William Mawson

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William Mawson
Bas-relief portrait of bearded man
William Mawson
Born(1828-05-17)17 May 1828
Died25 April 1889(1889-04-25) (aged 60)
Bradford, Yorkshire, England
NationalityBritish
OccupationArchitect
Parent(s)William Mawson, paper manufacturer
Mary Mawson
PracticeLockwood & Mawson
W & R Mawson
BuildingsSt George's Hall, 1852
Wool Exchange, 1867
Bradford City Hall, 1873
ProjectsLayout of Saltaire, 1876

William Mawson (17 May 1828 – 25 April 1889) was an English architect best known for his work in and around Bradford.[1]

Background[edit]

Mawson was born in Leeds on 17 May 1828 to parents William and Mary Mawson. His father was a prominent paper manufacturer and councilor in Leeds.[2]

William Mawson moved from Leeds to Bradford, after he finished his articles in late 1840s. At that time he was aged 21 and in 1849 he became a partner of the older Henry Francis Lockwood.[3] Initially Mawson lived with his eldest brother Henry and his family at 27 Hanover Square, Bradford. Henry Mawson was a bookseller and printer with a business in Kirkgate Bradford.[4] Also living in this house was their sister, Mary Ann Mawson, whose son Francis Mawson Rattenbury was articled to Mawson and who was to become a famous architect in Canada and who was subsequently murdered by his wife and young chauffeur in the famous case of 1935.[5][6]

Mawson died in 1889 and spent the last twenty years of his life living at 3 Clifton Villas, Bradford with his mother – until she died in 1881 – and his brother Richard.[7] William and Richard never married.

Burial Plot of William Mawson

William Mawson, along with his brother Richard and his mother Mary Mawson, is buried in Undercliffe Cemetery where the imposing Egyptian obelisk with a bronze portrait of William is situated on the main terrace. It is a Grade II[8] listed monument.

Lockwood and Mawson[edit]

The foundation of Mawson’s success as an architect was his partnership with Francis Lockwood in the firm of ‘Lockwood and Mawson’. Lockwood and Mawson transformed Bradford in period 1850 -1875 as this period saw Bradford grow at an unprecedented rate.[9] This mercurial growth demanded new industrial, residential and civic buildings and the firm was instrumental in helping to drive this building boom in the years between 1850 and 1875.

Lockwood and Mawson's success was due to three factors.[10] Firstly, the three main architects – Lockwood and the Mawson brothers – were all from Yorkshire which appealed to local businessmen. Secondly, they were situated in Bradford when architects were most needed as the town boomed. Thirdly, they worked well together: Lockwood was the most architecturally talented; William Mawson was known for his practical ability; Richard Mawson was a social asset and a fine sportsman who made the important friends and contacts.[11]

With the death of Lockwood in 1878 the firm was renamed W & R Mawson with William’s brother, Richard Mawson (1834–1904), becoming the second partner. With the death of Lockwood the partnership lost its creativity.[12] A young Francis Mawson Rattenbury joined the firm in 1886 as a student but during the six years he was with them the company made little impact or designed buildings of importance.[13] The business address of the partnership was The Exchange Buildings, Bradford, West Yorkshire.[14]

Buildings[edit]

St George's Hall, Bradford

In 1849 Lockwood and Mawson won a competition against twenty-one other entrants to design St George's Hall.[15] St George’s Hall is the oldest concert hall still in use in Britain. It was built of sandstone masonry in neoclassic style and was opened on 29 August 1853.[16] The total cost of the building works was £35,000 and the venue initially seated 3,500 people. It is a Grade II* listed building.[17]

United Reformed Church Saltaire

In 1850 the enterprising and innovative mill owner Titus Salt turned to the partnership to plan and design a large mill and model village.[18] This became Saltaire which is now a UNESCO World Heritage Site due to its international influence as it was innovative and progressive project. Lockwood and Mawson designed the entire village in a classical style that had been inspired by the Renaissance.[19] Their outstanding individual work is the Saltaire United Reformed Church which is a Grade I listed building.[20] They designed housing to the highest quality with every house having a water supply, gas lighting, an outdoor privy, separate living and cooking spaces. Most other workers at this time would be living in dark hovels with no such facilities. The streets in Saltaire are named after Titus Salt’s family and members of the Royal Family with the notable exception of two streets which are named after William Mawson and Francis Lockwood.[21]

Bradford City Hall
Bradford Wool Exchange

Lockwood and Mawson were very busy during this period and designed many prominent buildings in Bradford including Bradford City Hall in open competition[22] and the Wool Exchange also in open competition. The City Hall opened in 1873. Its most notable feature is the magnificent clock tower which is Italianate inspired by the Palazzo Vecchio in Florence.[23] The Wool Exchange was built between 1864 and 1867 with the foundation being laid by the Prime Minister of the day, Lord Palmerston.[24] It was designed in ornate Venetian Gothic style. Both Bradford City Hall[25] and Wool Exchange[26] are Grade I listed buildings.

