|Republic of Kenya
Jamhuri ya Kenya (Kiswahili)
|Motto: "Harambee" (Kiswahili)
"Let us all pull together"
|Anthem: Ee Mungu Nguvu Yetu
O God of all creation
and largest city
|Ethnic groups (2016)|
|Government||Unitary presidential constitutional republic|
|•||Deputy President||William Ruto|
|•||Speaker of the Senate||Ekwee Ethuro|
|•||Speaker of the National Assembly||Justin Muturi|
|•||Attorney General||Githu Muigai|
|•||Lower house||National Assembly|
|•||from the United Kingdom with respect to the Colony of Kenya and the Sultan of Zanzibar with respect to the Protectorate of Kenya||12 December 1963|
|•||Republic declared||12 December 1964|
|•||Total||581,309 km2 (49th)
224,960 sq mi
|•||2014 estimate||45,010,056 (31st)|
|GDP (PPP)||2016 estimate|
|GDP (nominal)||2016 estimate|
medium · 48th
|HDI (2014)|| 0.548
low · 145th
|Currency||Kenyan shilling (KES)|
|Time zone||EAT (UTC+3)|
|Date format||dd/mm/yy (AD)|
|Drives on the||left|
|ISO 3166 code||KE|
| According to the CIA, estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of mortality because of AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality and death rates, lower population and growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex, than would otherwise be expected.|
Kenya (//; locally [ˈkɛɲa] ( listen)), officially the Republic of Kenya, is a country in Africa and a founding member of the East African Community (EAC). Its capital and largest city is Nairobi. Kenya's territory lies on the equator and overlies the East African Rift covering a diverse and expansive terrain that extends roughly from Lake Victoria to Lake Turkana (formerly called Lake Rudolf) and further south-east to the Indian Ocean. It is bordered by Tanzania to the south and southwest, Uganda to the west, South Sudan to the north-west, Ethiopia to the north and Somalia to the north-east. Kenya covers 581,309 km2 (224,445 sq mi), and had a population of approximately 45 million people in July 2014.
Kenya has a warm and humid tropical climate on its Indian Ocean coastline. The climate is cooler in the savannah grasslands around the capital city, Nairobi, and especially closer to Mount Kenya, which has snow permanently on its peaks. Further inland, in the Nyanza region, there is a hot and dry climate which becomes humid around Lake Victoria, the largest tropical fresh-water lake in the world. This gives way to temperate and forested hilly areas in the neighbouring western region. The north-eastern regions along the border with Somalia and Ethiopia are arid and semi-arid areas with near-desert landscapes. Kenya is known for its safaris, diverse climate and geography, and expansive wildlife reserves and national parks such as the East and West Tsavo National Park, the Maasai Mara, Lake Nakuru National Park, and Aberdares National Park. Kenya has several world heritage sites such as Lamu and numerous beaches, including in Diani, Bamburi and Kilifi, where international yachting competitions are held every year.
The African Great Lakes region, which Kenya is a part of, has been inhabited by humans since the Lower Paleolithic period. By the first millennium AD, the Bantu expansion had reached the area from West-Central Africa. The borders of the modern state consequently comprise the crossroads of the Niger-Congo, Nilo-Saharan and Afroasiatic areas of the continent, representing most major ethnolinguistic groups found in Africa. Bantu and Nilotic populations together constitute around 97% of the nation's residents. European and Arab presence in coastal Mombasa dates to the Early Modern period; European exploration of the interior began in the 19th century. The British Empire established the East Africa Protectorate in 1895, which starting in 1920 gave way to the Kenya Colony. Kenya obtained independence in December 1963. Following a referendum in August 2010 and adoption of a new constitution, Kenya is now divided into 47 semi-autonomous counties, governed by elected governors.
The capital, Nairobi, is a regional commercial hub. The economy of Kenya is the largest by GDP in East and Central Africa. Agriculture is a major employer; the country traditionally exports tea and coffee and has more recently begun to export fresh flowers to Europe. The service industry is also a major economic driver. Additionally, Kenya is a member of the East African Community trading bloc.
- 1 Etymology
- 2 History
- 3 Geography and climate
- 4 Government and politics
- 5 Economy
- 6 Demographics
- 7 Culture
- 8 See also
- 9 References
- 10 Bibliography
- 11 External links
The Republic of Kenya is named after Mount Kenya. The origin of the name Kenya is not clear, but perhaps linked to the Kikuyu, Embu and Kamba words Kirinyaga, Kirenyaa, and Kiinyaa which mean "God's resting place" in all three languages. If so, then the British may not so much have mispronounced it ('Keenya'), as misspelled it. Prehistoric volcanic eruptions of Mount Kenya (now extinct) may have resulted in its association with divinity and creation among the indigenous Bantu ethnic groups, who are the native inhabitants of the agricultural land surrounding Mount Kenya.[original research?]
In the 19th century, the German explorer Johann Ludwig Krapf was staying with the Bantu Kamba people when he first spotted the mountain. On asking for the name of the mountain, he was told "Kĩ-Nyaa" or "Kĩĩma- Kĩĩnyaa" probably because the pattern of black rock and white snow on its peaks reminded them of the feathers of the cock ostrich. The Agikuyu, who inhabit the slopes of Mt. Kenya, call it Kĩrĩma Kĩrĩnyaga in Kikuyu, which is quite similar to the Kamba name.
Ludwig Krapf recorded the name as both Kenia and Kegnia believed by most to be a corruption of the Kamba version. Others say that this was—on the contrary—a very precise notation of a correct African pronunciation //. An 1882 map drawn by Joseph Thompsons, a Scottish geologist and naturalist, indicated Mt. Kenya as Mt. Kenia, 1862. Controversy over the actual meaning of the word Kenya notwithstanding, it is clear that the mountain's name became widely accepted, pars pro toto, as the name of the country.
Fossils found in Kenya suggest that primates roamed the area more than 20 million years ago. Recent findings near Lake Turkana indicate that hominids such as Homo habilis (1.8 and 2.5 million years ago) and Homo erectus (1.9 million to 350,000 years ago) are possible direct ancestors of modern Homo sapiens, and lived in Kenya in the Pleistocene epoch.
During excavations at Lake Turkana in 1984, paleoanthropologist Richard Leakey assisted by Kamoya Kimeu discovered the Turkana Boy, a 1.6-million-year-old fossil belonging to Homo erectus. Previous research on early hominids is particularly identified with Mary Leakey and Louis Leakey, who were responsible for the preliminary archaeological research at Olorgesailie and Hyrax Hill. Later work at the former site was undertaken by Glynn Isaac.
The first inhabitants of present-day Kenya were hunter-gatherer groups, akin to the modern Khoisan speakers. These people were later replaced by agropastoralist Cushitic speakers from the Horn of Africa. During the early Holocene, the regional climate shifted from dry to wetter climatic conditions, providing an opportunity for the development of cultural traditions, such as agriculture and herding, in a more favourable environment.
Around 500 BC, Nilotic-speaking pastoralists (ancestral to Kenya's Nilotic speakers) started migrating from present-day Southern Sudan into Kenya. Nilotic groups in Kenya include the Samburu, Luo, Turkana, Maasai.
By the first millennium AD, Bantu-speaking farmers had moved into the region. The Bantus originated in West Africa along the Benue River in what is now eastern Nigeria and western Cameroon. The Bantu migration brought new developments in agriculture and iron working to the region. Bantu groups in Kenya include the Kikuyu, Luhya, Kamba, Kisii, Meru, Kuria, Aembu, Ambeere, Wadawida-Watuweta, Wapokomo and Mijikenda among others.
Swahili culture and trade (1st century–19th century)
The Kenyan coast had served host to communities of ironworkers and communities of Bantu subsistence farmers, hunters and fishers who supported the economy with agriculture, fishing, metal production and trade with foreign countries. These communities formed the earliest city states in the region which were collectively known as Azania.
By the 1st century CE, many of the city-states such as Mombasa, Malindi, and Zanzibar began to establish trade relations with Arabs. This led to the increase economic growth of the Swahili states, introduction of Islam, Arabic influences on the Swahili Bantu language, cultural diffusion, as well as the Swahili city-states becoming a member of a larger trade network. Many historians had long believed that the city states were established by Arab or Persian traders, but scholars now recognize the city states were an indigenous development where the apex of their development was around the 8th century CE.
The Kilwa Sultanate was a medieval sultanate, centred at Kilwa in modern-day Tanzania. At its height, its authority stretched over the entire length of the Swahili Coast, including Kenya. It was said to be founded in the 10th century by Ali ibn al-Hassan Shirazi, a Persian Sultan from Shiraz in southern Iran. The subsequent Swahili rulers would go on to build elaborate coral mosques and introduce copper coinage.
The Swahili built Mombasa into a major port city and established trade links with other nearby city-states, as well as commercial centres in Persia, Arabia, and even India. By the 15th-century, Portuguese voyager Duarte Barbosa claimed that "Mombasa is a place of great traffic and has a good harbour in which there are always moored small craft of many kinds and also great ships, both of which are bound from Sofala and others which come from Cambay and Melinde and others which sail to the island of Zanzibar."
Later on in the 17th century, once the Swahili coast was conquered and came under direct rule of Omani Arabs, the slave trade was expanded by the Omani Arabs to meet the demands of plantations in Oman and Zanzibar. Initially these traders came mainly from Oman, but later many came from Zanzibar (such as Tippu Tip). In addition, the Portuguese started buying slaves from the Omani and Zanzibari traders in response to the interruption of the transatlantic slave trade by British abolitionists.
Swahili, a Bantu language with Arabic, Persian, and other Middle Eastern and South Asian loanwords, later developed as a lingua franca for trade between the different peoples. Swahili now also has loan words from English.
Throughout the centuries, the Kenyan Coast has played host to many merchants and explorers. Among the cities that line the Kenyan coast is the City of Malindi. It has remained an important Swahili settlement since the 14th century and once rivalled Mombasa for dominance in the African Great Lakes region. Malindi has traditionally been a friendly port city for foreign powers. In 1414, the Chinese trader and explorer Zheng He representing the Ming Dynasty visited the East African coast on one of his last 'treasure voyages'. Malindi authorities welcomed the Portuguese explorer Vasco da Gama in 1498.
