Big To-Do: incorporate material from Hamilton! ;-)
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In Buddhism, mano or mana(s) (Pali; Skt.) is generally translated as "mind," "thought," or "intellect." Technically, mano is the part of the mind associated with the integration of sensory experience and with the accessing of concepts. In Buddhism, a corrupted mind leads to suffering while a purified mind leads to happiness and liberation. The mind is purified through the pursuit of the Buddha's noble path.
In early Buddhist literature, mano is distinguished from citta (also frequently translated as "mind"), the latter being the basis for mental development and the source of liberation from suffering.
In the discourses of the Pali Canon's Sutta Pitaka, mano is described both in terms of its cognitive processing of lower level physical sense phenomena and its pivotal role in the perpetuation of suffering (dukkha) and the pursuit of happiness (sukha) and liberation (Pali: mokkha; Skt.: mokṣa).
|<font=3>Mano, citta, viññāṇa|
In the Nikayas, a third related concept of mind includes:
Cognitive aspect: mind & physical senses
The relationship between "mind" (mano) and "experience" or "states" (dhammā) is technically conceptualized in the Buddhist description of six sense bases. In this context, the "mind base" (manāyatana) or "mind faculty" (manindriya) is identified as the "sixth internal sense base" after the five physical internal sense bases of the eye, ear, nose, tongue and body. The objects sensed by the mind base are identified as dhammā, variously translated as "mental objects," "mind objects," "experience," "phenomena" "states" and "thoughts."
- "Friend, these five faculties — each with a separate range, a separate domain, not experiencing one another's range & domain: the eye-faculty, the ear-faculty, the nose-faculty, the tongue-faculty, & the body-faculty — have the intellect as their [common] arbitrator. The intellect is what experiences [all] their ranges & domains."
Ethical aspect: mind & suffering
The famed opening lines of the Dhammapada are (in English and Pali):
All experience is preceded by mind,
Speak or act with a corrupted mind,
As the wagon wheel follows the hoof of the ox.
Manasā ce paduṭṭhena bhāsati vā karoti vā
cakkaṃ'va vahato padaṃ.
Similarly, in the Anguttara Nikaya is found:
Monks, whatsoever states are unwholesome,
Monks, whatsoever states are wholesome ....
Ye keci bhikkhave dhammā akusalā
Ye keci bhikkhave dhammā kusalā ....
One need not reign in the mind from everything
Na sabbato mano nivāraye
Soteriological aspect: mind & liberation
Manassa kho brāhmaṇa, sati paṭisaraṇanti....
Abhidhammic and commentarial views
| The Five Aggregates (pañca khandha)
according to the Pali Canon.
|Source: MN 109 (Thanissaro, 2001) | diagram details|
According to Bodhi (2005), p. 310, based on the Sutta pitaka description of the six sense bases:
- "... On this interpretation, 'mind' [mano] might be taken as the passive flow of consciousness from which active conceptual consciousness emerges, and 'phenomena' [dhammā] as purely mental objects such as those apprehended by introspection, imagination, and reflection. The Abhidhamma and the Pāli commentaries, however, interpret the two terms [mano and dhammā] differently. They hold that the mind base comprises all classes of consciousness. They also hold that all actual entities not comprised in the other sense bases constitute the phenomena base. The phenomena base, then, includes the other three mental aggregates [khandha] — feeling, perception, and volitional formations — as well as types of subtle material form not implicated in experiences through the physical senses. Whether this interpretation conforms to the meaning intended in the oldest Buddhist texts is an open question."
While the discourses do not ascribe a physical location to the mind base, the commentaries identify its physical anchor to be the heart.
- Rhys Davids & Stede (1921-25), pp. 520-21, "Mano & Mana(s)" (retrieved 2008-03-05 from "U. of Chicago" at http://dsal.uchicago.edu/cgi-bin/philologic/getobject.pl?c.2:1:3860.pali) generally defines mano as "mind, thought." In the context of the six sense faculties (indriya), Ñāṇamoli & Bodhi (2001), p. 391 (MN 43) translate mano as "mind." Thanissaro generally translates "mano" as "intellect" (e.g., see Thanissaro, 2006).
