Hassan II of Morocco
|King of Morocco|
|Reign||26 February 1961 – 24 July 1999|
9 July 1929|
|Died||23 July 1999
|Spouse||Princess Lalla Fatima bint Qaid Amhourok
Princess Lalla Latifa
|Mother||Lalla Abla bint Tahar|
King Hassan II (Arabic: الحسن الثاني, MSA: (a)l-ḥasan aṯ-ṯānī, Darija: el-ḥasan ett(s)âni); 9 July 1929 – 23 July 1999) was King of Morocco from 1961 until his death in 1999. He is the eldest son of Mohammed V, Sultan, then King of Morocco (1909–1961), and his second wife, Lalla Abla bint Tahar (1909–1992).
Youth and education
He was exiled to Corsica by French authorities on 20 August 1953, together with his father Sultan Mohammed V. They were transferred to Madagascar in January 1954. Prince Moulay Hassan acted as his father's political advisor during the exile. Mohammed V and his family returned from exile on 16 November 1955.
Prince Moulay Hassan participated in the February 1956 negotiations for Morocco's independence with his father, who later appointed him Chief of Staff of the newly founded Royal Armed Forces in April 1956. In the unrest of the same year, he led army contingents battling rebels in the mountains of the Rif. Mohammed V changed the title of the Moroccan sovereign from Sultan to King in 1957. Hassan was proclaimed Crown Prince on 19 July 1957, and became King on 26 February 1961, after his father's death.
Hassan's conservative rule, one characterized by a poor human rights record, strengthened the Alaouite dynasty. In Morocco's first constitution of 1963, Hassan II reaffirmed Morocco's choice of a multi-party political system, the only one in the Maghreb at that time. The constitution gave the King large powers he eventually used to strengthen his rule, which provoked strong political protest from the UNFP and the Istiqlal parties that formed the backbone of the opposition. In 1965, Hassan dissolved Parliament and ruled directly, although he did not abolish the mechanisms of parliamentary democracy. When elections were eventually held, they were mostly rigged in favor of loyal parties. This caused severe discontent among the opposition, and protest demonstrations and riots challenged the King's rule. A US report observed that "Hassan appears obsessed with the preservation of his power rather than with its application toward the resolution of Morocco's multiplying domestic problems."
In the early 1970s, King Hassan survived two assassination attempts. The first, in 1971, was a coup d'état attempt allegedly supported by Libya, organized by General Mohamed Medbouh and Colonel M'hamed Ababou and carried out by cadets during a diplomatic function at the King's summer palace in Rabat during his forty-second birthday party. Important guests, including the Belgian Ambassador Marcel Dupert, were placed under house arrest, and the King himself was taken to a small pavilion. Rabat's main radio station was taken over by the rebels and broadcast propaganda stating that the King had been murdered and a republic founded. The coup ended the same day when royalist troops took over the palace in combat against the rebels. It was subsequently claimed by the Moroccan authorities that that the young cadets had been mislead by senior officers into thinking that they were acting to protect the king.
On 16 August 1972, during a second attempt, four F-5 military jets from the Royal Moroccan Air Force fired upon the King's Boeing 727 while he was traveling back to Rabat from France, many bullets hit the fuselage but they failed to bring the plane down. Eight people were killed when the jets strafed the awaiting reception dignitaries. General Mohamed Oufkir, Morocco's defense minister, was the man behind the coup and was officially declared to have committed suicide after the attack. His body, however, was found with several bullet wounds.
In the Cold War era, Hassan II allied Morocco with the West generally, and with the United States in particular. There were close and continuing ties between Hassan II's government and the CIA, who helped to reorganize Morocco's security forces in 1960. Hassan served as a back channel between the Arab world and Israel, facilitating early negotiations between them. This was made possible due to the presence in Israel of a large Moroccan Jewish community.
