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The occult roots of Nazism?[edit]

mainstream academic opinion: As early as 1940, the occultist Lewis Spence[1] identified a neopagan undercurrent in Nazism (for which he largely blamed Alfred Rosenberg), which he equated with “satanism”. He further connected Nazism to the Illuminati. Spence was a scholar of folklore and the occult but he was followed in the 1960s by some less than scholarly successors: a genre of sensationalist authors whom Goodrick-Clarke describes as "crypto-historians", in that they postulate historical agents (such as occult conspiracies) which have passed unnoticed by conventional historians.

These spectacular claims find little support among academic historians of Nazism and the conventional wisdom continues to deny or minimise/any significant occult input. If/Insofar as there exists a "conventional wisdom", it is the mainstream position occupied by Goodrick-Clarke and most historians of Nazism: that the formative influence of Ariosophy on the Nazis was tenuous at best.

Goodrick-Clarke (perhaps the leading authority in this field) is clear that there are some structural resemblances but few actual lines of influence. In fact the main influence was in the other direction: it is more the case that the Nazis seduced some Germanic mystics who were drawn into the Ahnenerbe and SS long after the formative phase of the NSDAP. This is more or less the position of Stephen E. Flowers, who is both an occultist and an accredited scholar of Germanic religious history. Flowers is academically mainstream on this question.

Nevertheless, Ariosophy has been termed a theoretical precursor of the Nazis. Flowers' introduction to Guido von List's The Secret of the Runes drew the following comment from one German academic (Stefanie von Schnurbein 1992: 136):

Dabei erwähnt [Flowers] an keiner Stelle, daß List und die anderen Ariosophen Vordenker des Rassenwahns des Nationalsozialismus waren... (In this work [Flowers] nowhere mentions that List and the other Ariosophists were intellectual predecessors of the racial madness of National Socialism...)

Indeed Flowers, the foremost expert on List in the English-speaking world, refuses to connect the theories of early 20th century rune magicians directly to the enormities of Auschwitz,[citation needed] and dismisses the thesis that the ideas of List, Lanz and others were directly implemented in the Nazi practice of genocide as an assertion “with little to no actual critical investigation”.[citation needed] Flowers states that “no one has ever shown that racial policies of the NSDAP are based on so-called 'Ariosophical' ideas.”[citation needed]

While individual Nazis would have become familiar with a mystical racialism through the works of List and Lanz, it does not follow that List and Lanz were culpable in the crimes of the Third Reich. With equal justice it has been contended that the racial ideas in Ariosophy might be laid at the door of its predecessor, Theosophy.[citation needed] (The term “Ariosophy” was formed by analogy with “Theosophy”.)

Even the writings of the most "extreme" of the Ariosophists, Lanz von Liebenfels, cannot be definitively linked to the applied anti-semitism of the Nazis. Apologists for Lanz state that he did not write unfavorably about the Jewish race. Lanz cooperated with Jewish scholars in many of his publications.[2] His biblical theology is underpinned throughout by an assumption of racial identity between Hebrews and Aryans, and in Anthropozoon biblicum he welcomed a linguistic hypothesis ('Aryo-Semitic') which postulated a relationship of common ancestry/origin between the Indo-European and Semitic language stocks, while the complex ironies and paradoxes of Lanz's position are illustrated by his description of Moses as an "antisemite".

Defenders of List and Lanz claim that the anti-semitism that drove Nazi policies was much older and more deeply rooted among the peoples of central Europe than can be credited to the "fringe works" of mystics and rune magicians.[citation needed] The roots of Nazi anti-semitism have been traced to the Lutheran and Catholic churches, as/in that the Catholic Church Fathers were the first to put into circulation ideas about Jewish inferiority, and who drove anti-semitic policies right up to and all during the Second World War (Kertzer 2001).

