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August Fiedler
William August Fiedler.jpg
Born (1842-06-12)June 12, 1842
Elbing, Germany
Died April 22, 1903(1903-04-22) (aged 60)
Chicago, IL U.S.
Nationality American
Occupation Architect
Buildings


Projects Presented by A. Fiedler & Co., Designers and Manufacturers of Artistic Furniture. 1877

Background[edit]

August Fiedler (full name William August Fiedler) was an architect and interior designer and manufacturer based in Chicago, IL. He was born in Elbin, Germany and came to the United States in 1869 aboard the German sailing vessel Teutonia [2], locating briefly in New York City and working there as an architect [3] before settling in Chicago in 1874 to take advantage of the rebuilding of that city after the Great Chicago Fire of 1871. He was naturalized as an American citizen on October 16, 1888. He was a member of [4] is known to have served as a judge for competitions of the Chicago Architectural Club[5]. In the second half of the 1880's and during the early 1890s Fiedler operated his practice out of the Metropolitan Block at the northwest corner of LaSalle Street and Randolph Street (now the site of the State of Illinois Building).

Career[edit]

Advertisement for A. Fiedler & Co., 1877[6]

Fiedler's arrival in Chicago coincided with a major migration from Germany that had been underway since the middle of the ninteenth century because of adverse economic and political conditions [7] in the German Confederation. The 1870 census showed that half of the population of Chicago at that time was foreign born, and that one in six residents specifically was a native of Germany[8]. Many of Fiedler's clients were among the more prosperous of this German immigration. For example Fridolin Madlener, for whom Fiedler designed a residence in 1890, came to Chicago from Baden, Germany in 1858[9], and his wife Margaretha was the granddaughter of the Wisconsin brewer Valentine Blatz, who had arrived from Miltenberg, Bavaria to established his business in Milwaukee in 1851[10]. Although Fiedler, especially in his early years, designed largely for this German immigrant population, he was evidently satisfied with his life in the United States, as he once expressed in an interview:

"This has been a very good country for me, and as far as my observation has gone, has been a very good country for the great majority of Germans who have emigrated here, especially for skilled mechanics...This is a good country for Germans to come to."[11]

Fiedler's initial efforts in Chicago were devoted to interior decoration, an art that was in its nascent stages in the United States, although it was already a more developed profession in Europe at the time thru the efforts of Richard Norman Shaw, William Morris and others. The noted architect Stanford White had also began his career as an interior designer in New York offices of Gambrill and Richardson under the direction of Charles Follen McKim[12]. Fiedler's involvement at this point included the manufacture of high-end woodwork and furniture, first in partnership with John W. Roberts, (their premesis were located at 26 (now 59-61) Van Buren St.[13], and later as the owner of A. Fiedler and Company. It was in these early days that he designed the interiors of the Hegeler Carus Mansion (William W. Boyington,1874–1876) in LaSalle, Illinois[14], and with the reputation created by the high quality of the output of this firm after it went bankrupt some of the woodwork and some of the other decoration for the Samuel Nickerson House (1879–1883) on Erie Street in Chicago [15] (now the Driehaus Museum). He became the first chief architect for the Board of Education for the city of Chicago upon the creation of the building department for that organization on January 18, 1893[16]) with a starting salary of $6,000/year,[17] where he remained until 1896, when his departure was precipitated by a disagreement with the board. Here he designed and/or supervised the construction of fifty-eight school buildings,[18]. The department operated out of offices in Adler and Sullivan's Schiller (later Garrick Theater) Building[19] (1891, demolished 1961). During his time with the board of education, Fiedler became the first professional employer of the noted architect Robert Seyfarth[20].
August Fiedler was also responsible for the design and construction of three exhibits of the Midway Plaisance of the Worlds Columbian Exposition: The Moorish Palace, the building for the Captive Balloon, and thirty-six structures located in the German Village exhibit[21])[22]. He became a member of the American Institute of Architects at their twenty-first convention in 1887, which was held in the rooms of the Chicago Literary Club at the new building built by the Art Institute of Chicago on Michigan Avenue. Joining at the same time among others were William Holabird, Joseph Lyman Silsbee, David Adler, William LaBaron Jenney, William A. Otis, and his partner John Addison[23]. There was an attempt made in 1892 to have Fiedler become Architect of the Cook County Board, but that opportunity disappeared when he lost the assignment to Julius B. Speyer (1845-1916) [24].

Interior decoration and manufacturer[edit]

"The exhibitions of interior decorations and furniture by Messrs. Roberts, Fiedler & Co., of this city, manufacturers of hardwood work, displays a superiority in design and manufacture rarely seen. They show us at once how to adapt different styles of modern want and taste, avoiding the extremes of the French Rococo and the stiffness of Eastlake. Their sketches evince the highest order of skill in design."
— The Chicago Daily Tribune." commenting on Roberts, Fiedler & Co.'s submissions to the Interstate Industrial Exposition of 1875[25].

A sideboard by A. Fiedler & Co. which appeared at the Interstate Industrial Exposition in 1876 and in an article of The Art Journal for 1876 commemorating the event, p.18
"Household decoration, an art which has made brave progress in this country during the past few years, and which had done noble work in furthering true home refinement, has one particularly interesting exponent at our Exhibition. This is the display made just south of the main enterence by Messrs. A. Fiedler & Co.

"The goods of this firm are models in all that pertains to admirable home-furnishing. In purity and originality of design, exquisite grace and perfect construction, and through beauty and harmony of finish, they are superb evidences of what true art may accomplish, of what it may place within the reach of all.
"To the writer of this, who has always taken a special interest in furniture and household decorations, and who has recently returned from the Exhibition at Philadelphia, it was a matter of surprise to find an exhibit here, of home manufacture, that equals the best exhibited there, and it is but justice to call public attention to the fact that Chicago has a firm capable of producing work of this nature, unsurpassed anywhere.
"All this business of furnishing residences in accordance with the higher principles of art, particularly from original designs in each instance, has hitherto been claimed and held by New York houses. It is gratifying to know that by the establishment of such an order of industry to our city, Chicago has become independent of the East, and it is now wholly unnecessary to look elsewhere for the realization of correct aspirations in the grand matter of household art. It is also gratifying to know it does not require the purse of a millionaire in order to summon the services of this firm. The true artist can produce noble effects at a reasonable cost.
"We have thus within our borders a firm whose genius is acknowledged at home and abroad, and whose interior decorative work and classical furniture are accepted as standard in this and other cities[26]"

—The Chicago Daily Tribune." commenting on Fiedler's submissions to the Interstate Industrial Exposition of 1876. Beginning in 1873 the exhibition had been held annually at the Interstate Industrial Exposition building (William W. Boyington, 1873), which stood on the site where The Art Institute of Chicago stands today. It was built with “private capital, contributed by business men interested in the progress of the city … to impress upon the public the real progress that is [being made by] the arts, sciences, manufactures and industries of the country”[27], and to “…provide the foundation and the means for formalizing Chicago’s cultural efforts into a unified program intended to expand the city’s cultural influence beyond regional borders[28].”