British Kenya (1888–1962)
The colonial history of Kenya dates from the establishment of a German protectorate over the Sultan of Zanzibar's coastal possessions in 1885, followed by the arrival of the Imperial British East Africa Company in 1888. Incipient imperial rivalry was forestalled when Germany handed its coastal holdings to Britain in 1890. This was followed by the building of the Kenya–Uganda railway passing through the country.
This was resisted by some ethnic groups—notably the Nandi led by Orkoiyot Koitalel Arap Samoei for ten years from 1890 to 1900—however the British eventually built the railway. The Nandi were the first ethnic group to be put in a native reserve to stop them from disrupting the building of the railway. In 1920, the East Africa Protectorate was turned into a colony and renamed Kenya for its highest mountain.
During the railway construction era, there was a significant inflow of Indian people, who provided the bulk of the skilled manpower required for construction. They and most of their descendants later remained in Kenya and formed the core of several distinct Indian communities such as the Ismaili Muslim and Sikh communities.
At the outbreak of World War I in August 1914, the governors of British East Africa (as the protectorate was generally known) and German East Africa agreed a truce in an attempt to keep the young colonies out of direct hostilities. Lt. Col. Paul von Lettow-Vorbeck took command of the German military forces, determined to tie down as many British resources as possible. Completely cut off from Germany, von Lettow conducted an effective guerrilla warfare campaign, living off the land, capturing British supplies, and remaining undefeated. He eventually surrendered in Northern Rhodesia (today Zambia) fourteen days after the Armistice was signed in 1918.
To chase von Lettow, the British deployed the British Indian Army troops from India but needed large numbers of porters to overcome the formidable logistics of transporting supplies far into the interior on foot. The Carrier Corps was formed and ultimately mobilised over 400,000 Africans, contributing to their long-term politicisation.
Throughout World War II, Kenya was an important source of manpower and agriculture for the United Kingdom. Kenya itself was the site of fighting between Allied forces and Italian troops in 1940–41 when Italian forces invaded. Wajir and Malindi were bombed as well.
During the early part of the 20th century, the interior central highlands were settled by British and other European farmers, who became wealthy farming coffee and tea. (One depiction of this period of change from one colonist's perspective is found in the memoir Out of Africa by Danish author Baroness Karen von Blixen-Finecke, published in 1937.) By the 1930s, approximately 30,000 white settlers lived in the area and gained a political voice because of their contribution to the market economy.
The central highlands were already home to over a million members of the Kikuyu people, most of whom had no land claims in European terms and lived as itinerant farmers. To protect their interests, the settlers banned the growing of coffee, introduced a hut tax, and the landless were granted less and less land in exchange for their labour. A massive exodus to the cities ensued as their ability to provide a living from the land dwindled. There were 80,000 white settlers living in Kenya in the 1950s.
In 1952, Princess Elizabeth and her husband Prince Philip were on holiday at the Treetops Hotel in Kenya when her father, King George VI, died in his sleep. The young princess cut short her trip and returned home immediately to take her throne. She was crowned Queen Elizabeth II at Westminster Abbey in 1953 and as British hunter and conservationist Jim Corbett (who accompanied the royal couple) put it, she went up a tree in Africa a princess and came down a queen.
Mau Mau Uprising (1952–1959)
From October 1952 to December 1959, Kenya was in a state of emergency arising from the Mau Mau rebellion against British rule. The governor requested and obtained British and African troops, including the King's African Rifles. The British began counter-insurgency operations. In May 1953, General Sir George Erskine took charge as commander-in-chief of the colony's armed forces, with the personal backing of Winston Churchill.
The capture of Warũhiũ Itote (aka General China) on 15 January 1954 and the subsequent interrogation led to a better understanding of the Mau Mau command structure. Operation Anvil opened on 24 April 1954, after weeks of planning by the army with the approval of the War Council. The operation effectively placed Nairobi under military siege. Nairobi's occupants were screened and the Mau Mau supporters moved to detention camps. The Home Guard formed the core of the government's strategy as it was composed of loyalist Africans, not foreign forces such as the British Army and King's African Rifles. By the end of the emergency, the Home Guard had killed 4,686 Mau Mau, amounting to 42% of the total insurgents. The capture of Dedan Kimathi on 21 October 1956 in Nyeri signified the ultimate defeat of the Mau Mau and essentially ended the military offensive. During this period, substantial governmental changes to land tenure occurred. The most important of these was the Swynnerton Plan, which was used to both reward loyalists and punish Mau Mau.
Independent Kenya (1963)
The first direct elections for native Kenyans to the Legislative Council took place in 1957. Despite British hopes of handing power to "moderate" local rivals, it was the Kenya African National Union (KANU) of Jomo Kenyatta that formed a government. The Colony of Kenya and the Protectorate of Kenya each came to an end on 12 December 1963 with independence being conferred on all of Kenya. The United Kingdom ceded sovereignty over the Colony of Kenya. The Sultan of Zanzibar agreed that simultaneous with independence for the Colony of Kenya, the Sultan would cease to have sovereignty over the Protectorate of Kenya so that all of Kenya would be one sovereign, independent state. In this way, Kenya became an independent country under the Kenya Independence Act 1963 of the United Kingdom. Exactly 12 months later on 12 December 1964, Kenya became a republic under the name "Republic of Kenya".
Concurrently, the Kenyan army fought the Shifta War against ethnic Somali rebels inhabiting the Northern Frontier District, who wanted to join their kin in the Somali Republic to the north. A cease fire was eventually reached with the signature of the Arusha Memorandum in October 1967, but relative insecurity prevailed through 1969. To discourage further invasions, Kenya signed a defence pact with Ethiopia in 1969, which is still in effect.
Moi era (1978–2002)
At Kenyatta's death in 1978, Daniel arap Moi became President. Daniel arap Moi retained the Presidency, being unopposed in elections held in 1979, 1983 (snap elections) and 1988, all of which were held under the single party constitution. The 1983 elections were held a year early, and were a direct result of an abortive military coup attempt on 2 August 1982.
The abortive coup was masterminded by a low ranked Air Force serviceman, Senior Private Hezekiah Ochuka, and was staged mainly by enlisted men in the Air Force. The putsch was quickly suppressed by forces commanded by Chief of General Staff Mahamoud Mohamed, a veteran Somali military official. They included the General Service Unit (GSU)—a paramilitary wing of the police—and later the regular police.
On the heels of the Garissa Massacre of 1980, Kenyan troops committed the Wagalla massacre in 1984 against thousands of civilians in Wajir County. An official probe into the atrocities was later ordered in 2011.
The election held in 1988 saw the advent of the mlolongo (queuing) system, where voters were supposed to line up behind their favoured candidates instead of a secret ballot. This was seen as the climax of a very undemocratic regime and it led to widespread agitation for constitutional reform. Several contentious clauses, including one that allowed for only one political party were changed in the following years. In democratic, multiparty elections in 1992 and 1997, Daniel arap Moi won re-election.
In 2002, Moi was constitutionally barred from running, and Mwai Kibaki, running for the opposition coalition "National Rainbow Coalition" (NARC), was elected President. Anderson (2003) reports the elections were judged free and fair by local and international observers, and seemed to mark a turning point in Kenya's democratic evolution.
In 2005, Kenyans rejected a plan to replace the 1963 independence constitution with a new one.
In mid-2011, two consecutive missed rainy seasons precipitated the worst drought in East Africa seen in 60 years. The northwestern Turkana region was especially affected, with local schools shut down as a result. The crisis was reportedly over by early 2012 because of coordinated relief efforts. Aid agencies subsequently shifted their emphasis to recovery initiatives, including digging irrigation canals and distributing plant seeds.
Geography and climate
At 580,367 km2 (224,081 sq mi), Kenya is the world's forty-seventh largest country (after Madagascar). It lies between latitudes 5°N and 5°S, and longitudes 34° and 42°E. From the coast on the Indian Ocean, the low plains rise to central highlands. The highlands are bisected by the Great Rift Valley, with a fertile plateau lying to the east.
The Kenyan Highlands comprise one of the most successful agricultural production regions in Africa. The highlands are the site of the highest point in Kenya and the second highest peak on the continent: Mount Kenya, which reaches 5,199 m (17,057 ft) and is the site of glaciers. Mount Kilimanjaro (5,895 m or 19,341 ft) can be seen from Kenya to the south of the Tanzanian border.
Kenya's climate varies from tropical along the coast to temperate inland to arid in the north and northeast parts of the country. The area receives a great deal of sunshine every month, and summer clothes are worn throughout the year. It is usually cool at night and early in the morning inland at higher elevations.
The "long rains" season occurs from March/April to May/June. The "short rains" season occurs from October to November/December. The rainfall is sometimes heavy and often falls in the afternoons and evenings. The temperature remains high throughout these months of tropical rain. The hottest period is February and March, leading into the season of the long rains, and the coldest is in July, until mid August.
|City||Elevation (m)||Max (°C)||Min (°C)|
|Eldoret||Rift Valley town||2,085||23.6||9.5|
|Lodwar||Dry north plainlands||506||34.8||23.7|
|Mandera||Dry north plainlands||506||34.8||25.7|
Kenya has considerable land area devoted to wildlife habitats, including the Masai Mara, where blue wildebeest and other bovids participate in a large scale annual migration. More than 1 million wildebeest and 200,000 zebras participate in the migration across the Mara River.
The "Big Five" game animals of Africa, that is the lion, leopard, buffalo, rhinoceros, and elephant, can be found in Kenya and in the Masai Mara in particular. A significant population of other wild animals, reptiles and birds can be found in the national parks and game reserves in the country. The annual animal migration occurs between June and September with millions of animals taking part, attracting valuable foreign tourism. Two million wildebeest migrate a distance of 2,900 kilometres (1,802 mi) from the Serengeti in neighbouring Tanzania to the Masai Mara in Kenya, in a constant clockwise fashion, searching for food and water supplies. This Serengeti Migration of the wildebeest is a curious spectacle listed among the Seven Natural Wonders of Africa.
Government and politics
Kenya is a presidential representative democratic republic. The President is both the head of state and head of government, and of a multi-party system. Executive power is exercised by the government. Legislative power is vested in both the government and the National Assembly and the Senate. The Judiciary is independent of the executive and the legislature. There was growing concern especially during former president Daniel arap Moi's tenure that the executive was increasingly meddling with the affairs of the judiciary.
