Welch's t-test

In statistics, Welch's t-test, or unequal variances t-test, is a two-sample location test which is used to test the hypothesis that two populations have equal means. It is named for its creator, Bernard Lewis Welch, and is an adaptation of Student's t-test, and is more reliable when the two samples have unequal variances and/or unequal sample sizes. These tests are often referred to as "unpaired" or "independent samples" t-tests, as they are typically applied when the statistical units underlying the two samples being compared are non-overlapping. Given that Welch's t-test has been less popular than Student's t-test and may be less familiar to readers, a more informative name is "Welch's unequal variances t-test" or "unequal variances t-test" for brevity.

Assumptions

Student's t-test assumes that the two populations have normal distributions with equal variances. Welch's t-test is designed for unequal variances, but the assumption of normality is maintained. Welch's t-test is an approximate solution to the Behrens–Fisher problem.

Calculations

Welch's t-test defines the statistic t by the following formula:

$t\quad =\quad {\;{\overline {X}}_{1}-{\overline {X}}_{2}\; \over {\sqrt {\;{s_{1}^{2} \over N_{1}}\;+\;{s_{2}^{2} \over N_{2}}\quad }}}\,$ where ${\overline {X}}_{1}$ , $s_{1}^{2}$ and $N_{1}$ are the 1st sample mean, sample variance and sample size, respectively. Unlike in Student's t-test, the denominator is not based on a pooled variance estimate.

The degrees of freedom $\nu$ associated with this variance estimate is approximated using the Welch–Satterthwaite equation:

$\nu \quad \approx \quad {{\left(\;{s_{1}^{2} \over N_{1}}\;+\;{s_{2}^{2} \over N_{2}}\;\right)^{2}} \over {\quad {s_{1}^{4} \over N_{1}^{2}\nu _{1}}\;+\;{s_{2}^{4} \over N_{2}^{2}\nu _{2}}\quad }}$ Here $\nu _{1}=N_{1}-1$ , the degrees of freedom associated with the first variance estimate. $\nu _{2}=N_{2}-1$ , the degrees of freedom associated with the 2nd variance estimate.

Statistical test

Once t and $\nu$ have been computed, these statistics can be used with the t-distribution to test one of two possible null hypotheses:

• that the two population means are equal, in which a two-tailed test is applied; or
• that one of the population means is greater than or equal to the other, in which a one-tailed test is applied.

The approximate degrees of freedom are rounded down to the nearest integer.[citation needed]

Welch's t-test is more robust than Student's t-test and maintains type I error rates close to nominal for unequal variances and for unequal sample sizes under normality. Furthermore, the power of Welch's t-test comes close to that of Student's t-test, even when the population variances are equal and sample sizes are balanced. Welch's t-test can be generalized to more than 2-samples, which is more robust than one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA).

It is not recommended to pre-test for equal variances and then choose between Student's t-test or Welch's t-test. Rather, Welch's t-test can be applied directly and without any substantial disadvantages to Student's t-test as noted above. Welch's t-test remains robust for skewed distributions and large sample sizes. Reliability decreases for skewed distributions and smaller samples, where one could possibly perform Welch's t-test.

Examples

The following three examples compare Welch's t-test and Student's t-test. Samples are from random normal distributions using the R programming language.

For all three examples, the population means were $\mu _{1}=20$ and $\mu _{2}=22$ .