- One can find this notion of mano in Hinduism as well. For instance, the Monier-Williams (1964), p. 783 (retrieved 2008-03-06 from "Cologne University" at http://www.sanskrit-lexicon.uni-koeln.de/cgi-bin/serveimg.pl?file=/scans/MWScan/MWScanjpg/mw0783-madhvamAhAtmya.jpg, accessed via and copied from http://www.sanskrit-lexicon.uni-koeln.de/monier/ [citation: manas]) defines "Mánas" as:
- mind (in its widest sense as applied to all the mental powers) , intellect , intelligence , understanding , perception , sense , conscience , will RV. &c &c (in phil. the internal organ or antaḥ-karaṇa of perception and cognition , the faculty or instrument through which thoughts enter or by which objects of sense affect the soul IW. 53 ; in this sense manas is always is always regarded as distinct from ātman and puruṣa , " spirit or soul " and belonging only to the body , like which it is - except in the nyāya - considered perishable ; as to its position in the various systems » for nyāya and vaiśeṣika IW. 63 ; 67 ; 76 , for sāṃkhya and vedā*nta ib. 84 ; 109 ; 117 ; in RV. it is sometimes joined with hṛd or hṛdaya , the heart Mn. vii , 6 with cakṣus , the eye).... thought , imagination , excogitation , invention , reflection , opinion , intention , inclination , affection , desire , mood , temper , spirit ....
- See, for instance, Fronsdal (2006), "The Mind" (Cittavaggo, Dhp. III), pp. 9-11; as well as Bodhi (2000), pp. 769-70, n. 154.
- See, for instance, Bodhi (2000), pp. 769-70, n. 154. Similarly, Rhys Davids & Stede (1921-25), p. 520, writes: "Mano represents the intellectual functioning of consciousness, while viñnāṇa represents the field of sense and sense-reaction ('perception'), and citta the subjective aspect of consciousness."
- The first five sense bases or faculties are the eye, ear, nose, tongue and body (see Ayatana).
- AN 1.6.1, AN 1.6.2 (Thanissaro, 1995; Nyanaponika & Bodhi, 1999, p. 36).
- In the Pali Canon, the defilements (kilesa) are frequently associated with craving (taṇhā) and lust (rāga). See, e.g., Rhys Davids & Stede (1921-5), pp. 216-7, entry for "Kilesa" (retrieved 2008-02-09 from "U. of Chicago" at http://dsal.uchicago.edu/cgi-bin/philologic/getobject.pl?c.1:1:579.pali).
- See, for instance, DN 28, in which Ven. Sariputta states that, through the arduous development of concentration, one can know the uninterrupted "stream of consciousness" (viññāṇa-sota) that spans multiple lives; as well as, DN 15's description of Dependent Origination whereby consciousness descends into a pregnant woman's womb thus animating the embryonic body (nāmarūpa).
- See, e.g., Ñāṇamoli & Bodhi (2001), pp. 1238-39 n. 443.
- See, e.g., Fronsdal (2005), pp. 1, 115 note on verses "1-2."
- See, e.g., Bodhi (2005), p. 310.
- See, e.g., Nyanaponika & Bodhi (1999), p. 36.
- Mahāvedalla Sutta (MN 43; trans. Thanissaro, 2006). Also see Ñāṇamoli & Bodhi (2001), p. 391.
- See Bodhi (2000), p. 1687; and, Walshe (1985). Note that Bodhi translates the last phrase of the above block quote as: "... they take recourse in the mind, and the mind experiences their resort and domain."
- "Dichotomies" (Dhp. I), v. 1, trans. Fronsdal (2005), p.1.
- Yamakavaggo (Dhp. I), v. 1. Pali retrieved 2008-03-05 from "La Trobe U." Sri Lanka Tripitaka Project (SLTP) edition's KN BJT p. 26 at http://www.chaf.lib.latrobe.edu.au/dcd/tipitika.php?title=&record=7150.