Kenya ranks low on Transparency International's Corruption Perception Index (CPI), a metric which attempts to gauge the prevalence of public sector corruption in various countries. In 2012, the nation placed 139th out of 176 total countries in the CPI, with a score of 27/100. However, there are several rather significant developments with regards to curbing corruption from the Kenyan government, for instance, the establishment of a new and independent Ethics and Anti-Corruption Commission (EACC).
Following general elections held in 1997, the Constitution of Kenya Review Act designed to pave the way for more comprehensive amendments to the Kenyan constitution was passed by the national parliament.
In December 2002, Kenyans held democratic and open elections, most of which were judged free and fair by international observers. The 2002 elections marked an important turning point in Kenya's democratic evolution in that power was transferred peacefully from the Kenya African National Union (KANU), which had ruled the country since independence to the National Rainbow Coalition (NARC), a coalition of political parties.
Under the presidency of Mwai Kibaki, the new ruling coalition promised to focus its efforts on generating economic growth, combating corruption, improving education, and rewriting its constitution. A few of these promises have been met. There is free primary education. In 2007, the government issued a statement declaring that from 2008, secondary education would be heavily subsidised, with the government footing all tuition fees.
The 2007 Kenyan general election was held on 27 December 2007. It comprised presidential, parliamentary and civic elections.
The parliamentary elections were considered to be free and generally fair (as opposed to the contested presidential elections). They were remarkable for a number of changes. Amongst these were:
- Out of 190 outgoing MPs defending their seats only 71 were re-elected.
- 20 ministers defending their seats were defeated
- KANU the official opposition party of 2002 which later joined the government was reduced from 62 to 14 seats.
- 15 female candidates were elected which is the highest number ever in Kenyan history (2002: 9)
Campaign issues included:
- Appropriations of Constituency Development Fund (CDF) money
- MP's salary hikes
- Legislation passed / not passed in the 9th Parliament
- Changing the constitution.
In the presidential elections, President Kibaki under the Party of National Unity ran for re-election against the main opposition party, the Orange Democratic Movement (ODM). The elections were seen to have been flawed with international observers saying that they were below international standards. After a split which took a crucial 8% of the votes away from the ODM to the newly formed Orange Democratic Movement-Kenya (ODM-K)'s candidate, Kalonzo Musyoka, the race tightened between ODM candidate Raila Odinga and Kibaki. As the count came into the Electoral Commission of Kenya (ECK) headquarters, Odinga was shown to have a slight, and then substantial lead as the results from his strongholds came in early. As the ECK continued to count the votes, Kibaki closed the gap and then overtook his opponent by a substantial margin after votes from his stronghold arrived later. This led to protests and open discrediting of the ECK for complicity and to Odinga declaring himself the "people's president" and calling for a recount.
The protests escalated into ethnic violence and destruction of property; almost 1,000 people were killed and nearly 600,000 displaced. The dispute caused underlying tensions over land and its distribution to re-erupt, as it had in the 1992 and 1997 elections. Hundreds of thousands were forced off their land to relatives elsewhere in the country and some claim weapons are being bought in the region, perhaps in anticipation of the 2013 elections.
A group of eminent persons of Africa, led by former United Nations secretary-general Kofi Annan, brokered a peaceful solution to the political stalemate.
Since the election riots, the government and civil society organisations started programmes to avoid similar disasters in the future, said Agnes R. M. Aboum – executive director of TAABCO Research and Development Consultants in Nairobi – in the magazine D+C Development and Cooperation. For example, the Truth, Justice and Reconciliation Commission initiated community dialogues, the Evangelical Lutheran Church in Kenya started peace meetings and the Kenya National Dialogue and Reconciliation process was started.
On 28 February 2008, Kibaki and Odinga signed an agreement on the formation of a coalition government in which Odinga would become Kenya's second prime minister. Under the deal, the president would appoint cabinet ministers from both PNU and ODM camps depending on each party's strength in Parliament. The agreement stipulated that the cabinet would include a vice-president and two deputy prime ministers. After debates, it was passed by parliament; the coalition would hold until the end of the current parliament or if either of the parties withdraws from the deal before then.
The new office of the PM will have power and authority to co-ordinate and supervise the functions of the government and will be occupied by an elected MP who will be the leader of the party or coalition with majority members in Parliament. The world watched Annan and his UN-backed panel and African Union chairman Jakaya Kikwete as they brought together the former rivals to the signing ceremony, beamed live on national TV from the steps of Nairobi's Harambee House. On 29 February 2008, representatives of PNU and ODM began working on the finer details of the power-sharing agreement. Kenyan lawmakers unanimously approved a power-sharing deal 18 March 2008, aimed at salvaging a country usually seen as one of the most stable and prosperous in Africa. The deal brought Kibaki's PNU and Odinga's ODM together and heralded the formation of the grand coalition, in which the two political parties would share power equally.
On 13 April 2008, President Kibaki named a grand coalition cabinet of 41 Ministers- including the prime minister and his two deputies. The cabinet, which included 50 Assistant Ministers, was sworn in at the State House in Nairobi on Thursday, 17 April 2008, in the presence of Dr. Kofi Annan and other invited dignitaries.
A constitutional change was considered that would eliminate the position of prime minister and simultaneously reduce the powers of the president. A referendum to vote on the proposed constitution was held on 4 August 2010, and the new constitution passed by a wide margin. Among other things, the new constitution delegates more power to local governments and gives Kenyans a bill of rights. It was promulgated on 27 August 2010 at a euphoric ceremony in Nairobi's Uhuru Park, accompanied by a 21-gun salute. The event was attended by various African leaders and praised by the international community. As of that day, the new constitution heralding the Second Republic came into force.
2013 elections and new government
Under the new constitution and with President Kibaki prohibited by term limits from running for a third term, Deputy Prime Minister Uhuru Kenyatta ran for office. He won with 50.51% of the vote in March 2013.
In December 2014, President Uhuru Kenyatta signed a Security Laws Amendment Bill, which supporters of the law suggested was necessary to guard against armed groups. Opposition politicians, human rights groups, and nine Western countries criticised the security bill, arguing that it infringed on democratic freedoms. The governments of the United States, the United Kingdom, Germany, and France also collectively issued a press statement cautioning about the law's potential impact. Through the Jubilee Coalition, the Bill was later passed on 19 December in the National Assembly under acrimonious circumstances.
Kenya has close ties with its fellow Swahili-speaking neighbours in the African Great Lakes region. Relations with Uganda and Tanzania are generally strong, as the three nations work toward economic and social integration through common membership in the East African Community.
Relations with Somalia have historically been tense, although there has been some military co-ordination against Islamist insurgents. Kenya has good relations with the United Kingdom. Kenya is one of the most pro-American nations in Africa, and the wider world.
With International Criminal Court trial dates scheduled in 2013 for both President Kenyatta and Deputy President William Ruto related to the 2007 election aftermath, US President Barack Obama chose not to visit the country during his mid-2013 African trip. Later in the summer, Kenyatta visited China at the invitation of President Xi Jinping after a stop in Russia and not having visited the United States as president. In July 2015 Obama visited Kenya, the first American president to visit the country while in office.
The Kenya Defence Forces are the armed forces of the Republic of Kenya. The Kenya Army, Kenya Navy and Kenya Air Force comprise the National Defence Forces. The current Kenya Defence Forces were established, and its composition laid out, in Article 241 of the 2010 Constitution of Kenya; the KDF is governed by the Kenya Defence Forces Act of 2012. The President of Kenya is the commander-in-chief of all the armed forces.
The armed forces are regularly deployed in peacekeeping missions around the world. Further, in the aftermath of the national elections of December 2007 and the violence that subsequently engulfed the country, a commission of inquiry, the Waki Commission, commended its readiness and adjudged it to "have performed its duty well." Nevertheless, there have been serious allegations of human rights violations, most recently while conducting counter-insurgency operations in the Mt Elgon area and also in the district of Mandera central.
Kenya's armed forces, like many government institutions in the country, have been tainted by corruption allegations. Because the operations of the armed forces have been traditionally cloaked by the ubiquitous blanket of "state security", the corruption has been hidden from public view, and thus less subject to public scrutiny and notoriety. This has changed recently. In what are by Kenyan standards unprecedented revelations, in 2010, credible claims of corruption were made with regard to recruitment  and procurement of Armoured Personnel Carriers. Further, the wisdom and prudence of certain decisions of procurement have been publicly questioned.
Kenya is divided into 47 semi-autonomous counties that are headed by governors. These 47 counties now form the first-order divisions of Kenya.
The smallest administrative units in Kenya are called locations. Locations often coincide with electoral wards. Locations are usually named after their central villages/towns. Many larger towns consist of several locations. Each location has a chief, appointed by the state.
Constituencies are an electoral subdivision, with each county comprising a whole number of constituencies. An Interim Boundaries commission was formed in year 2010 to review the constituencies and in its report, it recommended creation of an additional 80 constituencies. Previous to the 2013 elections, there were 210 constituencies in Kenya.
Although Kenya is the biggest and most advanced economy in east and central Africa, and has an affluent urban minority, it has a Human Development Index (HDI) of 0.519, ranked 145 out of 186 in the world. As of 2005[update], 17.7% of Kenyans lived on less than $1.25 a day. A third of people's income goes towards paying bribes which averages sixteen bribes a month per Kenyan. The important agricultural sector is one of the least developed and largely inefficient, employing 75% of the workforce compared to less than 3% in the food secure developed countries. Kenya is usually classified as a frontier market or occasionally an emerging market, but it is not one of the least developed countries.
The economy has seen much expansion, seen by strong performance in tourism, higher education and telecommunications, and acceptable[neutrality is disputed] post-drought results in agriculture, especially the vital tea sector. Kenya's economy grew by more than 7% in 2007, and its foreign debt was greatly reduced. But this changed immediately after the disputed presidential election of December 2007, following the chaos which engulfed the country.