Since 1957, when the Austrian psychologist Wilfried Daim published an important study of Lanz von Liebenfels,[3] enough evidence exists to say that Hitler had been exposed to the ariosophic Weltanschauung in Vienna, but it is not clear to what extent he was influenced by it. On the one hand, Hitler's Mein Kampf has been compared to Lanz's Theozoologie in detail.[4] [Expand from Occult Roots 196-97; initial support for Nazis 119 & 192 vs unimpressed later 122]

Some of Lanz's proposals for racial purification anticipate the Nazis. The sterilisation of those deemed to be genetically "unfit" was in fact implemented under the Nazi eugenics policies, but its basis lay in the theories of scientific racial hygienists. The Nazi eugenics programme has no proven connection with Lanz's mystical rationale. Eugenic ideas were widespread in his lifetime, whereas he himself was banned from publishing in the Third Reich and his writings were suppressed.

Following Goodrick-Clarke's caution in assessing the relation between the two[5], Adolf Hitler cannot be considered a pupil of Lanz von Liebenfels, as Lanz himself had claimed (Goodrick-Clarke 1985: 192). However, it has been suggested with some evidential basis that the young Hitler did read and collect Lanz's Ostara magazine while living in Vienna:

"In view of the similarity of their ideas relating to the glorification and preservation of the endangered Aryan race, the suppression and ultimate extermination of the non-Aryans, and the establishment of a fabulous Aryan-German millennial empire, the link between the two men looks highly probable." (Goodrick-Clarke 1985: 194)

Nevertheless: "It also remains a fact that Hitler never mentioned the name of Lanz in any recorded conversation, speech, or document. If Hitler had been importantly influenced by [Lanz], he cannot be said to have ever acknowledged this debt" (Goodrick-Clarke 1985: 198).

Germanic mysticism and the Nazis[edit]

mainstream academic opinion: As Goodrick-Clarke summarised it, the mainstream position among academic historians of Nazism has been to deny or minimise occult input. Even G-C, who dissents somewhat from this mainstream, is clear that there are some structural resemblances but few actual lines of influence. (In fact the main influence was in the other direction: it's more the case that the Nazis seduced some Germanic mystics who were drawn into the Ahnenerbe and SS long after the formative phase of the NSDAP.) And Goodrick-Clarke seems to be the authority par excellence in this field. This is more or less the position of Flowers and McNallen too. (Flowers is both an occultist and an accredited scholar.)

So if there can be said to be a "conventional wisdom", it is the mainstream position occupied by Goodrick-Clarke and most historians of Nazism: that the formative influence of Germanic mysticism on the Nazis was tenuous at best. Flowers is academically mainstream on this question; Schnurbein is not.


As early as 1940, Lewis Spence published a book titled Occult Causes of the Present War.[6] In the book, Spence identified a neopagan undercurrent in Nazism (for which he largely blamed Alfred Rosenberg), which he equated with “satanism;” he further connected Nazism to the Illuminati. Since then many similar books have been published.

Since 1957, when the Austrian psychologist Wilfried Daim published the important study on Lanz von Liebenfels[7] enough evidence exists to say that Hitler had been exposed to the ariosophic Weltanschauung in Vienna. However, to what extent he was influenced by it, is not clear. In the research into this question, Hitler's Mein Kampf has even been compared to Liebenfels' Theozoologie in detail.[8] [Expand from Occult Roots 196-97; initial support for Nazis 119 & 192 vs unimpressed later 122]

Ariosophy has been termed a theoretical precursor of the Nazi genocide.[citation needed] However, the foremost expert on Guido von List in the English-speaking world, Stephen E. Flowers, refuses to connect the theories of List and other early 20th century rune magicians directly to the excesses of Auschwitz.[citation needed] One German academic, Stefanie von Schnurbein (1992: 136), in commenting on Flowers' introduction to The Secret of the Runes, states:

Although it is now considered conventional wisdom that the ideas of List, Lanz and others were directly implemented in the Nazi genocide, Flowers states that this is “with little to no actual critical investigation”.[citation needed] Because the very term “Ariosophy” was analogous to its predecessor, “Theosophy”, it has also been argued that the racial ideas in Ariosophy can be traced to Theosophy.[citation needed] Flowers states that “no one has ever shown that racial policies of the NSDAP are based on so-called 'Ariosophical' ideas.”[citation needed]

It has further been argued that even the writings of the most "extreme" of the Ariosophists, Lanz von Liebenfels, cannot be definitively linked to the applied anti-semitism of the Nazis. Apologists for Lanz state that he did not write unfavorably about the Jewish race,[citation needed] that he cooperated with Jewish scholars in many of his publications,[citation needed] and while it can be argued that individual Nazis became familiar with the mystical racism of Theosophy through the works of List and Lanz,[citation needed] it does not necessarily follow that List and Lanz were culpable in the crimes of the Nazis.