Lockwood and Mawson designed many other prominent buildings in Bradford and most of their buildings are still in use with many being listed.

Year Buildings in Bradford Listed
1850 Corn Exchange, Brigg Demolished 1980s–1990s.[27][28][29]
1852 St George's Hall Grade II[30] Foundation 27 September 1851.[31] Built of ashlar sandstone masonry in neoclassical style. Completion 27 August 1853.[32]
1852 St Luke's Hospital Began as Union Workhouse, by L & W. Founded February 1850, many enlargements by L & W at least until 1858.[33][34] Now demolished but won in open competition by Lockwood and Mawson[35]
1853 Saltaire Mill Grade II[36] Foundation 1851, opened 1853 with full description.[37]
1855 47 Well Street, Little Germany, Bradford Grade II
1857 Marlborough Hall, Halifax Grade II*[38] Opened January 1857 in Princess Street as Halifax Mechanics' Institute.[39][40]
1858 White Swan Hotel, Halifax Grade II*[41] Replacement of 16th century White Swan on adjacent site.[42] Foundation 1856.[43]
1859 Saltaire Congregational Church Grade I[44] Building is constructed of fine ashlar stone with a Welsh slate roof and leaded mausoleum roof. The semicircular portico with great Corinthian columns supporting the entablature provides the grand entrance to the building. Foundation 28 September 1856.[45]
1859 4 Currer Street, Little Germany Grade II
1861 Lumb Lane Mills – James Drummond Grade II[46]
1862 Horton Lane Congregational Church
1862 St Thomas Wigan Street Consecrated 1862. It was on the corner of Wigan Street and Ashton Street, Bradford (demolished). It was built of delf stone and had a 140 foot spire.[47]
1862 Congregational Church, Harrogate Grade II[48] Built as Congregational Church,[49] now named West Park United Reformed Church.
1865 Eye and Ear Hospital
1865 Cragg Royd, Apperley Bridge – house for Nathaniel Briggs
1865 Congregational Church, Scarborough Opened July 1865. It is now St Andrews United Reformed Church.[50][51]
1866 York House, 25 Manor Row Grade II[52]
1867 Wool Exchange Grade I[53] The three-storey building has a grand clocktower and was clearly influenced by Flemish Cloth Halls but also other elements are as clearly Venetian Gothic.
1867 Great Northern (Victoria Hotel) Grade II[54] Italian Romanesque detailing to the fenestration and a French pavilion, slightly domed roof.
1868 New Mill, Saltaire Grade II[55] Fine Italianate style and constructed in similar materials to Salts Mill. The ornate chimney that is situated between the two blocks of the mill is modelled on the campaniles of the church of Santa Maria Gloriosa dei Frari in Venice.
1868 Saltaire School – Shipley College Grade II[56]
1868 1–10 Lockwood Street, Saltaire Grade II[57] Terrace of improved workers' houses
1868 1–10 Mawson Street, Saltaire Grade II[58] Improved workers' houses (terrace)
1871 Saltaire Institute – Victoria Hall Grade II[59] Its central square tower with pyramidal roof soars above the terraces of adjacent streets.
1871 De Vere House, 62 Vicar Lane, Little Germany Bradford Grade II*[60]
1871 Bradford Town Hall Grade I[61] City Hall's most notable feature is the magnificent clock tower that soars 220 feet above the skyline. The City Hall clock tower is Italianate, inspired by the Palazzo Vecchio in Florence. It has thirteen bells which were installed at a cost of £5,000.
1873 Legrams Mill, Legrams Lane – George Hodgson Grade II[62] Imposing 4½ storey spinning mill with 26 bay elevation to Legrams Lane. Italianate detail relating to the partnership's work at Saltaire. Sandstone "brick" with ashlar dressings
1871 Roberts Park, Saltaire Grade II[63] Opened as People's Park/Saltaire Park
1873 Sion Baptist Church, Harris Street Grade II[64]
1873 Feversham Street Board School Grade II*[65] An expensive Gothic Revival style design with Early English details.
1874 Law Russell, 63 Vicar Lane, Little Germany Grade II*[66]
1874 Canopy of the statue of Sir Titus Salt Grade II Now in Lister Park
1877 Union Club, 3 Piece Hall Yard Grade II[67] Fine quality of masonry. Gothic and Romanesque details
1877 "University Management Centre", Emm Lane Grade II[68] Deliberately asymmetrical, it has an impressive entrance tower and two multi-gabled wings containing tall arched windows.
1878 Kirkgate Market Demolished in 1973
1878 Old Bradford Liberal Club The entrance to Bank Street is flanked by imposing buildings of 1876–78, those on the left (the Talbot Hotel) designed by Andrews and Pepper and those on the right (the Old Bradford Liberal Club buildings) by Lockwood and Mawson.
Listed Buildings in Other Towns/Cities
1874 Church of St Stephen, Richmond on Thames Grade II[69]
1874 Drighlington Primary School Grade II[70]
1877 Arkwright Building, Nottingham Trent University Grade II[71]
1878 Church of St Mary in the Wood (Congregational) Grade II[72]
1852 Former Congregational Chapel, Leeds Grade II[73]
1864 Church of St Andrew (United Reformed), Scarborough Grade II*[74]
1874 Buckstone Hall, Rawdon Grade II[75]