East and Central Africa's biggest economy has posted tremendous growth in the service sector, boosted by rapid expansion in telecommunication and financial activity over the last decade, and now[when?] contributes 62% of GDP. 22% of GDP still comes from the unreliable agricultural sector which employs 75% of the labour force (a consistent characteristic of under-developed economies that have not attained food security—an important catalyst of economic growth) A small portion of the population relies on food aid. Industry and manufacturing is the smallest sector, accounting for 16% of GDP. The service, industry and manufacturing sectors only employ 25% of the labour force but contribute 75% of GDP.
Privatisation of state corporations like the defunct Kenya Post and Telecommunications Company, which resulted in East Africa's most profitable company—Safaricom, has led to their revival because of massive private investment.
As of May 2011, economic prospects are positive with 4–5% GDP growth expected, largely because of expansions in tourism, telecommunications, transport, construction and a recovery in agriculture. The World Bank estimated growth of 4.3% in 2012.
In March 1996, the presidents of Kenya, Tanzania, and Uganda re-established the East African Community (EAC). The EAC's objectives include harmonising tariffs and customs regimes, free movement of people, and improving regional infrastructures. In March 2004, the three East African countries signed a Customs Union Agreement.
Kenya is East and Central Africa's hub for financial services. The Nairobi Securities Exchange (NSE) is ranked 4th in Africa in terms of market capitalisation. The Kenyan banking system is supervised by the Central Bank of Kenya (CBK). As of late July 2004, the system consisted of 43 commercial banks (down from 48 in 2001), several non-bank financial institutions, including mortgage companies, four savings and loan associations, and several core foreign-exchange bureaus.
Kenya's services sector, which contributes 61% of GDP, is dominated by tourism. The tourism sector has exhibited steady growth in most years since independence and by the late 1980s had become the country's principal source of foreign exchange. Tourists, the largest number being from Germany and the United Kingdom, are attracted mainly to the coastal beaches and the game reserves, notably, the expansive East and Tsavo West National Park 20,808 square kilometres (8,034 sq mi) in the southeast.
Tourism has seen a substantial revival over the past several years and is the major contributor to the pick-up in the country's economic growth. Tourism is now Kenya's largest foreign exchange earning sector, followed by flowers, tea, and coffee. In 2006 tourism generated US$803 million, up from US$699 million the previous year. Presently, there are also numerous shopping malls in Kenya. In addition, there are four main hypermarket chains in Kenya. Tourism enhances water supply. Tourism in Kenya includes eco-tourism. The Maasai Mara tribe is pushed out of its land. Tourism in Kenya is connected to drugs, alcohol and prostitution.
Agriculture is the second largest contributor to Kenya's gross domestic product (GDP), after the service sector. In 2005 agriculture, including forestry and fishing, accounted for 24% of GDP, as well as for 18% of wage employment and 50% of revenue from exports. The principal cash crops are tea, horticultural produce, and coffee. Horticultural produce and tea are the main growth sectors and the two most valuable of all of Kenya's exports. The production of major food staples such as corn is subject to sharp weather-related fluctuations. Production downturns periodically necessitate food aid—for example, in 2004 aid for 1.8 million people because of one of Kenya's intermittent droughts.
A consortium led by the International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT) has had some success in helping farmers grow new pigeon pea varieties, instead of maize, in particularly dry areas. Pigeon peas are very drought resistant, so can be grown in areas with less than 650 mm annual rainfall. Successive projects encouraged the commercialisation of legumes, by stimulating the growth of local seed production and agro-dealer networks for distribution and marketing. This work, which included linking producers to wholesalers, helped to increase local producer prices by 20–25% in Nairobi and Mombasa. The commercialisation of the pigeon pea is now enabling some farmers to buy assets, ranging from mobile phones to productive land and livestock, and is opening pathways for them to move out of poverty.
Tea, coffee, sisal, pyrethrum, corn, and wheat are grown in the fertile highlands, one of the most successful agricultural production regions in Africa. Livestock predominates in the semi-arid savanna to the north and east. Coconuts, pineapples, cashew nuts, cotton, sugarcane, sisal, and corn are grown in the lower-lying areas. Kenya has not attained the level of investment and efficiency in agriculture that can guarantee food security and coupled with resulting poverty (53% of the population lives below the poverty line), a significant portion of the population regularly starves and is heavily dependent on food aid. Poor roads, an inadequate railway network, under-used water transport and expensive air transport have isolated mostly arid and semi-arid areas and farmers in other regions often leave food to rot in the fields because they cannot access markets. This was last seen in August and September 2011 prompting the Kenyans for Kenya initiative by the Red Cross.
Kenya’s irrigation sector is categorized into three organizational types: smallholder schemes, centrally-managed public schemes and private/commercial irrigation schemes.
The smallholder schemes are owned, developed and managed by individuals or groups of farmers operating as water users or self-help groups. Irrigation is carried out on individual or on group farms averaging 0.1–0.4 ha. There are about 3,000 smallholder irrigation schemes covering a total area of 47,000 ha. The country has seven large, centrally managed irrigation schemes, namely Mwea, Bura, Hola, Perkera, West Kano, Bunyala and Ahero covering a total commanded area of 18,200 ha and averaging 2,600 ha per scheme. These schemes are managed by the National Irrigation Board and account for 18% of irrigated land area in Kenya. Large-scale private commercial farms cover 45,000 hectares accounting for 40% of irrigated land. They utilize high technology and produce high-value crops for the export market, especially flowers and vegetables.
Kenya is the world's 3rd largest exporter of cut flowers. Roughly half of Kenya's 127 flower farms are concentrated around Lake Naivasha, 90 kilometers northwest of Nairobi. To speed their export, Nairobi airport has a terminal dedicated to the transport of flowers and vegetables.
Industry and manufacturing
Although Kenya is the most industrially developed country in the African Great Lakes region, manufacturing still accounts for only 14% of the GDP. Industrial activity, concentrated around the three largest urban centres, Nairobi, Mombasa and Kisumu, is dominated by food-processing industries such as grain milling, beer production, and sugarcane crushing, and the fabrication of consumer goods, e.g., vehicles from kits.
There is a cement production industry. Kenya has an oil refinery that processes imported crude petroleum into petroleum products, mainly for the domestic market. In addition, a substantial and expanding informal sector commonly referred to as jua kali engages in small-scale manufacturing of household goods, auto parts, and farm implements.
Kenya's inclusion among the beneficiaries of the US Government's African Growth and Opportunity Act (AGOA) has given a boost to manufacturing in recent years. Since AGOA took effect in 2000, Kenya's clothing sales to the United States increased from US$44 million to US$270 million (2006). Other initiatives to strengthen manufacturing have been the new government's favourable tax measures, including the removal of duty on capital equipment and other raw materials.
The largest share of Kenya's electricity supply comes from hydroelectric stations at dams along the upper Tana River, as well as the Turkwel Gorge Dam in the west. A petroleum-fired plant on the coast, geothermal facilities at Olkaria (near Nairobi), and electricity imported from Uganda make up the rest of the supply. Kenya's installed capacity stood at 1,142 megawatts between 2001 and 2003. The state-owned Kenya Electricity Generating Company (KenGen), established in 1997 under the name of Kenya Power Company, handles the generation of electricity, while Kenya Power handles the electricity transmission and distribution system in the country. Shortfalls of electricity occur periodically, when drought reduces water flow. To become energy sufficient, Kenya aims to build a nuclear power plant by 2017.
Kenya has proven deposits of oil in Turkana and the commercial viability was just discovered. Tullow Oil estimates Kenya's oil reserves to be around 10 billion barrels. Exploration is still continuing to determine if there are more reserves. Kenya currently imports all crude petroleum requirements. Kenya, east Africa's largest economy, has no strategic reserves and relies solely on oil marketers' 21-day oil reserves required under industry regulations. Petroleum accounts for 20% to 25% of the national import bill.
Overall Chinese investment and trade
Published comments on Kenya's Capital FM website by Liu Guangyuan, China's ambassador to Kenya, at the time of President Kenyatta's 2013 trip to Beijing, said, "Chinese investment in Kenya ... reached $474 million, representing Kenya's largest source of foreign direct investment, and ... bilateral trade ... reached $2.84 billion" in 2012. Kenyatta was "[a]ccompanied by 60 Kenyan business people [and hoped to] ... gain support from China for a planned $2.5 billion railway from the southern Kenyan port of Mombasa to neighboring Uganda, as well as a nearly $1.8 billion dam", according to a statement from the president's office also at the time of the trip.
Base Titanium, a subsidiary of Base resources of Australia, shipped its first major consignment of minerals to China. About 25,000 tonnes of ilmenite was flagged off the Kenyan coastal town of Kilifi. The first shipment was expected to earn Kenya about Kshs15–20 billion in earnings. China has been causing environmental and social problems that include the recent suspension of the railway project.
In 2007, the Kenyan government unveiled Vision 2030, an economic development programme it hopes will put the country in the same league as the Asian Economic Tigers by the year 2030. In 2013, it launched a National Climate Change Action Plan, having acknowledged that omitting climate as a key development issue in Vision 2030 was an oversight. The 200-page Action Plan, developed with support from the Climate & Development Knowledge Network, sets out the Government of Kenya's vision for a 'low carbon climate resilient development pathway'. At the launch in March 2013, the Secretary of the Ministry of Planning, National Development and Vision 2030 emphasised that climate would be a central issue in the renewed Medium Term Plan that would be launched in the coming months. This would create a direct and robust delivery framework for the Action Plan and ensure climate change is treated as an economy-wide issue.
|GDP||$41.84 billion (2012) at Market Price. $76.07 billion (Purchasing Power Parity, 2012)
There exists an informal economy that is never counted as part of the official GDP figures.
|Annual growth rate||5.1% (2012)|
|Per capita income||Per Capita Income (PPP)= $1,800|
|Agricultural produce||tea, coffee, corn, wheat, sugarcane, fruit, vegetables, dairy products, beef, pork, poultry, eggs|
|Industry||small-scale consumer goods (plastic, furniture, batteries, textiles, clothing, soap, cigarettes, flour), agricultural products, horticulture, oil refining; aluminium, steel, lead; cement, commercial ship repair, tourism|
|Exports||$5.942 billion||tea, coffee, horticultural products, petroleum products, cement, fish|
|Major markets||Uganda 9.9%, Tanzania 9.6%, Netherlands 8.4%, UK, 8.1%, US 6.2%, Egypt 4.9%, Democratic Republic of the Congo 4.2% (2012)|
|Imports||$14.39 billion||machinery and transportation equipment, petroleum products, motor vehicles, iron and steel, resins and plastics|
|Major suppliers||China 15.3%, India 13.8%, UAE 10.5%, Saudi Arabia 7.3%, South Africa 5.5%, Japan 4.0% (2012)|
Kenya has proven oil deposits in Turkana County. President Mwai Kibaki announced on 26 March 2012 that Tullow Oil, an Anglo-Irish oil exploration firm, had struck oil but its commercial viability and subsequent production would take about three years to confirm.