Fiedler arrived in Chicago in the early part of 1874 and a year later, after a brief partnership in which he produced furniture with Roberts, formed A. Fiedler and Co., where he manufactured custom furniture and woodwork of the "highest quality"[29] and provided interior design services that would help to create the interiors of some of Chicago's most prominent homes and businesses. Although the company specialized in the design and creation of "Modern Gothic" furniture, unlike many in his profession Fiedler advocated the use of different styles in the decoration of a building's various rooms "in order to avoid...monotonous effect"[30]. He also went so far as to suggest that the design of the woodwork be done in conjuction with the selection of the furniture so that the two could be made to compliment each other. In 1876, he submitted a sideboard to the Household Art exhibition which was selected as one of the five pieces that The Art Journal chose to feature in an article the publication wrote about the event. Coincincidently a library chair designed by his future partner John Addison (and executed by the noted furniture maker Issac E. Scott) was also displayed at the exhibition and was also featured in the Art Journal article. The exhibition had been mounted by the Art Committee of the Interstate Industrial Exposition (whose members included William LaBaron Jenney and Peter B. Wight) to celebrate the talent of local designers and manufacturers and noted that, except for a few decorative touches, "...Everything contained in the exhibition was of original design and manufactured in Chicago"[31] In that same year a dining room set and mantlepiece of Fiedler's design and manufacture appeared at the exposition which American Cabinetmaker magazine refered to as "equal to anything we have seen in Chicago" [32]. Fiedler also built built custom furniture on a small scale that was designed by others. "With discrimination and judgement, it need cost no more to make your house beautiful than it has cost to make it ugly."[33] Isaac E. Scott : reform furniture in Chicago: John Jacob Glessner House

Samuel M. Nickerson (1830-1914) came to Chicago with his wife Matilda Crosby in 1858, when he started a distilling business that was only moderately successful until he received a contract during the Civil War to produce alchohol for the production of gunpowder for the Union Army. [35]

Bankruptcy notice, Chicago Daily Tribune, November 18, 1876

Fiedler was driven to bankruptcy in 1877, according to one observer,"...by giving rich people better work than they will pay for."[36]. In 1884 George Fromm, who had worked as a wood carver for him, went into business with the Berlin and Paris-trained cabinetmaker Nicholas Kies designing everything from woodcarving details to entire buildings worth of furniture for others to manufacture.181

Architect[edit]

Fiedler was a member of the American Institute of Architects.[37]

Period postcard showing the townhouses (fifth building from the right) that Addison and Fiedler designed for William Manson at 3231-35 Vernon Avenue in 1886 (demolished - see below)[38].

Chicago[edit]

John Addison had come to Chicago for James Renwick, Jr. (1818-1895) to supervise the construction of New York architect's Second Presbyterian Church (1874, extant) at 1936 S. Michigan Ave[39]. Fiedler's partnership with Addison lasted until September of 1888[40].

The Hagaman Store building (third building from the left) as it appeared in 1893 during the World's Columbian Exposition. The tenant at the time was the J.B. Scholl Theatrical Photographer studio[41]. Although the federal government has purchased the building to expand the Chicago Federal Center, the building still stands[42], although extensively remodeled such that in 2004 it suffered the ignominy of being named one of the ugliest buildings in the Loop by the Chicago Tribune[43]. This appellative apparently did not apply to a 1951 renovation of the first floor facade and shop (by architect Isadore E. Alexander for Martin Jewelers), which the Tribune described at that time as featuring an "...elegantly curving glass display window along the sidewalk, echoed inside by softly curving wood paneling"[44].


The author and historian David Garrard Lowe considered Henrici's to be one among the places that "...had given the city it's special personality...". He had this to say about their destruction: "They were an incomparable heritage mindlessly squandered, pieces of gold minted by the fathers and thrown away by the sons."[45]

World's Columbian Exposition[edit]

[46]


MOORISH PALACE This is pronounced on all hands the most interesting exhibit on the Plaisance, partly because of the beauty of its architecture, and of the exhibition which it contains. The building, strange to say, was designed by August Fiedler, a Chicago architect. Among the exhibits is a palm garden with its contiguous labyrinth copied from the famous Alhambra at Granada. The splendid appointments, elaborate decorations, and fine groups in wax, which pictures the palace as it stood in the days of its Arabian owners, realize the pen pictures of Washington Irving. As the visitor steps into the palm garden, he finds himself in what appears to be a boundless space. Far as the eye can reach, the ingeniously arranged mirrors create the illusion of endless rows of stately palms, casting their shade over hundreds of lifelike figures in the gaudy costumes of the lords of he desert. There are so many attractive and enchanting things to be seen here that I must forego the pleasure of describing them.

The building was designed by August Fiedler, a Chicago Architect. It is a beautiful reproduction of Moorish architecture. The palm garden with its continuous labyrinth, copied from the famous Alhambra at Granada, is one of the leading attractions, but the splendid appointments, elaborate decorations, and fine groups in wax which picture the palace as it stood in the days of the Arabian owners recall to the visitor vividly the pen pictures of Washington Irving. As the visitor steps into the palm garden he finds himself in what appears to be a boundless space. Far as the eye can reach the ingeniously arranged mirrors create the illusion of endless rows of stately palms, casting their shade over hundreds of life-like figures in the gaudy costumes of the lords of the desert. Groups of men and women, talking, lounging or amusing themselves, each group multiplied again and again in the perspective of mirrors, are seen on every side. Tiring of this he finds his way out by the aid of a guide. The transition is into a fairyland filled with startling surprises. The first thing which impresses the observer within the palace are the elaborate decorations. He is in a maze of Alabaster-like columns, stretching away in long vistas. The columns are covered with curious hieroglyphics and support a dome and arched ceiling reflecting from its mother of pearl a softly radiant light. Standing on the tiled floor of mosaics, the visitor may cast his eves upward, and admire the delicate filigree in gold, purple and silver, sweeping in flowing lines, here and there gracefully crossing and forming an intricate net-work of beautiful curves. From the arch depend pretty little stalactites, in gilt, producing a very pleasant effect on the pearly back-ground. Stepping on through the mystic passages, the visitor suddenly catches a glimpse of landscape through what appears to be an oval window. It is really the effect of the omnipresent mirror and the charming stretch of beach and deceptive foam-capped waves is but the reflection from a concealed painting. Turning about, another window on the other side of the palace exposes to view a ravine-cleft mountain, with leaping cascades. Another step, and the holy of holies appears — a realistic group in the innermost recesses of the harem, a shiek surrounded by his favorites. The central figure is the brawny chieftain himself, for the moment at luxurious ease. For his amusement an odalisque is tripping through a dance. The favorite wife, a beauty with pink cheeks, plump arms and long dark tresses, has fallen asleep, with her head resting on her lord's knee. The figures are of wax, of course, but are very realistic. You meet with a life-like black eunich, who is supposed to guard the way to the harem."[47]. GERMAN VILLAGE. Extraordinary space was given to this concession, and it is deserving of all the room it occupies. Inside is represented not only the Germany of the feudal times, with its walled city and baronial castles, but the Germany of to-day, with all its progress, force and enlightenment. Here, one may traverse a district made to represent a German Village, with all of its accessories, including the ancient castle, the beer hall and the cross roads dancing pavilion. The representation of scenes in Germany is perfect. German peasants from the Black For- est, as well as from the more progressive districts in the Empire are present to wait on you. Amusements of all kinds are going on inside in a pleasant German fashion. There is good music, abundance of beer, and refreshments of every description to be had here.[48]