Defenders of List and Lanz claim that the anti-semitism that drove Nazi policies was much older and more deeply rooted among the peoples of central Europe than can be credited to the "fringe works" of mystics and rune magicians.[citation needed] It has been alleged, for example, that the roots of Nazi anti-semitism can be traced to the Lutheran and Catholic churches as it was the Catholic Church Fathers who first invented ideas about the Jews being an inferior "race", and who drove anti-semitic policies right up to and all during the Second World War (Kertzer 2001).

Some of Lanz's proposals for racial purification anticipate the Nazis. The sterilisation of those deemed to be genetically "unfit" was in fact implemented under the Nazi eugenics policies, but its basis lay in the theories of scientific racial hygienists. The Nazi eugenics programme has no proven connection with Lanz's mystical rationale. Eugenic ideas were widespread in his lifetime, whereas he himself was banned from publishing in the Third Reich and his writings were suppressed.

Following Goodrick-Clarke's caution in assessing the relation between the two[9], Adolf Hitler cannot be considered a pupil of Lanz von Liebenfels, as Lanz himself had claimed (Goodrick-Clarke 1985: 192). However, it has been suggested with some evidential basis that the young Hitler did read and collect Lanz's Ostara magazine while living in Vienna:

"In view of the similarity of their ideas relating to the glorification and preservation of the endangered Aryan race, the suppression and ultimate extermination of the non-Aryans, and the establishment of a fabulous Aryan-German millennial empire, the link between the two men looks highly probable." (Goodrick-Clarke 1985: 194)

Nevertheless: "It also remains a fact that Hitler never mentioned the name of Lanz in any recorded conversation, speech, or document. If Hitler had been importantly influenced by [Lanz], he cannot be said to have ever acknowledged this debt" (Goodrick-Clarke 1985: 198).

Nazi occultism and Germanic neopaganism[edit]

The use of runic symbology and the existence of an official Nazi government department for the study of the Germanic ancestral heritage (including paganism) lend credence to the idea that there was a pagan component to Nazism.

On the other side, authors like Stephen McNallen, Dr. Stephen Flowers (translator of The Secret King), and Michael Moynihan have argued that Nazi occultism is a distortion and misrepresentation of Odinism.[10]

Wiligut[edit]

Stephen A. McNallen goes as far as to say: ...the compelling reason for you to own The Secret King is to use it to defend Asatru from the lie that 'Hitler was a pagan' or that 'Asatruar trace their roots to Nazi Germany.' The Secret King proves conclusively that this is not the case. It is a powerful weapon for the truth.[11]

In an article entitled "The Wiligut Saga" featured in the book, Adolf Schleipfer points out the differences between Wiligut's beliefs and those generally accepted within Odinism.

In November 2006, Stephen E. Flowers held an 80 minute lecture on this subject at a Woodharrow Institute convention. [12]

Suppression of esoteric groups in Nazi Germany (version 1, modified)[edit]

The totalitarian State of the Nazi party had a tendency to suppress all independent religious groups. This does not only apply to groups like Freemasons and Rosicrucians, but even to the established churches in the 3rd Reich (see: Nazism and religion).

Hitler would later openly ridicule many German mystics, particularly practitioners of Freemasonry, Theosophy, and Anthroposophy.[citation needed] According to their private writings,[13][14], the leaders of the Nazi Party in Germany did not wish to encourage forms of paganism which did not serve to further their goals of promoting pan-Germanic ethnic consciousness.

Rudolf von Sebottendorff had been involved in the Thule Society and the Germanenorden. In January 1933 he published Bevor Hitler kam: Urkundlich aus der Frühzeit der Nationalsozialistischen Bewegung (Before Hitler Came: Documents from the Early Days of the National Socialist Movement). Nazi authorities (Hitler himself ?) understandably disliked the book, which was banned. Sebottendorff then managed to flee to Turkey.