Early in 2006 Chinese President Hu Jintao signed an oil exploration contract with Kenya, part of a series of deals designed to keep Africa's natural resources flowing to China's rapidly expanding economy.
The deal allowed for China's state-controlled offshore oil and gas company, CNOOC, to prospect for oil in Kenya, which is just beginning to drill its first exploratory wells on the borders of Sudan and Somalia and in coastal waters. There are formal estimates of the possible reserves of oil discovered.
Child labour and prostitution
Child labour is common in Kenya. Most working children are active in agriculture. In 2006, UNICEF estimated that up to 30% of girls in the coastal areas of Malindi, Mombasa, Kilifi, and Diani were subject to prostitution. Most of the prostitutes in Kenya are aged 9–18. The Ministry of Gender and Child Affairs employed 400 child protection officers in 2009. The causes of child labour include poverty, the lack of access to education and weak government institutions. Kenya has ratified Convention No. 81 on labour inspection in industries and Convention No. 129 on labour inspection in agriculture.
Microfinance in Kenya
24 institutions offer business loans on a large scale, specific agriculture loans, education loans and for any other purpose loans. Additionally there are:
- emergency loans, which are more expensive in respect to interest rates, but are quickly available
- group loans for smaller groups (4–5 members) and larger groups (up to 30 members)
- women loans, which are also available to a group of women
Out of approximately 40 million Kenyans, about 14 million Kenyans are not able to receive financial service through formal loan application service and an additional 12 million Kenyans have no access to financial service institutions at all. Further, 1 million Kenyans are reliant on informal groups for receiving financial aid.
Conditions for microfinance products
- Eligibility criteria: the general criteria might include gender as in the case for special women loans, to be at least 18 years old, to own a valid Kenyan ID, have a business, demonstrate the ability to repay the loan, and to be a customer of the institution.
- Credit scoring: there is no advanced credit scoring system and the majority has not stated any official loan distribution system. However, some institutions require to have an existing business for at least 3 months, own a small amount of cash, provide the institution with a business plan or proposal, have at least one guarantor, or to attend group meetings or training. For group loans, almost half of the institutions require group members to guarantee for each other.
- Interest rate: they are mostly calculated on a flat basis and some at a declining balance. More than 90% of the institutions require monthly interest payments. The average interest rate is 30–40% for loans up to 500,000 Kenyan Shilling. For loans above 500,000 Kenyan Shilling, interest rates go up to 71%.
Kenya had a population of approximately 45 million people in July 2014. Kenya has a young population, with 73% of residents aged below 30 years because of rapid population growth; from 2.9 million to 40 million inhabitants over the last century.
Kenya's capital, Nairobi, is home to Kibera, one of the world's largest slums. The shanty town is believed to house between 170,000 and 1 million locals. The UNHCR base in Dadaab in the north also currently houses around 500,000 people.
Kenya has a diverse population that includes most major ethnoracial and linguistic groups found in Africa. There are an estimated 47 different communities, with Bantus (67%) and Nilotes (30%) constituting the majority of local residents. Cushitic groups also form a small ethnic minority, as do Arabs, Indians and Europeans.
Kenya has 42 tribes and some of the major ethnic groups are represented as follows: Kikuyu 22%, Luhya 14%, Luo 13%, Kalenjin 12%, Kamba 11%, Kisii 6%, Meru 6%, other African 15%, non-African (Asian, European, and Arab) 1%.
Kenya's various ethnic groups typically speak their mother tongues within their own communities. The two official languages, English and Kiswahili, are used in varying degrees of fluency for communication with other populations. English is widely spoken in commerce, schooling and government. Peri-urban and rural dwellers are less multilingual, with many in rural areas speaking only their native languages.
British English is primarily used in Kenya. Additionally, a distinct local dialect, Kenyan English, is used by some communities and individuals in the country, and contains features unique to it that were derived from local Bantu languages, such as Kiswahili and Kikuyu. It has been developing since colonisation and also contains certain elements of American English. Sheng is a Kiswahili-based cant spoken in some urban areas. Primarily consisting of a mixture of Kiswahili and English, it is an example of linguistic code-switching.
There are a total of 69 languages spoken in Kenya. Most belong to two broad language families: Niger-Congo (Bantu branch) and Nilo-Saharan (Nilotic branch), spoken by the country's Bantu and Nilotic populations, respectively. The Cushitic and Arab ethnic minorities speak languages belonging to the separate Afroasiatic family, with the Indian and European residents speaking languages from the Indo-European family.
|1||Nairobi||Nairobi||3 375 000||11||Naivasha||Nakuru||181 966||
|2||Mombasa||Mombasa||1 200 000||12||Kitui||Kitui||155 896|
|3||Kisumu||Kisumu||409 928||13||Machakos||Machakos||150 041|
|4||Nakuru||Nakuru||307 990||14||Thika||Kiambu||139 853|
|5||Eldoret||Uasin Gishu||289 380||15||Athi River||Machakos||139 380|
|6||Kehancha||Migori||256 086||16||Karuri||Kiambu||129 934|
|7||Ruiru||Kiambu||238 858||17||Nyeri||Nyeri||125 357|
|8||Kikuyu||Kiambu||233 231||18||Kilifi||Kilifi||122 899|
|9||Kangundo-Tala||Machakos||218 557||19||Garissa||Garissa||119 696|
|10||Malindi||Kilifi||207 253||20||Vihiga||Vihiga||118 696|
The majority of Kenyans are Christian (83%), with 47.7% regarding themselves as Protestant and 23.5% as Roman Catholic of the Latin Rite. The Presbyterian Church of East Africa has 3 million followers in Kenya and the surrounding countries. There are smaller conservative Reformed churches, the Africa Evangelical Presbyterian Church, the Independent Presbyterian Church in Kenya, and the Reformed Church of East Africa. 621,200 of Kenyans are Orthodox Christians. Notably, Kenya has the highest number of Quakers in the world, with around 133,000 members. The only Jewish synagogue in the country is located in the capital, Nairobi.
Minorities of other faiths exist (Muslim 11.2%, indigenous beliefs 1.7%), and nonreligious 2.4%. Sixty percent of the Muslim population lives in Kenya's Coastal Region, comprising 50% of the total population there. Roughly 4% of Muslims are Ahmadiyya, 8% Shia and another 8% are non-denominational Muslims, while 73% are Sunni. Western areas of the Coast Region are mostly Christian. The upper part of Kenya's Eastern Region is home to 10% of the country's Muslims, where they constitute the majority religious group. In addition, there is a large Hindu population in Kenya (around 300,000), who have played a key role in the local economy; they are mostly of Indian origin.
Nurses treat 80% of the population who visit dispensaries, health centres and private clinics in rural and under-served urban areas. Complicated cases are referred to clinical officers, medical officers and medical practitioners. According to the Kenya National Bureau of Statistics, in 2011 there were 65,000 qualified nurses registered in the country; 8,600 clinical officers and 7,000 doctors for the population of 43 million people (These figures from official registers include those who have died or left the profession hence the actual number of these workers may be lower).
Despite major achievements in the health sector, Kenya still faces many challenges. The life expectancy estimate has dropped to approximately 55 years in 2009—five years below 1990 levels. The infant mortality rate is high at approximately 44 deaths per 1,000 children in 2012. The WHO estimated in 2011 that only 42% of births were attended by a skilled health professional.
Diseases of poverty directly correlate with a country's economic performance and wealth distribution: Half of Kenyans live below the poverty level. Preventable diseases like malaria, HIV/AIDS, pneumonia, diarrhoea and malnutrition are the biggest burden, major child-killers, and responsible for much morbidity; weak policies, corruption, inadequate health workers, weak management and poor leadership in the public health sector are largely to blame. According to 2009 estimates, HIV prevalence is about 6.3% of the adult population. However, the 2011 UNAIDS Report suggests that the HIV epidemic may be improving in Kenya, as HIV prevalence is declining among young people (ages 15–24) and pregnant women. Kenya had an estimated 15 million cases of malaria in 2006.
The total fertility rate in Kenya is estimated to be 4.49 children per woman in 2012. According to a 2008–09 survey by the Kenyan government, the total fertility rate was 4.6% and the contraception usage rate among married women was 46%. Maternal mortality is high, partly because of female genital mutilation, with about 27% of women having undergone it. This practice is however on the decline as the country becomes more modernised and the practice was also banned in the country in 2011.
Children attend nursery school, or kindergarten in the private sector until they are five years old. This lasts one to three years (KG1, KG2 and KG3) and is financed privately because there has been no government policy regarding it until recently.
Basic formal education starts at age six years and lasts 12 years comprising eight years in primary school and four years in high school or secondary school. Primary school is free in public schools and those who exit at this level can join a vocational youth/village polytechnic or make their own arrangements for an apprenticeship program and learn a trade such as tailoring, carpentry, motor vehicle repair, brick-laying and masonry for about two years.
Those who complete high school can join a polytechnic or other technical college and study for three years or proceed directly to the university and study for four years. Graduates from the polytechnics and colleges can then join the workforce and later obtain a specialized higher diploma qualification after a further one to two years of training, or join the university—usually in the second or third year of their respective course. The higher diploma is accepted by many employers in place of a bachelor's degree and direct or accelerated admission to post-graduate studies is possible in some universities.
Public universities in Kenya are highly commercialized institutions and only a small fraction of qualified high school graduates are admitted on limited government-sponsorship into programs of their choice. Most are admitted into the social sciences, which are cheap to run, or as self-sponsored students paying the full cost of their studies. Most qualified students who miss out opt for middle-level diploma programs in public or private universities, colleges, and polytechnics.
