2013 Zimbabwean constitutional referendum

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A constitutional referendum was held in Zimbabwe on 16 and 17 March 2013,[1][2] after being postponed from September 2011[3] and from 30 June 2011.[4] Ultimately the new constitution was approved by 94.5% of voters.[5]


President Robert Mugabe told the United Nations that the new government formed in February 2009 "has fostered an environment of peace and stability. Several reforms have been implemented and Government has created and instituted constitutional bodies agreed to in the Global Political Agreement." As a result, a constitutional outreach programme was underway; upon whose completion a draft constitution would be formulated as a precursor to a referendum. He hoped this would be followed by an election.[6]

New constitution[edit]

The new constitution would limit the President to two five-year terms in office, though it did not apply retrospectively and therefore Mugabe was not restricted from seeking re-election.[7] It abolished the post of Prime Minister,[8] and established an independent prosecuting authority, a peace and reconciliation commission and an anti-corruption commission.[7] It also allowed for dual citizenship, but prevented any legal challenges to the land reform programme.[7]


Zimbabwean constitutional referendum, 2013
Choice Votes %
Referendum passed Yes 3,079,966 94.49
No 179,489 5.51
Valid votes 3,259,455 98.29
Invalid or blank votes 56,627 1.71
Total votes 3,316,082 100.00
Source: BBC


  1. ^ Referendum Vote Counting Continues in Zimbabwe
  2. ^ All Set for Zimbabwe's Referendum Vote AllAfrica, 13 March 2013
  3. ^ Nyoni, Peter (24 March 2011). "Constitution referendum 'delayed to September'". The Zimdiaspora. Retrieved 15 May 2011.
  4. ^ Zimbabwe's Constitutional Outreach Program Ends Archived 2011-06-29 at the Wayback Machine Voice of America, November 1, 2010
  5. ^ Zimbabwe: 94 percent vote for new constitution, but police jail rights lawyer for 3rd night The Washington Post, 19 March 2013
  6. ^ Statement by his Excellency Cde R G Mugabe President of the Republic of Zimbabwe to the 65th session of the United Nations General Assembly United Nations, 24 September 2010
  7. ^ a b c Zimbabwe approves new constitution BBC News, 19 March 2013
  8. ^ Mugabe appoints ZANU-PF lawyer as Zimbabwe finance minister Reuters, 10 September 2013