School Board architect[edit]

Eugene Field Elementary School (1896), 7019 N Ashland Ave Chicago, IL. The relative simplicity of the design of this school compared to Fiedler's other buildings of the type makes this a highly unusual example of his work. It bears comparing with the townhouses that Frank Lloyd Wright built for Robert Roloson at 3213-19 S. Calumet Ave in Chicago in 1894.

The history of education in Chicago is a long and storied one that precedes the incorporation of the city by many years. The city’s first school was established in 1816 by John Kinzie[49] (1763-1828), a fur trader and the settlement’s first justice of the peace, who employed a teacher to serve his children and those of other settlers in the nascent community. Kinzie had many years earlier purchased the cabin which had been built at some time previous to 1790 by Jean Baptiste DuSable (c.1745-1818) at the mouth of the Chicago River, where in doing so DuSable had become the first long-term non-Native American settler in the area that would eventually become Chicago[50].

Detail from the original West Pullman School building.

The city’s first taxpayer supported public school building was a frame building constructed in 1844 which served a student body which by that time had reached 915[51]. By the second half of the 19th Century Chicago was building schoolhouses at a frantic pace in a desperate attempt to keep up with the explosive growth of the city, where existing schools were dealing with serious overcrowding (it was reported that, in the primary schools, one teacher might be called upon to serve a class of 300 students). By 1856 it was estimated that the city had 17,000 children between the ages of five and fifteen, "regarded as the limits of the school age", of which 8,306 were students in the public school system. By that year the school system consisted of eight frame buildings and had erected its first three "first class" schoolhouses in an area that today would be considered close to the city center. These new buildings (the first, a "primary" school by Francis Foster, the second a "grammar" school by John M. Van Osdel (1811-1891) and Frederick Baumann (1826-1921) and the third being the first high school building for both sexes by J.C. Doyle) were all brick and stone buildings that were considered modern and, it was hoped, would help to ameliorate overcrowded conditions.
The design of school buildings continued to be the responsibility of architects and others from the general population until 1893, when August Fiedler became the first Chief Architect for the Board of Education of the city of Chicago upon the creation of the building department by board action on January 18 of that year. For his services he was paid a beginning salary of $6,000 per year[52]. By then the student body had swelled to an estimated 170,000[53], and the system had yet to effectively deal with the issue of overcrowding. As an example, consider that the West Pullman School (which was designed by Fiedler and constructed in 1894) had by 1896 a student body of 557 in its eight classrooms and two rented rooms outside of the facility[54].

The output of the Fiedler office was prodigious, especially considering that each structure that came from his office was unique. "Before his time, all the school buildings were built practically on one plan, and the designs, plans and specifications for one answered for a dozen others. But owing to the requirements of a growing public taste he was compelled to design each building in conformity with its environment."[55]

Fiedler's style[edit]

Despite the fact that Fiedler produced astonishing diversity in the designs he provided for the dozens of school buildings that were constructed during his four years of service, the stylistic elements that defined his work were remarkably consistant from building to building. His unique interpretation of the prevailing Richardsonian Romanesque[56] tended to give his buildings an identifiable quality. particularly in his use of round-topped windows in series in the form of an arcade, usually on the uppermost floor. First of all his exteriors were not finished overall with the rock-faced rusticated stone that was a common feature of the best examples of that style of work. Instead, the first floor of classrooms usually sat on a raised basement that was covered with this stone, but the upper floors were universally finished with pressed brick. And while Richardsonian Romanesque tended to eschew elaborate exterior decoration in order to concentrate on the building's surface finishes and geometry, Fiedler lavished many of his buildings with it.
It is conceivable that the need to create singular structures for each project percipitated Fiedler's departure from the school board. In the spring of 1896 the expenses for his department were audited, and during this process it was discovered that the cost of the design and superintendence of his buildings had jumped 61% during his tenure, largely due to extenuating circumstances that weren't a consideration when when designs came from outside. The analysis suggested that the chief problem was a direct relationship to the many people that it became necessary to hire in order to accommodate the burgeoning workload (although at least one board member indicated that "...the committee will not hesitate to pursue its inquiries into the province of morals if necessary."[57]) Beginning with a staff of two superintendents and two draftsmen at the time he was appointed in 1893, the workload in Fiedler’s office grew such that in the nearly four years to include thirteen draftsmen and six superintendents. Although Fiedler was exonerated by the findings of the investigation, he resigned his position on December 2, 1896[58] and returned to private practice with his reputation intact.
The board must have been a challenge to work with, and American Architect and Building News watched with interest the line of succession in the School Board Architect's office: "It is a very hopeful sign of not entire corruption in matters politic that so excellent a man as Normand S. Patton has been elected architect to the Board of Education. When the trouble arose between Mr. August Fiedler and the Board is was feared it was simply an attempt to get rid of an honest man who knew his business, but the election of a man of such established reputation as Mr. Patton makes one hope that good work on school buildings will not be a thing of the past[59]. The magazine's optomism was dashed quickly, however, as Patton lasted less than two years[60]. He was summarily fired when he was accused and found guilty of "disobedience of orders and impugning the honesty of one of the committeemen, and violation of discipline."[61] Circumstances were such that when Patton was replaced by William Bryce Mundie (1863-1939) the board declared that "every employe (sic) of the architect's office [was] at once required to send to the board his resignation.", at which point it was up to Mundie to decide who should be allowed to stay[62]. Mundie continued his service to the board until 1905[63]. The post at that time was filled by Dwight Perkins (1867-1941), whose masterpiece Carl Schurz High School was finished by the time of his departure in 1910[64]. True to form, both of these architects also departed under tempestuous circumstances, and The Western Architect took a dim view of the way in which the school board treated its professional staff when it stated the following in a commentary that appeared in March of 1910: “It will be hard after the experience of the past incumbents of the office of the School Architect to obtain an architect of equal talent and equal probity. The "cold-blooded corporate lines" under which the president proposes to "run" the school board smacks of political subsidies. It certainly guarantees, if carried out in principal, the dead level of mediocrity in future school design in Chicago”[65].