In 1936 the runemaster Friedrich Bernhard Marby, a follower of Guido von List's occult "ariosophic" Armanenschaft was arrested and sent to a concentration camp. He was released from the Dachau concentration camp in 1945.[15]

Other occultists imprisoned during the Third Reich were Peryt Shou [1], Siegfried Adolf Kummer [2], Rudolf John Gorsleben [3], Werner von Bülow, Franz Bardon[16] and Wilhelm Wulff.

Being a current or former member of an Odinist organisation disqualified anyone from holding rank or office within the NSDAP.[citation needed] Many other members ended up in the concentration camps, although as far as can be told only one member was actually killed.[citation needed]

Anna Bramwell. 1985. Blood and Soil: Richard Walther Darré and Hitler's 'Green Party'. Abbotsbrook, England: The Kensal Press. ISBN 0-946041-33-4.

The full focus of the state was aimed at religious groups from 9 June 1941 when Reinhard Heydrich, the head of the security police, banned a large number of spiritual practices. The organisations were dissolved, their property confiscated, and many of their leaders arrested.[17][18] However, the supression of esoteric organisations began very soon after the Nazis acquired governmental power. Dr. Anna Bramwell points out that "occultist racialists were banned as early as 1934."[19] A secret society called the Skald Order "was banned by the Nazis after 1933 because of its allegedly masonic nature."[20] Several members of the Skald held office in the Third Reich, including Dr Ludolf Haase (a founder member of the Skald), Herbert Backe and Theo Gross; all came under covert investigation, and Backe was cleared by Heydrich from his deathbed.[21] Lanz von Liebenfels, one of the most important of the Germanic racial-mystics, had his writings banned in 1938.[22] Even "the German Order of Druids was caught in the National Socialist anti-Masonic law of 1935, and was closed down,...protesting to the last that they were not Freemasons but good, German Druids."[23]

The persecution of occultists could have been due to the influence and recommendations to Himmler by Karl Maria Wiligut, Himmler's personal occultist. Wiligut had identified Irminism as the true ancestral religion, claiming that Guido von Lists Wotanism and runic row was a schismatic false religion. On Wiligut's recommendation Himmler could have had many of List's followers and non-official Nazi occultists imprisoned. However, historians assume that these measures were most probably the result of the general Nazi policy of suppressing lodge organizations and esoteric groups. [24]

Suppression of esotericism in Nazi Germany (version 2)[edit]

The totalitarian State of the Nazi party had a tendency to suppress all independent religious groups. This not only applies to groups such as Freemasons and Rosicrucians, but even to the established churches in the Third Reich (see: Nazism and religion). Hitler would later openly ridicule many German mystics, particularly practitioners of Freemasonry, Theosophy, and Anthroposophy.[citation needed] According to their private writings,[25][26], the leaders of the Nazi Party in Germany did not wish to encourage forms of paganism which did not serve to further their goals of promoting pan-Germanic ethnic consciousness.

Already in 1927, Hitler had fired the Gauleiter of Thüringen, Artur Dinter, from his post because he wanted to make too much a religion of Aryan racial purity. In 1928, Dinter was expelled from the party when he publicly attacked Hitler about this decision.[4]

Rudolf von Sebottendorff had been involved in the Thule Society and the Germanenorden. In January 1933 he published Bevor Hitler kam: Urkundlich aus der Frühzeit der Nationalsozialistischen Bewegung (Before Hitler Came: Documents from the Early Days of the National Socialist Movement). Nazi authorities (Hitler himself?) understandably disliked the book, which was banned. Sebottendorff then managed to flee to Turkey. Supposedly he had been the leader of the Germanic Neopagan group Germanische Glaubens-Gemeinschaft.[27]

In 1936, the runemaster Friedrich Bernhard Marby, a follower of Guido von List's occult "ariosophic" Armanenschaft was arrested and sent to a concentration camp. He was released from the Dachau concentration camp in 1945.[28] Other occultists imprisoned during the Third Reich were Peryt Shou, Siegfried Adolf Kummer, Rudolf John Gorsleben, Werner von Bülow, Franz Bardon and Wilhelm Wulff.[29] [30] [31] [32]

