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The Hunas were Iranian-speaking Xionite tribes who, via Khyber Pass, entered India at the end of the 5th or early 6th century and were defeated by the Indian Gupta Empire and the Indian king Yasodharman. In its farthest geographical extent in India, the Huna empire covered the region up to Malwa in central India.
The Hunas initiated a coinage inspired from Sassanian designs.
According to Litvinsky, the initial Huna or Alxon raids on Gandhara took place in the late 5th and early 6th century AD, upon the death of the Gupta ruler, Skandagupta (455–470), presumably led by the Tegin Khingila. M. Chakravary, based on Chinese and Persian histories believes that the Hunas conquered Gandhara from the Ki-to-lo (Kidarites) in c. 475 AD. Gandhara had been occupied by various Kidarite principalities from the early 4th century AD, but it is still a subject of debate as to whether rule was transferred from the Kidarites directly to the Hephthalites. It is known that the Huns invaded Gandhara and the Punjab from the Kabul valley after vanquishing the Kidarite principalities.
Sung Yun and Hui Sheng, who visited the chief of the Hephthalite nomads at his summer residence in Badakshan and later in Gandhara, observed that they had no belief in the Buddhist law and served a large number of divinities."
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- History of India
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- Iaroslav Lebedynsky, "Les Nomades", p172.
- India: A History by John Keay p.158
- Kurbanov, Aydogdy (2010). "The Hephthalites: Archaeological and Historical Analysis" (PDF). p. 24. Retrieved 17 January 2013.
The Hūnas controlled an area that extended from Malwa in central India to Kashmir.
- Ancient India, 2003, p 650, Dr V. D. Mahajan; History and Culture of Indian People, The Age of Imperial Kanauj, p 50, Dr R. C. Majumdar, Dr A. D. Pusalkar.
- Tho-gar yul dań yabana dań Kambodza dań Khasa dań Huna dań Darta dań...
- Pag-Sam-Jon-Zang (1908), I.9, Sarat Chandra Das; Ancient Kamboja, 1971, p 66, H. W. Bailey.
- History of civilizations of Central Asia, Volume 3 By Boris Abramovich Litvinovskiĭ Page 173
- "The White Huns - The Hephthalites". Silkroad Foundation. Retrieved 11 January 2013.