Postcard images of Chicago public school buildings by August Fiedler
Avondale Elementary School
Goethe Elementary School
McCosh Elementary School
John Marshall High School
West Pullman School - 1893 with $50,000 twelve room addition[66] designed by Fiedler and supervised by William Bryce Mundie (1899) behind.


Fiedler's Chicago Public School Buildings[edit]

Date School Name Address Comments
1893 James McCosh School (Now Emmet Till Academy) 6543 S. Champlain
1893 Wicker Park School addition (after 1985 A.N. Pritzker School[67]) 153 (now 2034) Evergreen
1893 Carter Elementary School (now Betsy Ross Elementary School)[69] 6059 S. Wabash Ave.
1893 Avondale School 2945 N. Sawyer
1893 William H. Seward Elementary School (now William H. Seward Communication Arts Academy) 4600 S. Page (now 4600 S. Hermitage)
1893 Yale School 7010 S. Yale Ave.
1893 Avalon Park Elementary School 8045 S. Nutt (now Kenwood)
1894 John Marshall High School[70] 3250 W. Adams
1894 Elihu Washburne Public School 226 (later 655) W. 14th St.
1894 Linne School (now Carl Von Linné Elementary School) 1874 (now 3221) N. Sacramento
1894 West Pullman School 11951 S. Clinton St. (now 11941 S Parnell Ave.)
1895 Nathaniel Greene Elementary School[71] (now Evergreen Academy) 3537 S. Paulina (replacement building at 3525 S. Honore)
1895 David String Elementary School 36 S. String St. (now 1715 S. DesPlaines St.)
1895 Von Humboldt Elementary School[72] 2620 W. Hirsch
1895 Goethe Elementary School [73] 2240 N. Rockwell
1896 Cameron Elementary School[74] 1234 N. N. Monticello
1896 Benjamin Franklin School[75] Goethe between Sedgewick and Wells St.
1896 Henry Nash School[77] 4837 W. Erie St.
1896 John M. Smyth School (now Smyth Magnet School)[78] 1059 W 13th St.
1896 Rogers Park Elementary School (Now Eugene Fields Elementary School)[79] 7019 N. Ashland
1896 Richard Yates Elementary School[80] 1839 N. Richmond St.
1896 McClellan School - south addition[81]. 3505 S. Wallace Ave
1896 J.N. Thorp School - 12 room addition[82] S.W. corner 89th and Superior (now Buffalo) Ave.


Historic Landmarks[edit]

Although the traditional nature of his work will likely preclude the placement of Fiedler’s name among the pantheon of Chicago’s great nineteenth century architects, his work was nonetheless highly regarded in his time and continues to be so today. He was once considered for the position of county board architect (but lost to). Several of his buildings have been distinguished over the years by having become local landmarks, and at least four are listed on the National Register of Historic Places.

Images of the Hegler-Carus Mansion, LaSalle, IL by the Historic American Buildings Survey
The north facade
Mullion detail in the 1st floor salon
The fireplace in the dining room
The dining room sideboard
The main staircase
1886 images of the interior of the Samuel M. Nickerson house
The dining room looking north
Attribution of the dining room as it appeared in American Architect and Building News, July 17, 1886
Mr. Nickerson's bedroom
The reception room
Inland Architect claimed the house “reached a standard of excellence never before attained in Chicago.”[83]

The best known of Fiedler's work is probably Germania Hall on Clark Street on Chicago's north side, of which he was a member.[85]



Not all of Fiedler's work was done in the Chicago area after he arrived there in the early 1870's. Not surprisingly, with its large German population at the time, at least two clients from Milwaukee, Wisconsin provided him with projects in the mid 1880's, although it remains to be discovered how the connection was made between him and that city[87] [88]
.

George Peckham Miller house[edit]


Selected projects[edit]