38.5 percent of the Kenyan adult population is illiterate. There are very wide regional disparities; for example, Nairobi had the highest level of literacy, 87.1 per cent, compared to North Eastern Province, the lowest, at 8.0 per cent. Preschool, which targets children from age three to five, is an integral component of the education system and is a key requirement for admission to Standard One (First Grade). At the end of primary education, pupils sit the Kenya Certificate of Primary Education (KCPE), which determines those who proceed to secondary school or vocational training. The result of this examination is needed for placement at secondary school.
Primary school is for students aged 6/7-13/14 years. For those who proceed to secondary level, there is a national examination at the end of Form Four – the Kenya Certificate of Secondary Education (KCSE), which determines those proceeding to the universities, other professional training or employment. Students sit examinations in eight subjects of their choosing. However, English, Kiswahili (languages) and mathematics are compulsory subjects.
The Kenya Universities and Colleges Central Placement Service (KUCCPS), formerly the Joint Admissions Board (JAB), is responsible for selecting students joining the public universities. Other than the public schools, there are many private schools, mainly in urban areas. Similarly, there are a number of international schools catering for various overseas educational systems.
The culture of Kenya consists of multiple traditions. Kenya has no single prominent culture that identifies it. It instead consists of the various cultures of the country's different communities.
Notable populations include the Swahili on the coast, several other Bantu communities in the central and western regions, and Nilotic communities in the northwest. The Maasai culture is well known to tourism, despite constituting a relatively small part of Kenya's population. They are renowned for their elaborate upper body adornment and jewellery.
Additionally, Kenya has an extensive music, television and theatre scene.
Kenya has a number of media outlets that broadcast domestically and globally. They cover news, business, sports and entertainment. Popular Kenyan newspapers include:
- The Daily Nation; part of the Nation Media Group (NMG) (largest market share)
- The Standard
- The Star
- The People
- East Africa Weekly
- Taifa Leo
Television stations based in Kenya include:
- Kenya Broadcasting Corporation (KBC)
- Citizen TV
- Kenya Television Network (KTN)
- NTV (part of the Nation Media Group (NMG))
- Kiss Television
- K24 Television
All of these terrestrial channels are transmitted via a DVB T2 digital TV signal.
Ngũgĩ wa Thiong'o is one of the best known writers of Kenya. His novel, Weep Not, Child, is an illustration of life in Kenya during the British occupation. The story details the effects of the Mau Mau on the lives of Kenyans. Its combination of themes—colonialism, education, and love—helped to make it one of the best-known novels in Africa.
M.G. Vassanji's 2003 novel The In-Between World of Vikram Lall won the Giller Prize in 2003. It is the fictional memoir of a Kenyan of Indian heritage and his family as they adjust to the changing political climates in colonial and post-colonial Kenya.
Additionally, since 2003, the literary journal Kwani? has been publishing Kenyan contemporary literature.
The drums are the most dominant instrument in popular Kenyan music. Drum beats are very complex and include both native rhythm and imported ones, especially the Congolese cavacha rhythm. Popular Kenyan music usually involves the interplay of multiple parts, and more recently, showy guitar solos as well. There are also a number of local hip hop artists, including Jua Cali.
Lyrics are most often in Kiswahili or English. There is also some emerging aspect of Lingala borrowed from Congolese musicians. Lyrics are also written in local languages. Urban radio generally only plays English music, though there also exist a number of vernacular radio stations.
Zilizopendwa is a genre of local urban music that was recorded in the 1960s, 70s and 80s by musicians such as Daudi Kabaka, Fadhili William and Sukuma Bin Ongaro, and is particularly revered and enjoyed by the older folks—having been popularised by the Kenya Broadcasting Corporation's Kiswahili service (formerly called Voice of Kenya or VOK).
The isukuti is a vigorous dance performed by the Luhya sub-tribes to the beat of a traditional drum called the Isukuti during many occasions such as the birth of a child, marriage and funerals. Other traditional dances include the Ohangla among the Luo, Nzele among the Mijikenda, Mugithi among the Kikuyu and Taarab among the Swahili.
Additionally, Kenya has a growing Christian gospel music scene. Prominent local gospel musicians include the Kenyan Boys Choir.
Benga music has been popular since the late 1960s, especially in the area around Lake Victoria. The word benga is occasionally used to refer to any kind of pop music. Bass, guitar and percussion are the usual instruments.
Kenya is active in several sports, among them cricket, rallying, football, rugby union and boxing. The country is known chiefly for its dominance in middle-distance and long-distance athletics, having consistently produced Olympic and Commonwealth Games champions in various distance events, especially in 800 m, 1,500 m, 3,000 m steeplechase, 5,000 m, 10,000 m and the marathon. Kenyan athletes (particularly Kalenjin) continue to dominate the world of distance running, although competition from Morocco and Ethiopia has reduced this supremacy. Kenya's best-known athletes included the four-time women's Boston Marathon winner and two-time world champion Catherine Ndereba, 800m world record holder David Rudisha, former Marathon world record-holder Paul Tergat, and John Ngugi.
Kenya won several medals during the Beijing Olympics, six gold, four silver and four bronze, making it Africa's most successful nation in the 2008 Olympics. New athletes gained attention, such as Pamela Jelimo, the women's 800m gold medalist who went ahead to win the IAAF Golden League jackpot, and Samuel Wanjiru who won the men's marathon. Retired Olympic and Commonwealth Games champion Kipchoge Keino helped usher in Kenya's ongoing distance dynasty in the 1970s and was followed by Commonwealth Champion Henry Rono's spectacular string of world record performances. Lately, there has been controversy in Kenyan athletics circles, with the defection of a number of Kenyan athletes to represent other countries, chiefly Bahrain and Qatar. The Kenyan Ministry of Sports has tried to stop the defections, but they have continued anyway, with Bernard Lagat the latest, choosing to represent the United States. Most of these defections occur because of economic or financial factors. Decisions by the Kenyan government to tax athletes' earnings may also be a reason for defection. Some elite Kenyan runners who cannot qualify for their country's strong national team find it easier to qualify by running for other countries.
Kenya has been a dominant force in women's volleyball within Africa, with both the clubs and the national team winning various continental championships in the past decade. The women's team has competed at the Olympics and World Championships though without any notable success. Cricket is another popular sport, also ranking as the most successful team sport. Kenya has competed in the Cricket World Cup since 1996. They upset some of the world's best teams and reached the semi-finals of the 2003 tournament. They won the inaugural World Cricket League Division 1 hosted in Nairobi and participated in the World T20. They also participated in the ICC Cricket World Cup 2011. Their current captain is Rakep Patel.
Kenya is represented by Lucas Onyango as a professional rugby league player who plays with Oldham Roughyeds. Besides the former European Super League team, he has played for Widnes Vikings and rugby union with Sale Sharks. Rugby union is increasing in popularity, especially with the annual Safari Sevens tournament. The Kenya Sevens team ranked 9th in IRB Sevens World Series for the 2006 season. In 2016, the team beat Fiji at the Singapore Sevens finals, making Kenya the second African nation after South Africa to win a World Series championship. Kenya was also a regional powerhouse in football. However, its dominance has been eroded by wrangles within the now defunct Kenya Football Federation, leading to a suspension by FIFA which was lifted in March 2007.
In the motor rallying arena, Kenya is home to the world-famous Safari Rally, commonly acknowledged as one of the toughest rallies in the world. It was a part of the World Rally Championship for many years until its exclusion after the 2002 event owing to financial difficulties. Some of the best rally drivers in the world have taken part in and won the rally, such as Björn Waldegård, Hannu Mikkola, Tommi Mäkinen, Shekhar Mehta, Carlos Sainz and Colin McRae. Although the rally still runs annually as part of the Africa rally championship, the organisers are hoping to be allowed to rejoin the World Rally championship in the next couple of years.
Nairobi has hosted several major continental sports events, including the FIBA Africa Championship 1993 where Kenya's national basketball team finished in the top four, its best performance to date.
Kenyans generally have three meals in a day—breakfast in the morning (kiamsha kinywa), lunch in the afternoon (chakula cha mchana) and supper in the evening (chakula cha jioni or known simply as "chajio"). In between, they have the 10 o'clock tea (chai ya saa nne) and 4 p.m. tea (chai ya saa kumi). Breakfast is usually tea or porridge with bread, chapati, mahamri, boiled sweet potatoes or yams. Ugali with vegetables, sour milk, meat, fish or any other stew is generally eaten by much of the population for lunch or supper. Regional variations and dishes also exist.
In western Kenya: among the Luo, fish is a common dish; among the Kalenjin who dominate much of the Rift Valley Region, mursik—sour milk—is a major drink. Lye is a common ingredient in many traditional dishes in these regions.
- Foreign relations of Kenya
- Index of Kenya-related articles
- Outline of Kenya
- Water supply and sanitation in Kenya
- Constitution (2009) Art. 7 [National, official and other languages] "(1) The national language of the Republic is Kiswahili. (2) The official languages of the Republic are Kiswahili and English. (3) The State shall–-–- (a) promote and protect the diversity of language of the people of Kenya; and (b) promote the development and use of indigenous languages, Kenyan Sign language, Braille and other communication formats and technologies accessible to persons with disabilities."
- Central Intelligence Agency (2012). "Kenya". The World Factbook. Retrieved 28 May 2013.
- Country Comparison :: Population. The World Factbook.
- "Kenya 2009 Population and housing census highlights" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 10 August 2013. Retrieved 22 May 2011.. www.knbs.or.ke.
- "Report for Selected Countries and Subjects (valuation of Kenya GDP)". International Monetary Fund.
- "Human Development Report 2014" (PDF). United Nations. 2014. Retrieved 26 July 2014.
- Asongu, J. J.; Marr, Marvee (2007). Doing Business Abroad: A Handbook for Expatriates. Greenview Publishing Co. pp. 12 & 112. ISBN 0-9797976-3-2.
- Ethiopia GDP purchasing power 2010: 86 billion. Imf.org. 14 September 2006.
- Kenya GDP purchasing power 2010: 66 B llion. Imf.org. 14 September 2006.
- "History". Retrieved 13 May 2016.
- Sullivan, Paul (2006). Kikuyu Districts. Dar es Salaam, Tanzania: Mkuki na Nyota Publishers.
- Krapf, Johann Ludwig (1860). Travels, Researches, and Missionary Labours in Eastern Africa. London: Frank Cass & Co. Ltd.