- AN 1.6.6 & AN 1.6.7, trans. Nyanaponika & Bodhi (1999), p. 36.
- AN 1.6.6 & AN 1.6.7, retrieved 2008-03-05 from "La Trobe U." at http://www.chaf.lib.latrobe.edu.au/dcd/tipitika.php?title=&record=5533.
- Dhp. 1, vv. 19-20 (Fronsdal, 2005, p. 5)
- SN 1.24, trans. Bodhi (2000), pp. 101-2, v. 60.
- SN 1.24, SLTP edition, retrieved 2008-03-06 from "La Trobe U." at http://www.chaf.lib.latrobe.edu.au/dcd/tipitika.php?title=&record=4042.
- See, e.g., Walshe (1985), n. 4.
- See, e.g., Bodhi (2000), pp. 1687-8.
- SN 48.42, trans. Bodhi (2000), p. 1687. The elided phrases are simply the brahmin Uṇṇābha's questions (e.g., "But, Master Gotama, what is it that the mind takes recourse in?"), reiterated in the Buddha's identified responses (e.g., "The mind, brahmin, takes recourse in mindfulness").
- SN 47.42, SLTP edition, retrieved 2008-11-16 from "Bodhgaya News" at http://www.bodhgayanews.net/tipitaka.php?title=&record=5315. Note that Bodhi SN vaggo 48 is the same as SLTP vaggo 47 (Indriya Saṃyutta).
- Bodhi, Bhikkhu (trans.) (2000). The Connected Discourses of the Buddha: A Translation of the Saṃyutta Nikāya. Boston: Wisdom Publications. ISBN 0-86171-331-1.
- Bodhi, Bhikkhu (2005). In the Buddha's Words: An Anthology of Discourses from the Pali Canon. Boston: Wisdom Publications. ISBN 0-86171-491-1.
- Hamilton, Sue (2001). Identity and Experience: The Constitution of the Human Being according to Early Buddhism. Oxford: Luzac Oriental. ISBN 1-898942-23-4.
- Monier-Williams, Monier (1899, 1964). A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. London: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-864308-X. Retrieved 2008-03-06 from "Cologne University" at http://www.sanskrit-lexicon.uni-koeln.de/scans/MWScan/index.php?sfx=pdf.
- Ñāṇamoli, Bhikkhu (trans.) & Bodhi, Bhikkhu (ed.) (2001). The Middle-Length Discourses of the Buddha: A Translation of the Majjhima Nikāya. Boston: Wisdom Publications. ISBN 0-86171-072-X.
- Nyanaponika Thera & Bhikkhu Bodhi (1999). Numerical Discourses of the Buddha: An Anthology of Suttas from the Aṅguttara Nikāya. Walnut Creek, CA: AltaMira Press. ISBN 0-7425-0405-0.
- Rhys Davids, T.W. & William Stede (eds.) (1921-5). The Pali Text Society’s Pali–English Dictionary. Chipstead: Pali Text Society. A general on-line search engine for the PED is available at http://dsal.uchicago.edu/dictionaries/pali/.
- Thanissaro Bhikkhu (1995). Pabhassara Sutta: Luminous (AN 1.49-52). Retrieved 2008-03-05 from "Access to Insight" at http://www.accesstoinsight.org/tipitaka/an/an01/an01.049.than.html.
- Thanissaro Bhikkhu (2006). Mahavedalla Sutta: The Greater Set of Questions-and-Answers (MN 43). Retrieved 2008-03-05 from "Access to Insight" at http://www.accesstoinsight.org/tipitaka/mn/mn.043.than.html.
- Walshe, Maurice O'C. (1985). U.n.naabho Braahma.no Sutta: The Brahman U.n.naabha (SN 48.42). Retrieved 2008-11-15 from "Access to Insight" (2007) at http://www.accesstoinsight.org/tipitaka/sn/sn48/sn48.042.wlsh.html.