Project Image Year Address Municipality Comments
1 Interiors for the Hegeler Carus Mansion Hegeler Carus 2 August Fiedler interiors.jpg 1874 - 1876 1307 7th Street LaSalle, Illinois
2 Bookcase for John Jacob Glessner, designed by and with carving by Isaac Scott[89] Scott-Fiedler bookcase.jpg 1876 Purchased for the Glessner`s residence at 261 (today c.952) W. Washington Blvd. and moved to 1800 S. Prairie Avenue in 1886. Chicago, IL
  • - Likely the bookcase pictured left, extant
  • - cost $70
3 Interiors for Marshall Field 1877 1905 S. Prairie Avenue Chicago, IL
  • - Demolished 1950
4 Two story residence for Dr. T.J. Bluthardt[90] 1883 453 (now 1239) N. LaSalle Ave Chicago, IL
  • - Demolished
  • - cost $12,000
5 Interiors for the Samuel M. Nickerson house[91], now the Driehaus Museum Nickerson Dining Room1.jpg 1883 40 East Erie Street Chicago, IL
6 Interiors for Joseph Medill 1884 101 N. Cass Ave (now 639 N. Wabash) Chicago, IL
  • - Demolished
7 Exterior decoration for T.A.Chapman's department store[92] Photograph of T.A. Chapman's Department Store, c. 1885, Milwaukee, showing exterior decoration by August Fiedler of Chicago and John Trischka of Schastey & Co., New York 1885 Southeast corner, Wisconsin and Milwaukee Streets Milwaukee, WI
  • - With John Trischka of George A. Schastey & Co., New York
  • - Demolished
8 Renovations for the residence of John H. McAvoy[93] Home of John H. McAvoy (1885 woodcut).jpg 1885 2331 S. Calumet Ave.[94] Chicago, IL
  • - With John Addison
  • - Demolished
9 Three story dwelling for J.W. Rush[95] 1885 26-28 (now 5-7) W. Delaware Pl. Chicago, IL
  • - With John Addison
  • - Demolished
  • - cost, $12,000
10 The Hagaman Store building[96]. Hagaman Store.jpg 1885 210 (now 214) State Street Chicago, IL
  • - With John Addison
  • - Extant, but remodeled beyond recognition
11 Townhouses for William Manson William Manson.JPG 1886 3231-35 S. Vernon Ave. Chicago, IL
  • - With John Addison
  • - Demolished
12 Two story residence with attic for Henry Biroth[97] Henry Biroth Residence.jpg 1887 130 (now 2601) W. Vermont St. Blue Island, IL
  • - cost $6,000
  • - renovated by Robert Seyfarth, 1912
13 Residence for George Peckham Miller George Peckham Miller House HABS HABS WIS,40-MILWA,38--2.png 1887 1060 East Juneau Ave Milwaukee, WI
  • - Extant
  • - Cost, $16,000
14 Three story buff Bedford stone front addition with basement for Mrs. Anna B. Peck[98] Anna B Peck Residence.jpg 1888 2446 S. Michigan Avenue Chicago, IL
  • - With John Addison
  • - Demolished
  • - Cost, $20,000
15 Germania Hall Germania Club.JPG 1888 -1889 108 W. Germania Place Chicago, IL
  • - Extant
  • - Cost, $100,000
  • - National Register of Historic Places
  • - City of Chicago Landmark
16 Residence for J.S. Newmiester 2718 Pine Grove Court.JPG 1890 19 Sidney Ave. (now 2718 Pine Grove Court)[99] Chicago, IL
  • - Extant
  • - Cost, $12,000
17 Residence for Stella and Harry A. Massey[100] Massey House Blue Island August Fiedler.png 1890 470 (now 12800) S. Maple Avenue Blue Island, IL
  • - extant
18 Residence for Samuel A. Field 1890 303 Martin (now East State) St., moved in 1926 to 3432 North Lake Shore Drive Milwaukee, WI
  • - extant but modified
  • - Cost, $25,000
19 Residence for August Fiedler[101][102] August Fiedler house.jpg 1890 463 (now 1251) N. LaSalle St. Chicago, IL
  • - Demolished
20 Two (now three) story factory building - A. Salomon[103] for Planett Manufacturing Co., after 1903[104] Salter & Bilek Manufacturing[105] 104-108 N. Oakley.jpg 1891 104-108 (now 339-343) N. Oakley Chicago, IL
  • - extant
  • - Cost $10,000
  • - with later additions
21 Two story and basement flat residence for Fridolin Madlener[106] 1891 17 Lake View [107] (now 2416 Lakeview) Chicago, IL
  • - Demolished
  • - Cost, $16,000
22 Three story residence for Andrew E. Leicht[108] Andrew Leicht mansion.JPG 1891 Fullerton near north Clark Street (building address 5 Lake View now 2400 Lakeview) Chicago, IL
  • - Demolished, 1963 and replaced by 2400 N. Lakeview Condos by Mies Van Der Rohe[109]
  • - Cost, $40,000
23 Residence for Richard Lotholz[110] 1891 Fullerton Avenue and Lakeview Boulevard Chicago, IL
  • - (current status unknown)
  • - cost $28,000[111]
24 Two story residence with attic and basement for Jacob Rehm[112][113] 1547 N Dearborn.jpg 1892 619 (now 1547) N. Dearborn Ave. Chicago, IL
  • - Extant
  • - Cost, $85,000 (1896 purchase price by William C. Seipp[114])
25 Silver King Hotel [115][116] 1892 5100 S. Drexel Boulevard[117] Chicago, IL
  • - demolished
26 Fire Department Truck House No. 28 1623 N. Damen Ave..jpg 1893 778 N. Robey St. (now 1623 N. Damen Ave.)[118] Chicago, IL
  • - Extant, remodeled into shops
27 The Moorish Palace Moorish Palace Facade.JPG 1893 The World's Columbian Exposition[119] Chicago, IL
  • - Demolished
28 The German Pavilion 150px 1893 The World's Columbian Exposition[120] Chicago, IL
  • - Designed by Johannes Radtke & Karl Hoffacker of Berlin
  • - Construction supervised by August Fiedler[121]
  • - Cost $125,000
  • - Demolished
29 The German Village[122] German village detail, August Fiedler Architect.jpg 1893 The World's Columbian Exposition Chicago, IL
  • - Demolished
30 Building for the Captive Balloon Captive Balloon.JPG 1893 The World's Columbian Exposition Chicago, IL
  • - Demolished
31 Interiors for Henrici's Restaurant[123] Henrici's c1920.JPG 1894 71 W. Randolph St., Chicago, IL
  • - Demolished 1962
32 34th Precinct police station[124] 1894 639 (later 2256) W. North Avenue Chicago, IL
  • - Cost $13,000
  • - Demolished
33 Residence for Frederick and Marie Koenecke[125] Koenecke House.jpg 1895 304 (now 13032 S.) Greenwood Avenue Blue Island, IL
  • - extant
  • - first floor veneered in limestone by grandson of the builder in 1941

http://blog.chicagoarchitecture.info/tag/clark-street/

References[edit]