- Krapf, Johann Ludwig (13 May 1850). "Extract from Krapf's diary". Church Missionary Intelligencer. i: 452.
- Foottit, Claire (2006) . Kenya. The Brade Travel Guide. Bradt Travel Guides Ltd. ISBN 1-84162-066-1.
- Ratcliffe, B. J. (January 1943). "The Spelling of Kenya". Journal of the Royal African Society. 42 (166): 42–44. JSTOR 717465.
- Glynn Llywelyn Isaac, Barbara Isaac (1977). Olorgesailie: archeological studies of a Middle Pleistocene lake basin in Kenya. University of Chicago Press. p. xiii.
- Ehret, C. (2002) The Civilizations of Africa: a History to 1800, University Press of Virginia, ISBN 0-8139-2085-X.
- Ehret, C. (1980) The historical reconstruction of Southern Cushitic phonology and vocabulary, Kölner Beiträge zur Afrikanistik 5, Bd., Reimer, Berlin.
- Ehret, C. (1983) Culture History in the Southern Sudan, J. Mack, P. Robertshaw, Eds., British Institute in Eastern Africa, Nairobi, pp. 19–48, ISBN 1-872566-04-9.
- Ambrose, S.H. (1982). "Archaeological and linguistic reconstructions of history in East Africa." In Ehert, C., and Posnansky, M. (eds.), The archaeological and linguistic reconstruction of African history, University of California Press, ISBN 0-520-04593-9.
- Ambrose, S.H. (1986) Sprache und Geschichte in Afrika 7.2, 11.
- International Labour Office, Traditional occupations of indigenous and tribal peoples: emerging trends. International Labour Organization (2000), p. 55, ISBN 92-2-112258-1.
- Ehret, C. (1998) An African Classical Age : Eastern and Southern Africa in World History, 1000 B.C. to A.D. 400., University Press of Virginia, Charlottesville, pp. xvii, 354, ISBN 0-8139-2057-4.
- Smith, C. Wayne (1995) Crop Production: Evolution, History, and Technology, John Wiley & Sons, p. 132, ISBN 0-471-07972-3.
- "Wonders of the African World". PBS. Retrieved 16 April 2010.
- "History and Origin of Swahili – Jifunze Kiswahili". swahilihub.com. Retrieved 17 July 2016.
- Don Nanjira, Daniel (2010) African Foreign Policy and Diplomacy: From Antiquity to the 21st century, ABC-CLIO, p. 114 ISBN 0-313-37982-3.
- "Mansa Musa and Islam in Africa: Crash Course World History #16". YouTube. 10 May 2012. Retrieved 17 July 2016.
- شاكر مصطفى, موسوعة دوال العالم الأسلامي ورجالها الجزء الثالث, (دار العلم للملايين: 1993), p. 1360
- Hastings, James (2003) Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics Part 24, Kessinger Publishing, p. 847
- Nicolini, Beatrice and Watson, Penelope-Jane (2004) Makran, Oman, and Zanzibar, Volume 3 of Islam in Africa, BRILL, p. 62 ISBN 90-04-13780-7.
- Alsayyad, Nezar (30 March 2001). Hybrid Urbanism. Greenwood Publishing Group. ISBN 978-0-275-96612-6.
- Ali, Shanti Sadiq (1996). The African Dispersal in the Deccan. Orient Blackswan. ISBN 978-81-250-0485-1.
- "Slavery (sociology)". Encyclopædia Britannica Online.
- Swahili Coast. National Geographic.
- "PBS website". Retrieved 12 October 2015.
- Encyclopædia Britannica
- R. Mugo Gatheru (2005) Kenya: From Colonization to Independence, 1888–1970, McFarland, ISBN 0-7864-2199-1
- Jenkins, Orville Boyd. "Sikh". Orvillejenkins.com. Retrieved 16 April 2010.
- "Ismaili muslim". Magicalkenya.com. Archived from the original on 3 January 2009. Retrieved 16 April 2010.
- "We Want Our Country". Time. 5 November 1965.
- "Kenya". Matthew Firestone (2009). p. 28. ISBN 1-74104-773-0
- Vickers, Hugo (29 January 2012). "Diamond Jubilee: the moment that Princess Elizabeth became Queen". The Daily Telegraph. London.
- Maloba, Wunyabari O. (1993) Mau Mau and Kenya: An Analysis of Peasant Revolt, Indiana University Press, 0852557450.
- "Commonwealth and Colonial Law" by Kenneth Roberts-Wray, London, Stevens, 1966. P. 762
- HC Deb 22 November 1963 vol 684 cc1329-400 wherein the UK Under-Secretary of State for Commonwealth Relations and for the Colonies stated" "An agreement was then signed on the 8th October, 1963, providing that on the date when Kenya became independent the territories comprising the Kenya Coastal Strip would become part of Kenya proper."
- Bruce Baker, Escape from Domination in Africa: Political Disengagement & Its Consequences, (Africa World Press: 2003), p.83
- Hogg, Richard (1986). "The New Pastoralism: Poverty and Dependency in Northern Kenya". Africa: Journal of the International African Institute. 56 (3): 319–333. doi:10.2307/1160687. JSTOR 1160687.
- Howell, John (May 1968). "An Analysis of Kenyan Foreign Policy". The Journal of Modern African Studies. 6 (1): 29–48. doi:10.1017/S0022278X00016657. JSTOR 158675.
- Pike, John (1992). "Post-Independence Low Intensity Conflict in Kenya". Globalsecurity.org. Retrieved 16 April 2010.
- Permanent Mission of the Republic of Kenya to the United Nations (2002). "Kenya at the United Nations". Consulate General of Kenya in New York. Archived from the original on 8 June 2009. Retrieved 15 February 2010.
- Society. Nyamora Communications Limited. 1992. p. 12.
- "Wagalla massacre: Raila Odinga orders Kenya probe". BBC. 11 February 2011. Retrieved 14 November 2013.
- Harden, Blaine (25 February 1988) Many Voters Stay Home as Kenya Drops Secret Ballot in Parliamentary Election, The 'Washington Post.
- Moreno, Pedro C. (ed.). "Kenya". Handbook on Religious Liberty Around the World. Charlottesville, VA: The Rutherford Institute.
- Anderson, David M. (2003). "Kenya's Elections 2002 – The Dawning of a New Era?". African Affairs. 102 (407): 331–342. doi:10.1093/afraf/adg007.
- "Of Oranges and Bananas: The 2005 Kenya Referendum on the Constitution". CMI – Chr. Michelsen Institute. Retrieved 13 May 2016.
- Koech, Dennis (25 July 2011). "Red Cross warns of catastrophe in Turkana". Kbc.co.ke. Archived from the original on 4 January 2012. Retrieved 7 August 2011.
- "Kenya: schools close as famine takes hold in Turkana". Indcatholicnews.com. 28 July 2011. Retrieved 7 August 2011.
- Gettleman, Jeffrey (3 February 2012) U.N. Says Famine in Somalia Is Over, but Risks Remain. The New York Times.
- CIA (2010). The World Factbook. Potomac Books, Inc. p. 336. ISBN 978-1-59797-541-4.
- Society, National Geographic (19 January 2012). "Wildebeest Migration". National Geographic Society. Retrieved 13 May 2016.
- "Masai Mara".
- Novak, Andrew. "The Criminal Justice System and Eroding Democracy After Independence – Page 12". racism.org. Retrieved 13 May 2016.
- "Transparency International: CPI". Transparency International. Retrieved 29 May 2013.
- "Business Corruption in Kenya". Business Anti-Corruption Portal. Retrieved 4 April 2014.
- A short history of the 2010 Kenya constitution. kenyaconstitution.org
- "International observers declare Kenyan elections fair". www.cbc.ca. Retrieved 13 May 2016.
- "The Turning Point: Free Primary Education in Kenya – NORRAG". www.norrag.org. Retrieved 13 May 2016.
- "Africa | Free secondary schools for Kenya". BBC News. 11 February 2008. Retrieved 26 February 2013.
- K'telwa, Kipkirui (26 October 2007) ECK sets poll date as Raila maintains lead The Standard.
- Kenya election violence threatens its economic gains. China Daily. (7 January 2008).
- "Up to 1,000 killed in Kenya crisis – Odinga". Reuters. 7 January 2008.
- "Kenya death toll hits 693: report". IOL: News for South Africa and the World. 13 January 2008.
- Samir Elhawary (2008) Crisis in Kenya: land, displacement and the search for 'durable solutions' Overseas Development Institute
- "Agreement on the Principles of Partnership of the Coalition Government". Kenya National Dialogue & Reconciliation. Retrieved 3 June 2013.
- 'Hope is back' for Kenya. CNN.com (29 February 2008)
- Kenyan MPs pass power-share law. Al Jazeera English (18 March 2008)
- "Kenya MPs opt to scrap prime minister position". BBC News. 28 January 2010. Retrieved 16 April 2010.
- "Kenyans back change to constitution in referendum". BBC. 5 August 2010. Retrieved 6 August 2010.
- Gettleman, Jeffrey (5 August 2010). "Kenyans Approve New Constitution". The New York Times. Retrieved 11 August 2010.
- "Kenya's New Constitution: The Birth of the Second Republic – Harvard – Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs". belfercenter.ksg.harvard.edu. Retrieved 13 May 2016.
- "Kenya president signs tough 'anti-terror' law". Al Jazeera. 19 December 2014. Retrieved 22 December 2014.
- . Kenya – Foreign Relations. Retrieved on 16 January 2015.
- "Opinion of the United States". Pewglobal.org. Retrieved 17 July 2016.
- Epatko, Larisa, "Why Obama Is Visiting Senegal, South Africa and Tanzania But Not Kenya", PBS NewsHour, 25 June 2013. Retrieved 18 August 2013.
- Raghavan, Sudarsan, "In snub to Washington, Kenyan president visits China, Russia first", Washington Post, 17 August 2013. Ambassador Liu's comments at capitalfm.co.ke linked to here . Retrieved 18 August 2013.
- GEORGE KEGORO More by this Author. "KEGORO: Circumstances created need that made visit possible". Nation.co.ke. Retrieved 17 July 2016.
- Ministry of Defence. "Kenya Defence Forces Act – No. 25 of 2012" (PDF). National Council for Law Reporting. Retrieved 6 May 2014.