Being a current or former member of an Odinist organisation disqualified anyone from holding rank or office within the NSDAP.[citation needed] Many other members ended up in the concentration camps, although as far as can be told only one member was actually killed.[citation needed] The full focus of the state was not aimed at religious groups until June 9 1941 when Reinhard Heydrich, the head of the security police, banned a large number of spiritual practices. The organisations were dissolved, their property confiscated, and many of their leaders arrested.[33][34]

The persecution of occultists could have been due to the influence and recommendations to Himmler by Karl Maria Wiligut, Himmler's personal occultist. Wiligut had identified Irminism as the true ancestral religion, claiming that Guido von List's Wotanism and runic row was a schismatic false religion. On Wiligut's recommendation Himmler could have had many of List's followers and non-official Nazi occultists imprisoned. However, historians assume that these measures were most probably the result of the general Nazi policy of suppressing lodge organizations and esoteric groups. [35]

Suppression of esotericism in Nazi Germany (version 3)[edit]

The totalitarian State of the Nazi party had a tendency to suppress all independent religious groups. This not only applies to groups such as Freemasons and Rosicrucians, but even to the established churches in the Third Reich (see: Nazism and religion). Hitler would later openly ridicule many German mystics, particularly practitioners of Freemasonry, Theosophy, and Anthroposophy.[citation needed] According to their private writings,[36][37], the leaders of the Nazi Party in Germany did not wish to encourage forms of paganism which did not serve to further their goals of promoting pan-Germanic ethnic consciousness.

Already in 1927, Hitler had fired the Gauleiter of Thüringen, Artur Dinter, from his post because he wanted to make too much a religion of Aryan racial purity. In 1928, Dinter was expelled from the party when he publicly attacked Hitler about this decision.[5]

The full focus of the state was not aimed at religious groups until 9 June 1941 [citation needed] when Reinhard Heydrich, the head of the security police, banned lodge organizations and esoteric groups. However, the supression of esoteric organisations began very soon after the Nazis acquired governmental power. Dr. Anna Bramwell points out that "occultist racialists were banned as early as 1934."[38]

Rudolf von Sebottendorff had been involved in the Thule Society and a schismatic offshoot of the Germanenorden. In January 1933 he published Bevor Hitler kam: Urkundlich aus der Frühzeit der Nationalsozialistischen Bewegung (Before Hitler Came: Documents from the Early Days of the National Socialist Movement). Nazi authorities (Hitler himself?) understandably disliked the book, which was banned in the following year. Sebottendorff was arrested but managed to flee to Turkey.

Bramwell notes that a secret society called the Skald Order "was banned by the Nazis after 1933 because of its allegedly masonic nature."[39] Several members of the Skald held office in the Third Reich, including Dr Ludolf Haase (a founder member of the Skald), Herbert Backe and Theo Gross; all came under covert investigation, and Backe was cleared by Heydrich from his deathbed.[40]

Even "the German Order of Druids was caught in the National Socialist anti-Masonic law of 1935, and was closed down", observes Bramwell, "protesting to the last that they were not Freemasons but good, German Druids."[41]

In 1936, the runemaster Friedrich Bernhard Marby, a follower of Guido von List's occult "ariosophic" Armanenschaft was arrested and sent to a concentration camp. He was released from the Dachau concentration camp in 1945.[42] Other occultists imprisoned during the Third Reich were Peryt Shou, Siegfried Adolf Kummer, Rudolf John Gorsleben, Werner von Bülow, Franz Bardon and Wilhelm Wulff.[43] [44] [45] [46]

Lanz von Liebenfels, one of the most important of the Germanic racial-mystics, had his writings banned in 1938.[47] Allegedly Ludwig Fahrenkrog, the founder and leader of the Germanische Glaubens-Gemeinschaft, was prohibited to write or exhibit his art because of his refusal to end his writings with the words "Heil Hitler", and Ernst Wachler, a member of his group and of Jewish ancestry, ended in a concentration camp.[48]

The persecution of occultists could have been due to the influence and recommendations to Himmler by Karl Maria Wiligut, Himmler's personal occultist. Wiligut had identified Irminism as the true ancestral religion, claiming that Guido von List's Wotanism and runic row was a schismatic false religion. On Wiligut's recommendation Himmler could have had many of List's followers and non-official Nazi occultists imprisoned. However, historians assume that these measures were most probably the result of the general Nazi policy of suppressing lodge organizations and esoteric groups. [49]

Other stuff[edit]

Guido von List, Jörg Lanz von Liebenfels, Theosophy and the Thule Society were important early figures and organisations whose alleged influence on historic Nazism is hotly contested but which have been appropriated by some postwar exponents of Nazi mysticism.