  1. ^ [1] The Driehaus Museum - Explore the house - The Gallery. Accessed 07/05/2010
  2. ^ Cooney Frelinghuysen, Alice, and Nicholas C. Vincent with Moira Gallagher (2016). "Artistic Furniture of the Gilded Age". The Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin, Winter 2016. LXXIII no. 3: 47. 
  3. ^ . New York: The Trow City Directory Co. 1872. p. 362.  Text "Trow's New York City Directory, vol. 85, for the year ending May 1st, 1872" ignored (help); |first1= missing |last1= in Authors list (help); Missing or empty |title= (help)
  4. ^ Vanderpoel, John H., president (1895). Catalogue Eight Annual Exhibition - Chicago Architectural Club. Chicago: The Art Institute of Chicago. pp. (not paginated). 
  5. ^ Wight, P.B. (1895). "Annual Exhibition of the Chicago Architectural Club". The Inland Architect and News Record. 35 no. 5: 47.  Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)
  6. ^ E. Stevens Tilton Co. (1877). Parker & Tilton Hat Establishment Wholesale & Retail Spring & Summer Exhibition of Fashion - 177 State Street, Palmer House, Chicago: (not paginated).  Missing or empty |title= (help)
  7. ^ Sperber, Jonathan (2005). The European Revolutions, 1848-1851. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 68–69 et al. ISBN 0-521-83907-6. 
  8. ^ Protess, David L. (1995). The Mayors - The Chicago Political Tradition. Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press. p. 22. ISBN 0809326124.  Unknown parameter |coauthors= ignored (|author= suggested) (help)
  9. ^ Drury, John (1941). Old Chicago Houses. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press. pp. 185–186. ISBN 0226165523. 
  10. ^ Milwaukee - A Half-Century's Progress - 1846-1896 - A Review of the Cream City's Wonderful Growth and Development from Incorporation to the Present Time - A Souvenier of her Golden Anniversary. Milwaukee: Consolidated Illustrating Co. 1896. p. 222. 
  11. ^ "Reasons not all given - Truth only half told in a Berlin cable on emigration". The Chicago Daily Tribune. 49: 7. 1896.  Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)
  12. ^ Broderick, Mosette (2010). Triumvirate - McKim, Mead & White - Art, Architecture, Scandal and Class in America's Gilded Age. New York: Alfred A. Knopf. p. 68. ISBN 978-0-394-53662-0. 
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  17. ^ "Gut Gemacht, Schule-Rat!". Illinois Staats-Zeitung: 1. 1893.  Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)
  18. ^ Brown, Glenn (1904). Proceedings of the Thirty-Seventh Annual Convention of the American Institute of Architects. Washington: Gibson Brothers. p. 211. 
  19. ^ "School Building Notes". The School Journal. LI: 401. 1895.  Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)
  20. ^ Proceedings of the Board of Education of the City of Chicago - July 17, 1895, to July 1, 1896. Chicago: Press of John F. Higgins. July 17, 1896. p. 302. 
  21. ^ Bancroft, Hubert H. (1893). The Book of the Fair, Volume II. Chicago: The Bancroft Company. pp. 857, 858. 
  22. ^ Johnson, Rossiter (1897). A History of the World's Columbian Exposition. New York: D. Appleton and Company. pp. 172–176. 
  23. ^ "American Institute of Architects". The American Architect and Building News. XXII no. 618: 205. 1887.  Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)
  24. ^ Wulff, Henry - County Clerk, Clerk of County Court and Clerk of Board of Commissioners (1893). Official Proceedings of the Board of Commissioners of Cook County, Illinois for the year 1892-1893 Beginning from December 5, 1892 to December 2, 1893, inclusive. Chicago: J.M.W. Jones Stationary and Printing Co. p. 492. 
  25. ^ "THE EXPOSITION, Increased Attendance – Premium Features – The Art Gallery – INTERIOR DECORATIONS". The Chicago Daily Tribune: 12. 1875.  Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)
  26. ^ "Exposition Gossip". The Chicago Daily Tribune: 5. 1876.  Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)
  27. ^ "THE CHICAGO EXPOSITION". The Chicago Daily Tribune: 4. 1873.  Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)
  28. ^ Jensen, Kirsten M. (2007). The American Salon: The Art Gallery at the Chicago Interstate Industrial Exposition, 1873-1890. New York, London: ProQuest Information and Learning Company. p. 2. ISBN UMI no. 3283151 Check |isbn= value: invalid character (help). 
  29. ^ Darling, Sharon (1894). Chicago Furniture - Art, Craft, & Industry, 1833-1933. New York, London: The Chicago Historical Society in association with W.W. Norton & Company. p. 169. ISBN 0-393-01818-0. 
  30. ^ Presented by A. Fiedler & Co. 1876. p. iii. 
  31. ^ The Art Journal. 2: 18–19. 1876.  Missing or empty |title= (help)
  32. ^ The American Cabinetmaker. 2: 2. 1876.  Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help); Missing or empty |title= (help)
  33. ^ A. Fiedler & Co. (1877). Presented by A. Fiedler & Co., Designers and Manufacturers of Artistic Furniture, Upholstered Goods, Hardwood Fittings, Draperies and Interior Decoration. Chicago: C.H. Blakely & Co. p. 25. 
  34. ^ Lowe, David (1975). Lost Chicago. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company. p. 188. ISBN 0-395-26468-5. 
  35. ^ Lewis, Arnold (1987). The Opulent Interiors of the Guilded Age - All 203 Photographs from "Artistic Houses". Mineola: Dover Publications. p. 106. ISBN 0-486-25250-7.  Unknown parameter |coauthors= ignored (|author= suggested) (help)
  36. ^ D. Davis, Untitled letter, May 1881, Samuel M. Nickerson papers, Archive of the American College of Surgeons
  37. ^ http://books.google.com/books?id=me0pAAAAYAAJ&pg=RA1-PA23&lpg=RA1-PA23&dq=william+august+fiedler+architect&source=bl&ots=NXsiTbHhVT&sig=2me05QVcKGxI84SRNxJHDa5Du4c&hl=en&sa=X&ei=4n0AUc2lPMTn2QW354CYCA&ved=0CFkQ6AEwBA#v=onepage&q=william%20august%20fiedler%20architect&f=false
  38. ^ "The Illustrations - Houses for W. Manson, Esq., Chicago, Ill., Addison & Fiedler, Architects, Chicago Ill.". The American Architect and Building News. XIX no. 546: 283. 1886.  Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)
  39. ^ "Obituries - Asher Carter". American Architect and Building News. II: 31. 1877.  Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)
  40. ^ "Business Cards - Dissolution of Partnership". Chicago Daily Tribune: 7. 1888.  Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)
  41. ^ Rand, McNally & Co.'s Pictorial Chicago and Illustrated World's Columbian Exposition Containing Views of Principal Buildings, Residences, Streets, Parks, Monuments, etc. Chicago: Rand, McNally & Company. 1893. p. 2.  |first1= missing |last1= in Authors list (help)
  42. ^ Reardon, Patrick T and Blair Kamin (2006). "Ediface wrecks". The Chicago Tribune: Section 5, p.1.  Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)
  43. ^ Reardon, Patrick T and Blair Kamin (2004). "Beauties and beasts ; The Loop is a visual feast of world-famous buildings, but it also offers rare cases of aesthetic indigestion.". The Chicago Tribune: Section 5, p.1.  Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)
