Yashodharman

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Yashodharman
The defeat of the Ephalites, or White Huns A.D. 528.jpg
The defeat of the Alchon Huns under Mihirakula by King Yashodharman at Sondani in 528 CE.
Maharaja of Malwa
ReligionHindu

Yashodharman (IAST: Yaśodharman) (r. 515 - 545) was a ruler of Malwa, in central India, during the early part of the 6th century. He belonged to the Aulikara dynasty.[1] He may have been the son and successor of the other notable Aulikara king, Prakashadharma.[citation needed]

History[edit]

Towards the end of the 5th century, India came under attack from the Hunas. Yashodharman and possibly the Gupta emperor, Narasimhagupta, defeated a Huna army and their ruler Mihirakula in 528 CE and drove them out of India.[citation needed]

Three inscriptions of Yasodharman have been found in Mandsaur. One of these, the Mandsaur stone inscription of Yashodharman-Vishnuvardhana is of samvat 589 (532 AD).

Mandsaur stone inscription of Yashodharman-Vishnuvardhana (532 CE)[edit]

Yashodharman is located in India
Campaign through the Vindhya range
Campaign through the Vindhya range
The 532 CE Mandsaur stone inscription of Yashodharman-Vishnuvardhana mentions victorious campaigns against northern kings (probably referring to the victory against the Alchon Huns at Sondani), and against "mighty kings of the east", including a campaign across the Vindhya range.

The Mandsaur stone inscription of Yashodharman-Vishnuvardhana was written in 532 CE, and records the construction of a well by a person named Daksha in Dashapura (modern Mandsaur, also often spelled Mandasor), during the rule of Yashodharman.[2] The inscription mentions the victories of local ruler Yasodharman (and possibly Chalukya ruler Vishnuvardhana) over Northern and Eastern kingdoms. These kingdoms are not further specified, but it is known that Yashodhaman occupied most of the territories of the Alchon Huns or Hunas to the north, and the most of the territories of the Gupta Empire to the east following his victories.[3][4] Only one more Gupta inscription is known after that date, a land grant in the area of Kotivarsha (Bangarh in West Bengal) by the last Gupta emperor Vishnugupta.[4]The victory against the Alchons Huns is also described in the Mandsaur pillar inscription of Yashodharman.[2]

"(L. 5.)— And, again, victorious over the earth is this same king of men, the glorious Vishnuvardhana, the conqueror in war; by whom his own famous lineage, which has the Aulikara-crest, has been brought to a state of dignity that is ever higher and higher. By him, having brought into subjection, with peaceful overtures and by war, the mighty kings of the east and many (kings) of the north, this second name of "Supreme King of Kings and Supreme Lord", pleasing in the world (but) difficult of attainment, is carried on high."

— Mandsaur stone inscription of Yashodharman and Vishnuvardhana[5]

Mandsaur pillar inscription of Yashodharman[edit]

Victory pillar of Yashodharman at Sondani, Mandsaur.
In the Mandsaur pillar inscription, Yashodharman claims he now controls the territory from the neighbourhood of Lauhitya (Brahmaputra River) to the "Western Ocean" (Western Indian Ocean), and from the Himalayas to mountain Mahendra. He also claims he defeated the Hunas at Sondani.[6]

Twin monolithic pillars at Sondani in Mandsaur District were erected by Yasodharman as a record of his victory.[7][8] In a part of the Sondani inscription, Yasodharman thus praises himself for having defeated king Mihirakula:[9]

"He (Yasodharman) to whose two feet respect was paid, with complimentary presents of the flowers from the lock of hair on the top of (his) head, by even that (famous) king Mihirakula, whose forehead was pained through being bent low down by the strength of (his) arm in (the act of compelling) obeisance"

Territory[edit]

In Line 5 of the Mandsaur pillar inscription, Yashodharman claims he vanquished his enemies and now controls the territory from the neighbourhood of the (river) Lauhitya (Brahmaputra River) to the "Western Ocean" (Western Indian Ocean), and from the Himalayas to mountain Mahendra.[11][12]

Yashodharman thus conquered vast territories from the Hunas and the Guptas,[13] although his short-lived empire would ultimately disintegrate between 530-540 CE.[12]

References[edit]

  1. ^ J. L. Jain (1994). Development and Structure of an Urban System. Mittal Publications. p. 30. ISBN 978-81-7099-552-4.
  2. ^ a b Hans Bakker 50 years that changed India (Timeline)
  3. ^ Historical Geography of Madhyapradesh from Early Records by P. K. Bhattacharyya p.200
  4. ^ a b Indian Esoteric Buddhism: Social History of the Tantric Movement by Ronald M. Davidson p.31
  5. ^ Fleet, John F. Corpus Inscriptionum Indicarum: Inscriptions of the Early Guptas. Vol. III. Calcutta: Government of India, Central Publications Branch, 1888, 150sq.
  6. ^ Corpus Inscriptionum Indicarum Vol 3 p.145
  7. ^ Fleet, John F. Corpus Inscriptionum Indicarum: Inscriptions of the Early Guptas. Vol. III. Calcutta: Government of India, Central Publications Branch, 1888, 147-148
  8. ^ Mandasor Pillar Inscription of Yashodharman
  9. ^ Coin Cabinet of the Kunsthistorisches Museum Vienna [1]
  10. ^ Punjab Monitor, April 2013 [2], from Fleet, John F. Corpus Inscriptionum Indicarum: Inscriptions of the Early Guptas. Vol. III. Calcutta: Government of India, Central Publications Branch, 1888, 147-148.
  11. ^ Corpus Inscriptionum Indicarum Vol 3 p.145
  12. ^ a b Foreign Influence on Ancient India by Krishna Chandra Sagar p.216
  13. ^ Tribal Culture, Faith, History And Literature, Narayan Singh Rao, Mittal Publications, 2006 p.18

External links[edit]