There are many organisations, such as the Artgemeinschaft of Jürgen Rieger and the Armanen-Orden founded by Adolf Schleipfer in 1976 , which represent significant developments of Germanic mysticism after World War II, but they do not necessarily all constitute forms of Nazi mysticism.

The Thule society, from which the NSDAP originated was one of the ariosophic groups of the 1920s. Thule Gesellschaft had initially been the name of the Munich lodge of the Germanenorden. It took it's name from an alleged lost continent Thule, which was assumed to be the mythical homeland from which the Aryan race had originated. (Atlantis at least, and most likely also Hyperborea, were taken to be identical with Thule.)[50] The superiority of Aryans over all other races was a key concept and the members of various Germanenorden-lodges saw themselves (as Teutons or Germanic peoples) as the 'purest' branch of the Aryan race.

All taxonomic ranks[edit]

The following table lists all taxonomic ranks including those which are not in use today and those which are identical with other ranks.

All taxonomic ranks
Latin English
Zoology Botany Zoology Botany
 

regio

 
 
superdomain
domain
subdomain
infradomain
imperium empire
superregnum superkingdom
  suprakingdom
  midkingdom
regnum kingdom
subregnum subkingdom
  interkingdom
  branch
  infrakingdom
superphylum superphylum
  supraphylum
  midphylum
phylum divisio phylum1 division2
subphylum subdivisio subphylum1 subdivision2
infraphylum infraphylum
claudius claudius
superclassis superclass
  grade
classis class
subclassis subclass
  infraclass
parvclassis parvclass
superdivisio superdivision1
divisio division1
subdivisio subdivision1
sectio section1
  subsection1
  group
  subgroup
  superlegion
legio legion
  sublegion
  infralegion
supercohos supercohort
cohors cohort
subcohors subcohort
  magnorder
superordo superorder
  series
  subseries
  grandorder
  gigaorder
  megaorder
  mirorder
ordo order
hyperordo hyperorder
subordo suborder
infraordo infraorder
  parvorder
falanx  
cohors cohort
superfamilia superfamily
  family group
familia family
  subfamily group
subfamilia subfamily
  infrafamily
supertribus supertribe
tribus tribe
subtribus subtribe
  infratribe
supergenus supergenus
  genus group
genus genus
subgenus subgenus
  infragenus
supersectio supersection2
sectio section2
subsectio subsection2
  infrasection2
  superseries2
series series2
  subseries2
  infraseries2
superspecies superspecies
  complex
  species group
  species subgroup
  aggregate
  synklepton
species species
  microspecies
klepton klepton
  aggregate
subspecies subspecies
  infraspecies
  group
hybrid hybrid
convarietas convariety
supervarietas supervariety
varietas variety
subvarietas subvariety
  infravariety
natio  
superforma superform
forma, morpha form
subforma subform
  infraform
  cultivar group
  cultivar
  group of breeds
  section of breeds
  breed, race
  strain
aberratio aberration
  serogroup
  serotype, serovar
  biotype, biovar
  pathotype, pathovar
  population
lusus lusus
Notes to table
1 Level in animal taxonomy. 2 Level in plant taxonomy.