  44. ^ Reardon, Patrick T and Blair Kamin (2006). "Trying to see past today's ugliness.". The Chicago Tribune: Section 5, p.8.  Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)
  45. ^ Lowe, David Garrard (2010). Lost Chicago. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. p. viii. ISBN 0-226-49432-2. 
  46. ^ "They Built the Fair - Members of the "World's Columbian Exposition" - Forty-five Chicagoans Whose Able Hands Charge the Work of the Greatest Universal Exposition in History". The Daily Columbian. I: 6. 1893.  Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)
  47. ^ Flinn, John Joseph (1893). Official Guide to the Midway Plaisance - Otherwise known as the Highway through the Nations with an absolutely correct map and numerous illustrations. Chicago: The Columbian Guide Company. pp. 35–. 
  48. ^ Flinn, John Joseph (1893). Guide to the World's Fair - Grounds, Buildings and Attractions Illustrated. DIVIDED INTO SEVEN PRINCIPAL GROUPS AND ROUTES. A Handy Reference Book for Everybody. Chicago: The Standard Guide Company. p. 67. 
  49. ^ Clark, Hannah B. (1897). The Public Schools of Chicago - A Sociological Study, Presented to the Faculty of Arts, Literature and Science of the University of Chicago in Candidacy for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press. p. 11. 
  50. ^ Bruggeman, James G. (2010). Encyclopedia of American History: Colonization and Settlement, 1608 to 1760, Revised Edition (Volume II) - Du Sable, Jean-Baptiste Pointe. New York: Facts on File, Inc.  Unknown parameter |coauthors= ignored (|author= suggested) (help)
  51. ^ "Free Public Schools in Chicago". Eclectic Journal of Education and Literary Review. II, no. XX: 356-358. 1851.  Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)
  52. ^ Thirty-ninth Annual Report of the Board of Education of the year ending June 30, 1893. Chicago: Geo. K Hazlitt & Co. 1894. pp. 187–192. 
  53. ^ "BACK TO THEIR BOOKS - 170,000 SCHOOL CHILDREN WILL REPORT FOR INSTRUCTION". The Chicago Daily Tribune: 16. 1893.  Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)
  54. ^ "FIND FIEDLER A TARTAR - CHAIRMAN ERRANT AND HIS COMMITTEE PUT TO ROUT - School Board Architect Meets His Inquisitors and Has Some Effective Ammunition To Use - Chairman of the Special Investigating Committee Offers and Insult to President Halle and Other Members - What Took Place Behind Closed Doors". The Chicago Daily Tribune: 13. 1896.  Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)
  55. ^ "FIEDLER IS ON THE FIRE.: BOARD OF EDUCATION INVESTIGATES ITS ARCHITECT'S OFFICE. Members Want to Know the Cost of Building Schoolhouses as Compared with the Old Plan of Paying Commissions for Designing and Construction--Figures for Six Years--Explanations of Increased Cost--To Examine Thoroughly. Figures' Comparative Showing. Mr. Fielder Explains. Will Investigate Thoroughly. Photographers a Nuisance.". The Chicago Daily Tribune: 13. 1896.  Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)
  56. ^ O'Gorman, James F. (1997). Living Architecture - A Biography of H.H. Richardson. Chicago: Simon & Schuster. p. 188. ISBN 0684836181.  Unknown parameter |coauthors= ignored (|author= suggested) (help)
  57. ^ "FIEDLER IS ON THE FIRE.: BOARD OF EDUCATION INVESTIGATES ITS ARCHITECT'S OFFICE. Members Want to Know the Cost of Building Schoolhouses as Compared with the Old Plan of Paying Commissions for Designing and Construction--Figures for Six Years--Explanations of Increased Cost--To Examine Thoroughly. Figures' Comparative Showing. Mr. Fielder Explains. Will Investigate Thoroughly. Photographers a Nuisance.". The Chicago Daily Tribune: 13. 1896.  Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)
  58. ^ "STIR IN THE BOARD ROOM". The Chicago Daily Tribune: 2. 1896.  Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)
  59. ^ "Chicago - The Board of Education Architect". American Architect and Building News. LV no.1098: 13. 1897.  Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)
  60. ^ Harris, Gresham H. (1898). Board of Education - Regular Meeting - Official Report. Chicago: The Press of John F. Higgins. p. 343. 
  61. ^ "PATTON FACES INQUIRY BOARD - School Architect on Trial for Insinuations Against Trustee Downey - Prosecutor impugns Defendant's Truth and Says He Passed Bad Brick - NO VERDICT TILL NEXT WEEK". The Chicago Daily Tribune: 2. 1898.  Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)
  62. ^ "WILLIAM BRYCE MUNDIE, SCHOOL ARCHITECT". The Chicago Daily Tribune: 18. 1898.  Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)
  63. ^ "W.B. MUNDIE, 75, NOTED ARCHITECT, DIES - Pioneered in Building of Steel Skyscrapers". The Chicago Daily Tribune: 20. 1939.  Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)
  64. ^ "AIA 150 – Illinois Great Places – Celebrating the Past, Designing the Future". The American Institute of Architects. Retrieved 2013-08-18. 
  65. ^ McLean, Robert Craik, ed. (1910). "Charges against Architect Perkins by the Chicago School Board". The Western Architect. 15 no. 25: 25.  Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)
  66. ^ "FUNDS TO ENLARGE SCHOOLS". Chicago Daily Tribune: 7. 1898.  Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)
  67. ^ Banas, Casey (1985). "Pritzker gets a school for 90th birthday". The Chicago Tribune: A1.  Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)
  68. ^ McLaren, John (1893). "Buildings in Course of Erection". Public Schools of the City of Chicago - Thirty-ninth Annual Report of the Board of Education for the Year Ending June 30, 1893. 39: 209. 
  69. ^ "Among Architects and Builders - Plans for New School Buildings to Be Erected at Once". The Chicago Daily Tribune: 15. 1893.  Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)
  70. ^ "Report of the Architect, December 4, 1895". Public Schools of the City of Chicago - Fortieth Annual Report of the Board of Education for the year ending June 29, 1894: 31. 1894. 
  71. ^ "Report of the Architect, December 4, 1895". Proceedings for Year Ending December 1, 1895: 185-186. 1895.  Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)
  72. ^ "Report of the Architect, December 4, 1895". Proceedings for Year Ending December 1, 1895: 185-186. 1895.  Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)
  73. ^ Goethe School. "Friends of Goethe School - About Goethe School". Retrieved 2012-03-05. 
  74. ^ "Building Department". The Economist. XV: 649. 1896.  Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)
  75. ^ "Building Department". The Economist. XV (2): 59. 1896.  Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)
  76. ^ "Franklin Fine Arts Center - Franklin History". Franklin Fine Arts Center, a CPS Magnet School. Retrieved 2012-12-1.  Check date values in: |access-date= (help)
  77. ^ "Building Department". The Economist. XV (2): 59. 1896.  Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)
  78. ^ "AMONG ARCHITECTS AND BUILDERS - Buildings Planned or Underway In and About Chicago". The Chicago Daily Tribune: 34. 1896.  Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)