- Commission of Inquiry into the Post Election Violence Archived 20 December 2008 at the Wayback Machine.
- Kenya National Commission on Human Rights Archived 14 February 2012 at the Wayback Machine.
- Security men accused of torture and rape Daily Nation. 11 January 2008.
- The Standard 31 October 2010 Activists give military 5 days to re-admit recruit INTERNET http://www.standardmedia.co.ke/InsidePage.php?id=2000021408&catid=159&a=1 Cited on 3 January 2011
- The Standard Sh 1.6 billion tender rocks the DoD INTERNET http://www.standardmedia.co.ke/InsidePage.php?id=2000020947&catid=4&a=1 Cited on 3 January 2011
- For example the decision to acquire ex-Jordanian F5 fighter aircraft. See The Standard Kenya's 'new' fighter jets cannot take off INTERNET http://www.standardmedia.co.ke/InsidePage.php?id=2000021374&catid=4&a=1 Cited on 3 January 2011
- Kenya Roads Board Constituency funding under the RMLF
- Ludeki Chweya, John Kithome Tuta & S. Kichamu Akivaga 2005.
- "Country Profile: Kenya" (PDF). Federal Research Division. Library of Congress. June 2007. Retrieved 23 April 2011.
- "Food Assistance Fact Sheet – Kenya". www.usaid.gov. Retrieved 13 May 2016.
- Fengler, Wolfgang (5 December 2012). "Kenya Economic Update". The World Bank.
- "Drought leaves two million Kenyans in need of food aid". United Nations World Food Programme. 26 April 2005. Retrieved 5 August 2016.
- Pigeonpea in Eastern and Southern Africa. ICRISAT Posted 10 October 2012. Downloaded 26 January 2014.
- Towards Achieving Food Security in Kenya. Joseph Kinyua, Permanent Secretary, Ministry of Agriculture, Kenya; 1 April 2004, Kampala, Uganda
- Republic of Kenya, Ministry of Water and Irrigation (2009)’’’National Irrigation and Drainage Policy:3–4.’’’
- Veselinovic, Milena (16 March 2015). "Got roses this Valentine's Day? They probably came from Kenya". Edition.cnn.com. Retrieved 17 July 2016.
- "Cement production keeps pace with growing demand". Construction Business Review. 5 September 2015. Retrieved 13 May 2016.
- "Kenya: Employers' organizations taking the lead on linking the informal sector to formal Kenyan enterprises". www.ilo.org. 2 August 2005. Retrieved 13 May 2016.
- "Jua Kali sector plays key role in economic development and job creation". MyGov. 13 November 2015. Retrieved 13 May 2016.
- Kamau, Pithon. "Industry". Brand Kenya Board. Retrieved 13 May 2016.
- "Kenya". Retrieved 10 June 2016.
- McGregor, Sarah (20 September 2010) Kenya Aims to Build a Nuclear Power Plant by 2017. Bloomberg L.P..
- Kenya From Nowhere Plans East Africa's First Oil Exports: Energy. Bloomberg L.P..
- Kenya plans strategic oil reserve. Reuters (10 November 2011).
- Jackson Okoth; Philip Mwakio (14 February 2014). "Standard Digital News : : Business – Kenya joins mineral exporters as first titanium cargo leaves port". Standard Digital News. Retrieved 15 February 2015.
- Shem Oirere. "Construction of Kenyan standard-gauge line suspended". Retrieved 15 February 2015.
- NEWS: Kenya's National Climate Change Action Plan is officially launched, Climate & Development Knowledge Network, 28 March 2013
- BBC News – Kenya oil discovery after Tullow Oil drilling. BBC. 26 March 2012.
- Barber, Lionel; England, Andrew (10 August 2006). "China's scramble for Africa finds a welcome in Kenya". Financial Times. Retrieved 27 June 2008.
- "Country profile report – Kenya" (PDF). United Nations. 2009.
- Suda, Collette (2001). "The Invisible Child Worker in Kenya: The Intersection of Poverty, Legislation and Culture" (PDF). Nordic Journal of African Studies. 10 (2): 163–175.
- "Why a new president may slow population growth". The Christian Science Monitor. 14 January 2008.
- Zinkina J.; Korotayev A. (2014). "Explosive Population Growth in Tropical Africa: Crucial Omission in Development Forecasts (Emerging Risks and Way Out)". World Futures. 70 (2): 120–139.
- "Exploding population". The New York Times. 7 January 2008.
- Karanja, Muchiri (3 September 2010). "Myth shattered: Kibera numbers fail to add up". Daily Nation. Retrieved 4 September 2010.
- "World Water Day Focus on Global Sewage Flood". National Geographic. 22 March 2010. Retrieved 10 February 2012.
- The UN Refugee Agency. Unhcr.org.
- Okoth, A. and Ndaloh, A. (2006) Peak Revision K.C.P.E. Social Studies, East African Publishers, pp. 60–61 ISBN 9966-25-450-1.
- Proquest Info & Learning (COR) (2009). Culturegrams: World Edition. Proquest/Csa Journal Div. p. 98. ISBN 0-9778091-6-1.
- Brown, E. K.; Asher, R. E.; Simpson, J. M. Y. (2006). Encyclopedia of language & linguistics, Volume 1, Edition 2. Elsevier. p. 181. ISBN 0-08-044299-4.
- Nyaggah, Lynette Behm. "Cross-linguistic influence in Kenyan English: The impact of Swahili and Kikuyu on syntax". University of California. Retrieved 8 August 2014.
- Derek Nurse, Gérard Philippson (2006). Bantu Languages. Routledge. p. 197. ISBN 1-135-79683-1. Retrieved 20 October 2014.
- Languages of Kenya. Ethnologue.com.
- Wycliffe Ambetsa Oparanya (31 August 2010)"2009 Population & Housing Census Results" (PDF). Archived from the original on 10 August 2013. Retrieved 15 January 2013. . Ministry of State for Planning. knbs.or.ke
- Address data base of Reformed churches and institutions. Reformiert-online.net. Retrieved 16 April 2013.
- The World Reformed Fellowship – Promoting Reformed Partnerships Worldwide – News. Wrfnet.org. Retrieved 16 April 2013.
- "Kenya". Oikoumene.org. 3 February 2008. Archived from the original on 11 March 2008. Retrieved 26 February 2013.
- Finding Quakers Around the World. FWCC. GIF map
- Pew Forum on Religious & Public life. 9 August 2012. Retrieved 16 November 2013.
- "Kenya: International Religious Freedom Report 2008". U.S. Department of State. 2008. Retrieved 16 April 2010.
- "Kenya Facts". Retrieved 10 June 2016.
- UNICEF Statistics: Kenya. Unicef.org.
- Infant Mortality ranks. The World Factbook
- WHO Health-Related Millennium Development Goals Report 2011.
- CIA World Factbook: HIV/AIDS – Adult Prevalence Rate Rankings. Cia.gov. Retrieved 23 April 2012.
- World AIDS Day Report 2011. UNAIDS
- "Kenya", pp. 111–113 in World Malaria report 2009. WHO.
- "IFs Forecast – Version 7.00 – Google Public Data Explorer". Retrieved 15 February 2015.
- Kenya – Kenya Demographic and Health Survey 2008–09. Kenya National Data Archive (KeNADA)
- "WHO – Female genital mutilation and other harmful practices". Retrieved 15 February 2015.
- Boseley, Sarah (8 September 2011). "FGM: Kenya acts against unkindest cut". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 7 January 2012.
- Reporter, Standard. "Government to review Early Childhood Development policy". Standard Digital News. Retrieved 23 June 2016.
- "Primary School Education in Kenya". kenyapage.net. Retrieved 10 June 2016.
- "Kenya National Adult Literacy Survey report/website=eldis.org". Retrieved 27 June 2016.
- On the Beat – Tapping the Potential of Kenya's Music Industry, WIPO Magazine (July 2007).
- IAAF: Changes of Allegiance 1998 to 2005.
- Mynott, Adam (20 May 2005). "Kenya examines track star defections". BBC News. Retrieved 10 June 2016.
- "Furious Kenyans threaten to defect over taxes". Reuters. 22 January 2014. Retrieved 10 June 2016.
- "Why the defections?". mobile.nation.co.ke. Retrieved 10 June 2016.
- "Kenya women's volleyball caps three decades of excellence | Kenya Page Blog". kenyapage.net. Retrieved 10 June 2016.
- "Volleyball: Champions Kenya Scoop Major Continental Awards |". www.chimpreports.com. Retrieved 10 June 2016.
- ":: Cricket Kenya ::". www.cricketkenya.co.ke. Retrieved 10 June 2016.
- "Nakuru upset KCB in Kenya Cup". Daily Nation. 25 July 2009. Retrieved 16 April 2010.
- "Kenya win Singapore Sevens title". SuperSport. 17 April 2016. Retrieved 10 June 2016.
- "Kenya beat Fiji to win their first Sevens World Series title". BBC Sport. Retrieved 10 June 2016.
- "HSBC World Rugby Sevens Series: Kenya shock Fiji and win maiden title in Singapore". The Telegraph. Retrieved 10 June 2016.
- New Vision, 3 June 2004: Wrangles land Kenya indefinite FIFA ban
- The Auto Channel, 21 July 2001: FIA RALLY: Delecour takes points finish on Safari Rally debut
- 1993 FIBA Africa Championship for Men, ARCHIVE.FIBA.COM. Retrieved 24 January 2016.
- "Fast food finds fans in sub-Sahara Africa, where obesity problem is growing". NBC News. 24 October 2012. Retrieved 26 February 2013.
- US fast food chain to open first Kenya outlet in August – Money Markets. businessdailyafrica.com. Retrieved 9 August 2013.
- "Sonford Fish And Chips – Sonford Fish And Chips in Kenya Info Provided by Postel Yellowpages". www.yellowpageskenya.com. Retrieved 10 June 2016.
- Official website of the President of Kenya
- Official website of the Parliament of Kenya
- Wikimedia Atlas of Kenya
- "Kenya". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency.
- Kenya profile from Africa.com
- Kenya Corruption Profile from the Business Anti-Corruption Portal
- World Bank Summary Trade Statistics Kenya, 2010
- Kenya at DMOZ