The first example is for equal variances ($\sigma _{1}^{2}=\sigma _{2}^{2}=4$ ) and equal sample sizes ($N_{1}=N_{2}=15$ ). Let A1 and A2 denote two random samples:

$A_{1}=\{27.5,21.0,19.0,23.6,17.0,17.9,16.9,20.1,21.9,22.6,23.1,19.6,19.0,21.7,21.4\}$ $A_{2}=\{27.1,22.0,20.8,23.4,23.4,23.5,25.8,22.0,24.8,20.2,21.9,22.1,22.9,20.5,24.4\}$ The second example is for unequal variances ($\sigma _{1}^{2}=16$ , $\sigma _{2}^{2}=1$ ) and unequal sample sizes ($N_{1}=10$ , $N_{2}=20$ ). The smaller sample has the larger variance:

{\begin{aligned}A_{1}&=\{17.2,20.9,22.6,18.1,21.7,21.4,23.5,24.2,14.7,21.8\}\\A_{2}&=\{21.5,22.8,21.0,23.0,21.6,23.6,22.5,20.7,23.4,21.8,20.7,21.7,21.5,22.5,23.6,21.5,22.5,23.5,21.5,21.8\}\end{aligned}} The third example is for unequal variances ($\sigma _{1}^{2}=1$ , $\sigma _{2}^{2}=16$ ) and unequal sample sizes ($N_{1}=10$ , $N_{2}=20$ ). The larger sample has the larger variance:

{\begin{aligned}A_{1}&=\{19.8,20.4,19.6,17.8,18.5,18.9,18.3,18.9,19.5,22.0\}\\A_{2}&=\{28.2,26.6,20.1,23.3,25.2,22.1,17.7,27.6,20.6,13.7,23.2,17.5,20.6,18.0,23.9,21.6,24.3,20.4,24.0,13.2\}\end{aligned}} Reference p-values were obtained by simulating the distributions of the t statistics for the null hypothesis of equal population means ($\mu _{1}-\mu _{2}=0$ ). Results are summarised in the table below, with two-tailed p-values:

Sample A1 Sample A2 Student's t-test Welch's t-test
Example $N_{1}$ ${\overline {X}}_{1}$ $s_{1}^{2}$ $N_{2}$ ${\overline {X}}_{2}$ $s_{2}^{2}$ $t$ $\nu$ $P$ $P_{\mathrm {sim} }$ $t$ $\nu$ $P$ $P_{\mathrm {sim} }$ 1 15 20.8 7.9 15 23.0 3.8 −2.46 28 0.021 0.021 −2.46 25.0 0.021 0.017
2 10 20.6 9.0 20 22.1 0.9 −2.10 28 0.045 0.150 −1.57 9.9 0.149 0.144
3 10 19.4 1.4 20 21.6 17.1 −1.64 28 0.110 0.036 −2.22 24.5 0.036 0.042

Welch's t-test and Student's t-test gave identical results when the two samples have identical variances and sample sizes (Example 1). But note that if you sample data from populations with identical variances, the sample variances will differ, as will the results of the two t-tests. So with actual data, the two tests will almost always give somewhat different results.

For unequal variances, Student's t-test gave a low p-value when the smaller sample had a larger variance (Example 2) and a high p-value when the larger sample had a larger variance (Example 3). For unequal variances, Welch's t-test gave p-values close to simulated p-values.

Software implementations

Language/Program Function Notes
LibreOffice TTEST(Data1; Data2; Mode; Type) See 
MATLAB ttest2(data1, data2, 'Vartype', 'unequal') See 
Microsoft Excel pre 2010 TTEST(array1, array2, tails, type) See 
Microsoft Excel 2010 and later T.TEST(array1, array2, tails, type) See 
Minitab Access commands through menu: see  
SAS (Software) default output from proc ttest (labeled "Satterthwaite")
Python scipy.stats.ttest_ind(a, b, axis=0, equal_var=False) See 
R t.test(data1, data2, alternative="two.sided", var.equal=FALSE) See 
Haskell Statistics.Test.StudentT.welchTTest SamplesDiffer data1 data2 See 
JMP  Oneway( Y( YColumn), X( XColumn), Unequal Variances( 1 ) ); See 
Julia  UnequalVarianceTTest(data1, data2) See 
Stata ttest varname1 == varname2, welch See 
Google Sheets TTEST(range1, range2, tails, type) See 
GraphPad Prism It is a choice on the t test dialog.
IBM SPSS Statistics An option in the menu . Cf.