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Spence 1940, Occult Causes of the Present War, London: Rider & Co. Reprint 1997, Kessinger Publishing.
  2. ^ Goodrick-Clarke 1985: 99. From 1905, Lanz worked with the rabbinical scholar Moritz Altschüler and other distinguished theologians to publish a scholarly edition of early Jewish texts. The series was never completed, but five volumes had appeared by 1908 as Orbis antiquitatum.
  3. ^ W. Daim, Der Mann, der Hitler die Ideen gab, 1st edition 1957, revised 1985, 1994.
  4. ^ Harald Strohm, Gnosis und Nationalsozialismus, 1997: 46-52.
  5. ^ Goodrick-Clarke 1985, Preface by Rohan Butler, p.X.
  6. ^ 1940, Rider & Co.,London; Reprint 1997, Kessinger Publishing.
  7. ^ W. Daim: Der Mann, der Hitler die Ideen gab, 1. Edition 1957, 2. rev. ed. 1985, 3.rev.ed.1994
  8. ^ Harald Strohm, Gnosis und Nationalsozialismus, 1997: 46-52.
  9. ^ Goodrick-Clarke 1985, Preface by Rohan Butler, p.X.
  10. ^ http://www.runestone.org/RS32/books/index.htm, http://www.runestone.org/lep4.html, http://www.angelfire.com/wy/wyrd/odinvsnazi.html
  11. ^ Review of The Secret King by Stephen A. McNallen, (http://www.runestone.org/RS32/books/index.htm).
  12. ^ "The Myth and Reality of Occultism in the Third Reich" lecture by Dr. Stephen E. Flowers, November 12th, 2006. http://www.woodharrow.com/lectureseries.html .
  13. ^ Hitler's Table Talk, page 61, translated by Norman Cameron and R.H. Stevens, 1953
  14. ^ Mein Kampf, chapter 12
  15. ^ Invisible Eagle by Alan Baker, and see http://www.geocities.com/odinistlibrary/OLArticles/Articles/FredericBernardMarby.htm
  16. ^ Franz Bardon Biography, http://www.merkurpublishing.com/franz_bardon_bio.htm
  17. ^ Hitlerism vs. Odinism
  18. ^ Asatru Historical Time Line
  19. ^ Bramwell 1985: 42.
  20. ^ Bramwell 1985: 95.
  21. ^ Bramwell 1985: 126.
  22. ^ Bramwell 1985: 42.
  23. ^ Bramwell 1985: 50.
  24. ^ Goodrick-Clarke, The Occult Roots of Nazism, p. 197
  25. ^ Hitler's Table Talk, page 61, translated by Norman Cameron and R.H. Stevens, 1953
  26. ^ Mein Kampf, chapter 12
  27. ^ Renewal, 1995
  28. ^ Invisible Eagle by Alan Baker, and see http://www.geocities.com/odinistlibrary/OLArticles/Articles/FredericBernardMarby.htm
  29. ^ http://www.geocities.com/odinistlibrary/OLArticles/Articles/perytshou.htm
  30. ^ http://www.geocities.com/odinistlibrary/OLArticles/Articles/SiegfriedAdolfKummer.htm
  31. ^ http://www.geocities.com/odinistlibrary/OLArticles/Articles/rudolfjohngorsleben.htm
  32. ^ Franz Bardon Biography, http://www.merkurpublishing.com/franz_bardon_bio.htm
  33. ^ Hitlerism vs. Odinism
  34. ^ Asatru Historical Time Line
  35. ^ Goodrick-Clarke, The Occult Roots of Nazism, p. 197
  36. ^ Hitler's Table Talk, page 61, translated by Norman Cameron and R.H. Stevens, 1953
  37. ^ Mein Kampf, chapter 12
  38. ^ Bramwell 1985: 42.
  39. ^ Bramwell 1985: 95.
  40. ^ Bramwell 1985: 126.
  41. ^ Bramwell 1985: 50.
  42. ^ Invisible Eagle by Alan Baker, and see http://www.geocities.com/odinistlibrary/OLArticles/Articles/FredericBernardMarby.htm
  43. ^ http://www.geocities.com/odinistlibrary/OLArticles/Articles/perytshou.htm
  44. ^ http://www.geocities.com/odinistlibrary/OLArticles/Articles/SiegfriedAdolfKummer.htm
  45. ^ http://www.geocities.com/odinistlibrary/OLArticles/Articles/rudolfjohngorsleben.htm
  46. ^ Franz Bardon Biography, http://www.merkurpublishing.com/franz_bardon_bio.htm
  47. ^ Bramwell 1985: 42.
  48. ^ Asatru Historical Time Line
  49. ^ Goodrick-Clarke, The Occult Roots of Nazism, p. 197
  50. ^ Harald Strohm, Die Gnosis und der Nationalsozialismus, 1997, p. 57