Year of Three Popes

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The Year of Three Popes is a common reference to a year when the College of Cardinals of the Catholic Church are required to elect two new popes within the same calendar year.[1] Such a year generally occurs when a newly elected pope dies or resigns very early into his papacy. This results in the Catholic Church being led by three different popes during the same calendar year.

Instances[edit]

The most recent instance of a Year of Three Popes occurred in 1978. The three popes involved were:[2]

  1. Paul VI, who was elected on 21 June 1963 and died on 6 August 1978.
  2. John Paul I, who was elected on 26 August 1978 and died thirty-three days later on 28 September 1978.
  3. John Paul II, who was elected on 16 October 1978 and held the position until his death almost 27 years later on 2 April 2005.

There have been several instances in which three or more popes have held office in a given calendar year. Years in which the Roman Catholic Church was led by three different popes include:

There was also a year in which the Roman Catholic Church was led by four popes, called the Year of Four Popes:

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b Sylvester III and Gregory VI are sometimes considered antipopes.

References[edit]

Footnotes[edit]

  1. ^ "1978:– The Year of Three Popes". Kildare and Leighlin Diocese. 30 August 2008. Archived from the original on 28 December 2010. Retrieved 28 September 2010. 
  2. ^ "1978: The Year Of The Three Popes". Tu Es Petrus. EWTN. Retrieved 28 September 2010. 
  3. ^ "Pope Eugene II". Catholic Encyclopedia. Retrieved 28 September 2010. 
  4. ^ "Pope Valentine". Catholic Encyclopedia. Retrieved 28 September 2010. 
  5. ^ "Pope Gregory IV". Catholic Encyclopedia. Retrieved 28 September 2010. 
  6. ^ "Pope Formosus". Catholic Encyclopedia. Retrieved 28 September 2010. 
  7. ^ "Pope Boniface VI". Catholic Encyclopedia. Retrieved 28 September 2010. 
  8. ^ a b "Pope Stephen (VI) VII". Catholic Encyclopedia. Retrieved 28 September 2010. 
  9. ^ "Pope Romanus". Catholic Encyclopedia. Retrieved 28 September 2010. 
  10. ^ "Pope Theodore II". Catholic Encyclopedia. Retrieved 28 September 2010. 
  11. ^ "Pope John X". Catholic Encyclopedia. Retrieved 28 September 2010. 
  12. ^ "Pope Leo VI". Catholic Encyclopedia. Retrieved 28 September 2010. 
  13. ^ "Pope Stephen VII (VIII)". Catholic Encyclopedia. Retrieved 28 September 2010.  Note: Actual date of Pope Stephen VII's accession is either late 928 or early 929.
  14. ^ "Pope Leo VIII". Catholic Encyclopedia. Retrieved 28 September 2010. 
  15. ^ "Pope Benedict V". Catholic Encyclopedia. Retrieved 28 September 2010. 
  16. ^ "Pope John XIII". Catholic Encyclopedia. Retrieved 28 September 2010. 
  17. ^ "Pope Silvester II". Catholic Encyclopedia. Retrieved 28 September 2010. 
  18. ^ "Pope John XVII (XVIII)". Catholic Encyclopedia. Retrieved 28 September 2010. 
  19. ^ "Pope John XVIII (XIX)". Catholic Encyclopedia. Retrieved 28 September 2010. 
  20. ^ "List of Popes". Catholic Encyclopedia. Retrieved 28 September 2010. 
  21. ^ "Pope Benedict IX". Catholic Encyclopedia. Retrieved 28 September 2010. 
  22. ^ "Pope Gregory VI". Catholic Encyclopedia. Retrieved 28 September 2010. 
  23. ^ "Pope Urban III". Catholic Encyclopedia. Retrieved 28 September 2010. 
  24. ^ "Pope Gregory VIII". Catholic Encyclopedia. Retrieved 28 September 2010. 
  25. ^ "Pope Clement III". Catholic Encyclopedia. Retrieved 28 September 2010. 
  26. ^ "2 then 3 Popes". Christian Timelines. Retrieved 14 June 2016. 
  27. ^ "Pope Alexander VI". Catholic Encyclopedia. Retrieved 28 September 2010. 
  28. ^ "Pope Pius III". Catholic Encyclopedia. Retrieved 28 September 2010. 
  29. ^ "Pope Julius II". Catholic Encyclopedia. Retrieved 28 September 2010. 
  30. ^ "Pope Julius III". Catholic Encyclopedia. Retrieved 28 September 2010. 
  31. ^ "Pope Marcellus II". Catholic Encyclopedia. Retrieved 28 September 2010. 
  32. ^ "Pope Paul IV". Catholic Encyclopedia. Retrieved 28 September 2010. 
  33. ^ "Pope Sixtus V". Catholic Encyclopedia. Retrieved 28 September 2010. 
  34. ^ "Pope Urban VII". Catholic Encyclopedia. Retrieved 28 September 2010. 
  35. ^ "Pope Gregory XIV". Catholic Encyclopedia. Retrieved 28 September 2010. 
  36. ^ "Pope Clement VIII". Catholic Encyclopedia. Retrieved 28 September 2010. 
  37. ^ "Pope Leo XI". Catholic Encyclopedia. Retrieved 28 September 2010. 
  38. ^ "Pope Paul V". Catholic Encyclopedia. Retrieved 28 September 2010. 
  39. ^ "Pope Gregory X". Catholic Encyclopedia. Retrieved 28 September 2010. 
  40. ^ "Pope Innocent V". Catholic Encyclopedia. Retrieved 28 September 2010. 
  41. ^ "Pope Adrian V". Catholic Encyclopedia. Retrieved 28 September 2010. 
  42. ^ "Pope John XXI (XX)". Catholic Encyclopedia. Retrieved 28 September 2010. 

Bibliography[edit]

  • Hebblethwaite, Peter (1979). The Year of Three Popes. William Collins.