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The word Watoro (singular Mtoro, from Swahili language verb kutoroka "to escape") references escaped slaves from West Africa during the 19th century. The established in Tanzania, Kenya and Somalia.


  • The Structure of Slavery in Indian Ocean Africa and Asia, ISBN 9780714654867 (S. 61)
  • Jan-Georg Deutsch: Emancipation Without Abolition in German East Africa, 2006, ISBN 9780852559857 (S. 75)