  79. ^ "Construction News - Buildings". Engineering News-Record. XXXVI, no. 4: 28. 1896.  Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)
  80. ^ The Art Institute of Chicago Annual Report: 17. 1990.  Missing or empty |title= (help)
  81. ^ Sinkevitch, Alice (2004). AIA Guide to Chicago - 2nd Edition. Chicago: Harcourt, Inc. p. 404. ISBN 0-15-222900-0. 
  82. ^ "To Contractors". The Chicago Daily Tribune: 12. 1896.  Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)
  83. ^ Architect staff (2008). "Chicago Philanthropist Opens House Museum - Nineteenth century Nickerson mansion displays an exceptional collection of Tiffany artifacts". ARCHITECT - The Magazine of the American Institute of Architects.  Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)
  84. ^ "Chicago Philanthropist Opens House Museum". Architect. Retrieved 2010-12-5.  Check date values in: |access-date= (help)
  85. ^ The Chicago Blue Book of Selected Names of Chicago and Suburban Towns - Containing the Names of Prominent Residents, arranged Alphabetically and Numerically by Streets; also Ladies' Shopping Guide, Street Directory, and other Valuable Information, for the year ending 1891. Chicago: The Chicago Directory Company. 1890. p. 360. 
  86. ^ "Landmark Designation Report - Germania Club Building - Final Landmark Recommendation adopted by the Commission on Chicago Landmarks, August 5, 2010". The City of Chicago - Department of Zoning and Land Use Planning - Patricia A. Scudiero, Commissioner.  Text " http://www.ward42chicago.com/documents/GermaniaFinalReport.pdf" ignored (help); Check date values in: |access-date= (help);
  87. ^ Zimmerman, H. Russell (1987). Magnificent Milwaukee: Architectural Treasures, 1850-1920. Milwaukee: Milwaukee Public Museum. pp. 71–82. ISBN 0893261505. 
  88. ^ Zimmerman, H. Russell (1987). Magnificent Milwaukee: Architectural Treasures, 1850-1920. Milwaukee: Milwaukee Public Museum. pp. 103–110. ISBN 0893261505. 
  89. ^ Journal of Mrs. Glessner, May 26, 1876
  90. ^ "Summary of the Week - Chicago - Building Permits". American Architect and Building News. XIV, no. 419: 204. 1883.  Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)
  91. ^ "The Illustrations". The American Architect and Building News. XX no. 551: 30. 1886.  Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)
  92. ^ "Milwaukee's Pride - T.A. Chapman's Dry Goods Palace - Features in Which it Excells [sic] all Others in the World". The Weekly Milwaukee: 8. 1885.  Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)
  93. ^ "The Illustrations". The American Architect and Building Review. XVII, no.514: 210. 1885.  Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)
  94. ^ Reversed Directory of the Elite of Chicago - giving the numbers of the houses on the most fashionable streets, in numerical order, with the names of the occupants, and other information valuable in the household. Chicago: H.A. Pierce & Co. October, 1880. p. 66.  Check date values in: |date= (help)
  95. ^ "Summary of the Week - Chicago - Building Permits". The American Architect & Building News. XVIII no. 515: 228. 1885.  Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)
  96. ^ "The Illustrations - Store on State Street, Chicago, Ill., for B. Hagaman, Esq., Messrs. Addison & Fiedler, Architects, Chicago Ill.". The American Architect and Building News. XX no. 569: 243. 1886.  Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)
  97. ^ "Building". The Daily Inter Ocean: 10. 1887.  Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)
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  104. ^ Daniels, E.D. (1904). A Twentieth Century History and Bibliographical Record of LaPorte County, Indiana Illustrated. Chicago & New York: Lewis Publishing Company. pp. 765–66. 
  105. ^ Sanborn Map Company - Insurance Maps of Chicago, Illinois, Volume Six. New York: The Sanborn Map Company. 1916. p. sheet 68. 
  106. ^ "Contracting News - Where New Work Will Be Done". The Sanitary News. XVII no. 378: 310. 1891.  Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)
  107. ^ R.R. Donnelley & Sons Co. (1892). The Lakeside Directory of Chicago. Chicago: The Lakeside Press. p. 986. 
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  109. ^ Benjamin, Susan (2008). Great Houses of Chicago - 1871-1921. New York: Acanthus Press. p. 22. ISBN 0926494392.  Unknown parameter |coauthors= ignored (|author= suggested) (help)
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  111. ^ Newell, Martin L. (1895). "Richard Lotholz v. August Fiedler". Reports of Cases Decided in the Appellate Courts of the State of Illinois. LIX: 379. 
  112. ^ "Reported by Architects". The Chicago Inter-Ocean: 74. 1891.  Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)
  113. ^ "Various Real Estate Matters - Miscellaneous". The Economist. XVI no. 3: 74. 1896.  Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)
  114. ^ Leonard, John W. (1905). The Book of Chicagoans - A biographical Dictionary of Leading Living Men of the City of Chicago. Chicago: A.N. Marquis & Company. p. 516. 
  115. ^ "Two New Hotels - Improvements Projected of a High Order for South Side Locations". The Daily Inter-Ocean: 10. 1892.  Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)
  116. ^ "To Build a Big Bath and Hotel". The Chicago Daily Tribune: 10. 1892.  Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)
  117. ^ "Plans for a South Side Hotel". The Chicago Daily Tribune: 28. 1892.  Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)
  118. ^ "Contracting News - Building Intelligence - Chicago - Miscellaneous". Engineering Record, Building Record and the Sanitary Engineer. XXIX no. 23: 374. 1894.  Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)
  119. ^ "Columbian Exposition Notes". Architecture and Building. XV no. 20: 256. 1891.  Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)
  120. ^ "Germany's Building - A Handsome Structure for the World's Columbian Exposition - The Material Being Prepared at Home and Brought Over - To Be a Repository for Rare and Valuable Exhibits". The [Hillsboro, Ohio] News Herald. no.: 6. 1892.  Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)
  121. ^ "Das Deutsche Haus". Abendpost: 3. 1892.  Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)
  122. ^ "The University of Chicago Archival Photographs Files - World's Columbian Exposition - German Village 36". The University of Chicago. Retrieved 2010-11-21. 
  123. ^ Lowe, David (1979). Chicago Interiors. Chicago: Contemporary Books. p. 127. ISBN 0-80927578-3. 
  124. ^ "Building Intelligence". The Engineering Record. 35 no. 5: 373. 1894.  Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)
  125. ^ Regular Meeting - City Council of the City of Blue Island, Illinois, September 11, 2012


Further reading[edit]

  • Darling, Sharon S. (1984). Chicago Furniture: Art, Craft, and Industry, 1833-1983. New York City: W. W. Norton & Company.
  • Zimmermann, H. Russell. (1987) Magnificent Milwaukee: Architectural Treasures, 1850-1920. Milwaukee: Milwaukee Public Museum.