User:Nuujinn/Slovaks in Hungary

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Slovaks in present day Hungary are hangover of multiethnical Hungarian Kingdom. They formed as a nation inside of Hungarian Kingdom and lived in the Slovak geo-ethnical unit Upper Hungary (present day Slovakia). In the northern part of present Hungary they are autochthonous nation (Zemplen, Nograd, Hont, Gomor). However the majority of Slovaks in the present Hungary are descendants of colonists from Upper Hungary and they resettled Hungarian areas depopulated after Ottoman supremacy. In the history sizable minority of Slovaks was strongly assimilated and in 2001 counts about 18 000 Slovaks by nationality, 40 000 by ethnicity and from 100 000 to 110 000 as a estimation of Ministry for Foreign Affairs of Hungary and Slovak organizations in Hungary [1][2]

Slavs of Hungary[edit]

Slavs of Hungary (or Pannonian Slavs, Slavic Hungarians) were considered as proto-Slovaks[3]. But some Slovaks considered themselves as Slavs of Hungary to the end of the Kingdom [4]. Before the arrival of Ugric tribes (proto-Magyars) they had two political units: Balaton Principality and Principality of Nitra as a parts of Great Moravia. After collapse of Great Moravia a both parts became a parts of Hungarian Kingdom. Principality of Nitra became a political unit under the rulership of Magyar dukes and later Magyar princes whose were subordinated to Hungarian King. As a special poliiy in the Hungarian Kingdom existed till 12th century [5]. Local Slavic population of Balaton principality was assimilated and Slavic population of Nitra Principality became a foundation for ethnogenesis of Slovaks.

Slovaks in Hungarian Kingdom[edit]

In 1850 approximately 1,700,000 Slovaks lived in the Kingdom of Hungary.[6] Population statics from 1869 show that the size of the Slovak population changed to 1,818,228.[7] In 1900 the Slovak populace reached the number 2,008,744,[7] while at the end of the 1880s their number grew to nearly 1,900,000.[6] According to the 1910 census, 1,946,357 Slovaks lived in the Kingdom of Hungary.[7]

Ethnogenesis of Slovaks[edit]

Slovak colonization of lowlands[edit]

Magyarization[edit]

File:Monyelv-terkep3 dka.jpg
Slovaks in Hungarian Kingdom in 1891


Slovak national movement[edit]

Slovaks in present Hungary[edit]

After colapse of Hungarian Kingdom it was officialy about 163 000 of Slovaks in Hungary (1910 census)[dubious ][8].[verification needed] According to French estimations from conference in Paris in 1919-1920 it was the real number of Slovaks estimated to 630 000[9][dubious ][verification needed] Because of assimilation laws, dispersion and insufficient minority and insufficient minority laws assimilation continued to present times.[10][need quotation to verify][verification needed] Its not good quality of education in minority langauges, lot of Slovak villages or towns miss double marking what is standard for Magyar minority in Slovakia.[11][verification needed] The Slovak minority language is protected in Hungary by international agreements.[12] However, the minority report published by the Council of Europe on 10 March 2010 reassures Hungary to develop a structured long-term policy in the field of minority language protection.[12]. To strong assimilation of Slovaks contributes chauvinism and prejudices in the major part of Magyar society [13].[not in citation given][need quotation to verify]

File:Slovaks in hungary.jpg
Decimation of Slovaks in area of present Hungary between 1890-2001

Culture[edit]

Minority rights and politics[edit]

Hungarian Slovaks[edit]

References

  1. ^ http://www.mfa.gov.hu/NR/rdonlyres/9F2D180E-538E-4363-AA5E-3D103B522E3B/0/etniang.pdf
  2. ^ http://www.foruminst.sk/publ/egyeb/ethnicstability/ethnicstability_jan_fuzik_I.pdf
  3. ^ http://www.humnet.ucla.edu/pies/pdfs/iesv/2/flyer.pdf
  4. ^ http://query.nytimes.com/mem/archive-free/pdf?_r=1&res=9D0DE4DD153BE233A25752C1A9629C946496D6CF
  5. ^ http://www.visegradgroup.eu/main.php?folderID=948&articleID=4082&ctag=articlelist&iid=1
  6. ^ a b Frucht, Richard C. (2005). Eastern Europe: an introduction to the people, lands, and culture. ABC-CLIO. p. 293. ISBN 1576078000, 9781576078006 Check |isbn= value: invalid character (help). the Slovak population increased from approximately 1,7 million in the late 1850s to nearly 1,9 million by 1880 
  7. ^ a b c [Stanislav J.] (March 1995). A History of Slovakia: The Struggle for Survival. New York: Palgrave Macmillan; St. Martin's Press. p. 153. ISBN 978-0-312-10403-0.  Check |author-link1= value (help)
  8. ^ Národnostné menšiny v SR z hľadiska demografického vývoja (Matica slovenská Martin 1998) s. 12
  9. ^ Conférence de la paix 1919-1920. Recueil des actes de la conférence. Partie IV.
  10. ^ http://webcache.googleusercontent.com/search?q=cache:Q7Ah1fWN8xUJ:www.voltaire.netkosice.sk/archive/slovensko/Potreba%2520riesenia%2520slovensko-madarskych%2520vztahov%2520na%2520zaklade%2520reciprocity.doc+papu%C4%8Dek+reciprocita&cd=3&hl=sk&ct=clnk&client=opera Papucsek Gregor. 2008. Potreba riešenia slovensko-maďarských vzťahov na základe princípu reciprocity
  11. ^ http://www.luno.hu/content/view/7842/55/
  12. ^ a b http://www.coe.int/t/dg4/education/minlang/Pressreleases/HungaryPressCMRec4_en.asp
  13. ^ http://www.riskandforecast.com/post/in-depth-analysis/back-by-popular-demand_411.html

Slovaks Category: Slavic people Hungarian Kingdom Category: Hungary Category: Magyarization