Citations[edit]

  1. ^ Brodie, Page 154
  2. ^ Barrett and Lidcombe: Francis Rattenbury and British Columbia – Architecture and Challenge in the Imperial Age 1983 ISBN 0-7748-0178-6 Page 12
  3. ^ Reksten, 1978, Rattenbury: Sonio Nis Press ISBN 0-919462-58-8 Page 8
  4. ^ 1851 Census
  5. ^ Napley, D; (1988) 'Murder at the Villa Madeira: The Rattenbury Affair', George Weidenfeld and Nicolson ISBN 0 297 79208 3
  6. ^ Havers, M; Shankland P, Barrett,A; (1980) 'Tragedy in Three Voices: The Rattenbury Murder.' ISBN 0 7183 0147 1
  7. ^ Census 1871, 1881
  8. ^ "Mawson Monument – Bradford – Bradford – England | British Listed Buildings". www.britishlistedbuildings.co.uk. Retrieved 4 April 2016.
  9. ^ Robinson, A. H. (1971)
  10. ^ Reksten, Page 10
  11. ^ Reksten, (1978), 'Rattenbury'; Sono Nis Press; ISBN 0-919462-58-8 Page 10
  12. ^ Reksten, Page 11
  13. ^ Reksten, 1978, Rattenbury: Sonio Nis Press Page 11
  14. ^ Bradford Daily Telegraph: 13 May 1870
  15. ^ Bradford Observer 27 March 1851
  16. ^ Bradford Observer September 1853
  17. ^ "The St. George's Hall, Bridge Street, Bradford, West Yorkshire". www.arthurlloyd.co.uk. Retrieved 4 April 2016.
  18. ^ Reksten, Page 9
  19. ^ Reksten, Page 9
  20. ^ "The United Reformed Church in Saltaire, near Shipley, Bradford, West Yorkshire". www.saltaire-village.co.uk. Retrieved 4 April 2016.
  21. ^ Reksten, Page 9
  22. ^ Bradford Daily Telegraph: Wed 6 October 1869
  23. ^ "Bradford Town (now City) Hall by Lockwood & Mawson". www.victorianweb.org. Retrieved 4 April 2016.
  24. ^ "Bradford Observer, August 11 1864".
  25. ^ "Bradford Town Hall – Bradford – Bradford – England | British Listed Buildings". www.britishlistedbuildings.co.uk. Retrieved 4 April 2016.
  26. ^ "The Wool Exchange – Bradford – Bradford – England | British Listed Buildings". www.britishlistedbuildings.co.uk. Retrieved 4 April 2016.
  27. ^ "To builders, Brigg Corn Exhange". Hull Advertiser and Exchange Gazette. British Newspaper Archive. 5 October 1849. p. 1 col 5. Retrieved 16 March 2020.
  28. ^ "Brigg, subsection History". genuki.org.uk. UK and Ireland Genealogy. 2020. Retrieved 16 March 2020.
  29. ^ Image by Alamy
  30. ^ "St George's Hall – Bradford – Bradford – England | British Listed Buildings". www.britishlistedbuildings.co.uk. Retrieved 4 April 2016.
  31. ^ "The St George's Hall". Leeds Intelligencer. British Newspaper Archive. 29 March 1851. p. 5 col 5. Retrieved 16 March 2020.
  32. ^ "Bradford Music Festival". Morning Post. British Newspaper Archive. 1 September 1853. p. 5 col 6. Retrieved 16 March 2020.
  33. ^ "Bradford – Board of Guardians". Halifax Courier. British Newspaper Archive. 1 July 1854. p. 5 col 4. Retrieved 16 March 2020.
  34. ^ "Bradford Board of Guardians, the workhouse plans". Bradford Observer. British Newspaper Archive. 21 February 1850. p. 6 col 1. Retrieved 16 March 2020.
  35. ^ Bradford Observer 21 February 1850
  36. ^ "Saltaire Mills – North Block (New Mill) and Chimney – Shipley – Bradford – England | British Listed Buildings". www.britishlistedbuildings.co.uk. Retrieved 4 April 2016.
  37. ^ "Mr Salt's factory at Saltaire, great festivities". Leeds Intelligencer. British Newspaper Archive. 24 September 1853. p. 6 col 1. Retrieved 16 March 2020.
