishaq's Sirat Rasul Allah. Oxford University Press. p. 664-665. OCLC 29863176.
  10. ^ Guillaume, Alfred (February 1956). "A Note on the Sīra of Ibn Isḥāq". Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies. 18 (1): 4. doi:10.1017/S0041977X00122165. ISSN 0041-977X. S2CID 171938473.
  11. ^ The History of Al-Tabari: the Victory of Islam. Translated by Michael Fishbein. SUNYP. 1997. pp. 95–97.
  12. ^ Al-Jamal, Khalkl Abd al-Karim Manshurat. Al-Nass Al-Muasas wa Mujtamauhu. p. 174.
  13. ^ "SAHIH MUSLIM, BOOK 19: The Book of Jihad And Expedition (Kitab Al-Jihad Wal-Siyar)". www.iium.edu.my.
  14. ^ Faizer, Rizwi (2013). The Life of Muhammad: Al-Waqidi's Kitab al-Maghazi. Routledge. ISBN 9781136921131.
  15. ^ Phillips, Rodney J. (1 January 2009). The Muslim Empire and the Land of Gold. Strategic Book Publishing. p. 287. ISBN 9781606932896.
  16. ^ a b c d e www.ebnmaryam.com Archived October 23, 2020, at the Wayback Machine
  17. ^ Ibn Hisham, 'Abd al-Malik (1995). Al-Sayyid, Majdi Fathi (ed.). Ṣaḥīḥ Sīrah al-Nabawīyah صحيح السيرة النبوية (in Arabic). Vol. 4. Dār al-Ṣaḥābah lil-Turāth. pp. 335–336.
  18. ^ Al-Albani, Nasir al-Din. "Hadith#6013". Silsilat al-aḥādīth al-ḍaʻīfah wa-al-mawḍūʻah سلسلة الأحاديث الضعيفة والموضوعة (in Arabic). Vol. 33. p. 13.

Bibliography[edit]