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- 1 Definition
- 2 Symptoms
- 3 Cause
- 4 Diagnosis
- 5 Treatment
- 6 Epidemiology
- 7 Prognosis
- 8 References
Other symptoms of schizophrenia can include false beliefs, unclear (or confused) thinking, and hearing voices that do not exist. There may also be reduced social engagement, and a lack of motivation.
Associated mental health disorders
Onset of symptoms
These symptoms typically come on gradually in young adulthood, and in many cases, they never resolve. Males are also more likely to be affected than females and, on average, experience more severe symptoms.
Even though a combination of genetic, and environmental factors play a role in the development of schizophrenia, family genetics has the largest impact. For instance, the chances of someone acquiring the disease, if they have a parent, child or sibling who has it, is six-and-a-half percent.
Despite the impact of genetics, roughly 20% of the risk of the disease comes from environmental factors. These factors include, being raised in a city, certain infections, the age of a person's parents, cannabis use during adolescence, and poor nutrition during pregnancy.
The genetics of schizophrenia is equally complex. There are many rare genetic variants known to be involved in schizophrenia, each with a small effect, and an unknown risk of transmission to children.
Diagnosis is based on observed behavior, the person's reported experiences, and reports of others familiar with the person. During diagnosis, a person's culture must also be taken into account. As of 2013, there is no objective test.
Confusion with dissociative identity disorder
In more serious situations, where there is a risk to themselves or others, involuntary hospitalization may be necessary. With modern treatments, admissions to hospital are now shorter, and less frequent than they once were.
Unfortunately, few people with schizophrenia recover completely, and 50% will have a life-long impairment. Because of this disability, social problems such as long-term unemployment, poverty, and homelessness, are common. 
Schizophrenia also lowers life expectancy,  because of the increased risk of suicide. In 2015, an estimated 17,000 people worldwide died from behavior related to, or caused by, schizophrenia.
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- American Psychiatric Association (2013). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed.). Arlington: American Psychiatric Publishing. pp. 101–05. ISBN 978-0-89042-555-8.
- Owen MJ, Sawa A, Mortensen PB (July 2016). "Schizophrenia". Lancet. 388 (10039): 86–97. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(15)01121-6. PMC 4940219. PMID 26777917.
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Cannabis acts as a component cause of psychosis, that is, it increases the risk of psychosis in people with certain genetic or environmental vulnerabilities, though by itself, it is neither a sufficient nor a necessary cause of psychosis.
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- Global Burden of Disease Study 2013 Collaborators (August 2015). "Global, regional, and national incidence, prevalence, and years lived with disability for 301 acute and chronic diseases and injuries in 188 countries, 1990-2013: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013". Lancet. 386 (9995): 743–800. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(15)60692-4. PMC 4561509. PMID 26063472.
- Lawrence RE, First MB, Lieberman JA (2015). "Chapter 48: Schizophrenia and Other Psychoses". In Tasman A, Kay J, Lieberman JA, First MB, Riba MB (eds.). Psychiatry (fourth ed.). John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. pp. 798, 816, 819. doi:10.1002/9781118753378.ch48. ISBN 978-1-118-84547-9.
- Foster A, Gable J, Buckley J (September 2012). "Homelessness in schizophrenia". The Psychiatric Clinics of North America. 35 (3): 717–34. doi:10.1016/j.psc.2012.06.010. PMID 22929875.
- Laursen TM, Munk-Olsen T, Vestergaard M (March 2012). "Life expectancy and cardiovascular mortality in persons with schizophrenia". Current Opinion in Psychiatry. 25 (2): 83–8. doi:10.1097/YCO.0b013e32835035ca. PMID 22249081.
- Hor K, Taylor M (November 2010). "Suicide and schizophrenia: a systematic review of rates and risk factors". Journal of Psychopharmacology. 24 (4 Suppl): 81–90. doi:10.1177/1359786810385490. PMC 2951591. PMID 20923923.
- GBD 2015 Mortality and Causes of Death Collaborators (October 2016). "Global, regional, and national life expectancy, all-cause mortality, and cause-specific mortality for 249 causes of death, 1980-2015: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015". Lancet. 388 (10053): 1459–1544. doi:10.1016/s0140-6736(16)31012-1. PMC 5388903. PMID 27733281.