  38. ^ Historic England. "Marlborough Hall (1314023)". National Heritage List for England. Retrieved 15 March 2020.
  39. ^ "Opening of the new hall of the Halifax Mechanics' Institute". Leeds Times. British Newspaper Archive. 17 January 1857. p. 3 col 4. Retrieved 16 March 2020.
  40. ^ Bull, Malcolm (2020). "Halifax Mechanics' Institute". calderdalecompanion.co.uk. Retrieved 16 March 2020.
  41. ^ Historic England. "White Swan Hotel (1258062)". National Heritage List for England. Retrieved 15 March 2020. Note: Designed by Lockwood and Mawson, not Smith and Parnell
  42. ^ Beaumont, Gary. "Halifax past and present – W". halifaxpeople.com. Retrieved 16 March 2020. Images of previous building with jetted floors
  43. ^ "To contractors". Leeds Times. British Newspaper Archive. 19 July 1856. p. 1 col 6. Retrieved 16 March 2020.
  44. ^ "Congregational Church (Including Salt Family Mausoleum to South) – Shipley – Bradford – England | British Listed Buildings". www.britishlistedbuildings.co.uk. Retrieved 4 April 2016.
  45. ^ "Laying of the foundation stone of the Congregational Chapel, Saltaire". Leeds Times. British Newspaper Archive. 4 October 1856. p. 8 col 3. Retrieved 16 March 2020.
  46. ^ "Main Block of 3 Storey Warehouse, 5 Storey Spinning Mill and Spinning Shed at Drummond's Mill Engine – Bradford – Bradford – England | British Listed Buildings". www.britishlistedbuildings.co.uk. Retrieved 4 April 2016.
  47. ^ "Consecration of St Thomas's Church". Bradford Observer. British Newspaper Archive. 16 October 1862. p. 5 col 4. Retrieved 16 March 2020.
  48. ^ Historic England. "Victoria Avenue United Reformed Church (Congregational-Presbyterian) (1149397)". National Heritage List for England. Retrieved 15 March 2020.
  49. ^ "The New Congregational Church At Harrogate". Illustrated London News. 7 February 1863. p. 13 col 2. Retrieved 17 March 2020 – via British Newspaper archive.
  50. ^ "Opening of the new Congregational Church, Scarboro'". Leeds Mercury. British Newspaper Archive. 28 July 1865. p. 4 col 1. Retrieved 16 March 2020.
  51. ^ "St Andrews United Reformed Church". scarborough-urc.org.uk. Retrieved 16 March 2020.
  52. ^ "York House – Bradford – Bradford – England | British Listed Buildings". www.britishlistedbuildings.co.uk. Retrieved 4 April 2016.
  53. ^ "The Wool Exchange – Bradford – Bradford – England | British Listed Buildings". www.britishlistedbuildings.co.uk. Retrieved 4 April 2016.
  54. ^ "Photos of The Victoria Hotel – Bradford – Bradford – England | British Listed Buildings". www.britishlistedbuildings.co.uk. Retrieved 4 April 2016.
  55. ^ "Saltaire Mills – North Block (New Mill) and Chimney – Shipley – Bradford – England | British Listed Buildings". www.britishlistedbuildings.co.uk. Retrieved 4 April 2016.
  56. ^ "Shipley College Including Railings to Right and to Left and to Both Sides of Railway Steps – Shipley – Bradford – England | British Listed Buildings". www.britishlistedbuildings.co.uk. Retrieved 4 April 2016.
  57. ^ Historic England. "1–10, Lockwood Street (1133550)". National Heritage List for England. Retrieved 30 January 2020.
  58. ^ Historic England. "1–10 Mawson Street (1133553)". National Heritage List for England. Retrieved 30 January 2020.
