Years of Lead

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The Years of Lead were a political phenomenon related to the Cold War that was characterized by left- and right-wing terrorism and the putative strategy of tension, beginning in Italy and later spreading to the rest of Europe.[1] In Italy terrorist groups include the Red Brigades and Ordine Nuovo, in Germany there was the Red Army Faction and in France there was Action directe. In Belgium, the années de plomb or "Bloody Eighties", refers to the Brabant massacres which resulted in 28 deaths. The far-right movement Westland New Post (WNP) has been suspected in this campaign. Attacks by the Communist Combatant Cells, a short-lived group, killed two. Many of the right-wing groups involved have been linked to Operation Gladio. The liberation of James L. Dozier signaled the end of the Years of Lead.[2][3]

List of Years of Lead[edit]


French Les années de plomb, Italian Anni di piombo, and Portuguese Anos de chumbo, all meaning Years of Lead, are also the French, Italian and Portuguese titles of the 1981 West German film Die bleierne Zeit (literally: The Period of Lead) about the RAF period in Germany (English titles: The German Sisters (UK); Marianne and Juliane (USA)).

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