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|History of Morocco|
During his reign, Morocco recovered the Spanish-controlled area of Ifni in 1969, and militarily seized two thirds of Spanish Sahara through the "Green March" in 1975. The latter issue continues to dominate Moroccan foreign policy to this day. Relations with Algeria have deteriorated sharply due to the Western Sahara affair, as well as due to Moroccan claims on Algerian territory (Tindouf and Bechar), which unleashed the brief 1963 Sand War. Relations with Mauritania were tense too, as Morocco only recognized it as a sovereign country in 1969, nearly a decade after Mauritania's independence, because of Moroccan claims on the country (see Great Morocco).
King Hassan II had extended many parliamentary functions by the early 1990s and released hundreds of political prisoners in 1991, and allowed the Alternance, where the opposition assumed power, for the first time in the Arab World. He set up a Royal Council for Human Rights to look into allegations of abuse by the State.
Hassan died of natural causes; he was in his birth town at the age of 70 on 23 July 1999. A national funeral service was held for him in at Rabat, Morocco, with over 40 heads of state in attendance. He was buried in the Mausoleum of Mohammed V in Rabat. The coffin of King Hassan II, carried by King Mohamed VI, his brother Prince Moulay Rachid and his cousin Moulay Hicham, was covered with a green fabric, in which the first prayer of Islam, "There is no god but Allah", is inscribed in golden letters.
- Princess Lalla Meryem (born on 26 August 1962 in Rome).
- King Mohammed VI (born 21 August 1963 in Rabat).
- Princess Lalla Asma (born on 29 September 1965 in Rabat).
- Princess Lalla Hasna (born on 19 November 1967 in Rabat).
- Prince Moulay Rachid (born on 20 June 1970 in Rabat).
The king had one other wife, Lalla Fatima bint Qaid Ould Hassan Amhourak (cousin of Latifa Hammou), whom he also married in 1961. They had no children.
- Lalla Fatima Zohra, born on 29 June 1929 in Rabat, died on 10 August 2014 in Cabo Negro (from the first marriage of Mohammed V of Morocco).
- Lalla Aicha, born on 17 June 1930 in Rabat, died on 4 September 2011 in Rabat (from the second marriage of Mohammed V, with Lalla Abla).
- Lalla Malika, born on 14 March 1933 in Rabat (from the second marriage of Mohammed V).
- Moulay Abdallah, born on 30 July 1935 in Rabat, died on 20 December 1983 in Rabat (from the second marriage of Mohammed V).
- Lalla Nuzha, born on 29 October 1940 in Rabat, died on 2 September 1977 in a crash car near Tétouan (from the second marriage of Mohammed V).
- Lalla Amina, born on 8 April 1954 in Antsirabe , died on 16 August 2012 in Rabat (from the third marriage of Mohammed V of Morocco, with Lalla Bahia, died on 3 September 2008 in Rabat).
- Royal Ark
- "Morocco 'Facebook prince' pardon". BBC. 19 March 2008. Retrieved 4 May 2010.
- Gleijeses, Piero (1996). "Cuba's First Venture in Africa: Algeria, 1961–1965". Journal of Latin American Studies 28 (1): 159–195. doi:10.1017/s0022216x00012670. JSTOR 157991.
- "Jets attack Moroccan King's plane", The Guardian, 17 August 1972
- Byrne, Jennifer (11 July 2001). "Interview with Malika Oufkir". Foreign Correspondent. ABC News (Australia). Retrieved 5 August 2014.
- Victoria Brittain (2 July 2001). "Ben Barka killed with French help". London: The Guardian. Retrieved 19 October 2010.
- Hamilton, Richard (13 January 2007). "Laughter, freedom and religion in Morocco". BBC. Retrieved 4 May 2010.
- George Joffé. "Morocco". Britannica. Retrieved 19 October 2010.
- Map.ma[dead link]
Hassan II of MoroccoBorn: 9 July 1929 Died: 23 July 1999
|King of Morocco