  59. ^ "Victoria Hall Including Wall, Gate Piers and Sculpted Lions to Front Area, and Railings to Rear – Shipley – Bradford – England | British Listed Buildings". www.britishlistedbuildings.co.uk. Retrieved 4 April 2016.
  60. ^ "Photos of Devere House – Bradford – Bradford – England | British Listed Buildings". www.britishlistedbuildings.co.uk. Retrieved 4 April 2016.
  61. ^ "Bradford Town Hall – Bradford – Bradford – England | British Listed Buildings". www.britishlistedbuildings.co.uk. Retrieved 4 April 2016.
  62. ^ "Main Block and Wing to Harold Laycock Mills Fronting Summerville Road – Bradford – Bradford – England | British Listed Buildings". www.britishlistedbuildings.co.uk. Retrieved 4 April 2016.
  63. ^ Historic England. "Roberts Park (1001226)". National Heritage List for England. Retrieved 15 March 2020.
  64. ^ "Former Sion Chapel and Presbytery – Bradford – Bradford – England | British Listed Buildings". www.britishlistedbuildings.co.uk. Retrieved 4 April 2016.
  65. ^ "Feversham Street First School – Bradford – Bradford – England | British Listed Buildings". www.britishlistedbuildings.co.uk. Retrieved 4 April 2016.
  66. ^ "Law Russell Warehouse – Bradford – Bradford – England | British Listed Buildings". www.britishlistedbuildings.co.uk. Retrieved 4 April 2016.
  67. ^ "Photos of The Union Club – Bradford – Bradford – England | British Listed Buildings". www.britishlistedbuildings.co.uk. Retrieved 4 April 2016.
  68. ^ "Management Training Centre, University of Bradford – Bradford – Bradford – England | British Listed Buildings". www.britishlistedbuildings.co.uk. Retrieved 4 April 2016.
  69. ^ "Church of St Stephen – Richmond upon Thames – Greater London – England | British Listed Buildings". www.britishlistedbuildings.co.uk. Retrieved 4 April 2016.
  70. ^ "Drighlington Primary School – Drighlington – Leeds – England | British Listed Buildings". www.britishlistedbuildings.co.uk. Retrieved 4 April 2016.
  71. ^ "Arkwright Building, Nottingham Trent University – Nottingham – Nottingham – England | British Listed Buildings". www.britishlistedbuildings.co.uk. Retrieved 4 April 2016.
  72. ^ "Church of St Mary in the Wood (Congregational) – Morley – Leeds – England | British Listed Buildings". www.britishlistedbuildings.co.uk. Retrieved 4 April 2016.
  73. ^ "Former Congregational Chapel – Pudsey – Leeds – England | British Listed Buildings". www.britishlistedbuildings.co.uk. Retrieved 4 April 2016.
  74. ^ "Church of St Andrew (United Reformed) – Scarborough – North Yorkshire – England | British Listed Buildings". www.britishlistedbuildings.co.uk. Retrieved 4 April 2016.
  75. ^ "Buckstone Hall – Rawdon – Leeds – England | British Listed Buildings". www.britishlistedbuildings.co.uk. Retrieved 4 April 2016.

Bibliography[edit]

  • Jackson, N; Lintonbon, J; Staples, B: (2010): 'Saltaire: The Making of a Model Town', Spire Books, ISBN 9781-904 965213
  • Brodie, A (ed), 'Directory of British Architects, 1834–1914; Vol 2 (L-Z) British Architect Library, Royal Institute of British Architects.
  • Robinson, A.H., 1971, 'Lockwood and Mawson. The Story of a Great Partnership." Bradford Bystander 1971