72nd Pennsylvania Infantry Monument
|72nd Pennsylvania Infantry Monument|
|72nd Pennsylvania Infantry Regiment Memorial|
|historic district contributing structure|
|NPS unit||Gettysburg National Military Park|
|Location||"Bloody Angle" |
July 4, 1891 (statuary) 
|Easiest access||parking along Hancock Av|
MN226, MN227 
The 72nd Pennsylvania Infantry Monument is the name of two Gettysburg Battlefield monuments: an 1883 position marker and a larger 1891 statuary memorial. The latter was the subject of a Supreme Court of Pennsylvania case and is depicted on the 2011 "Gettysburg" America the Beautiful quarter dollar commemorative coin. The statuary monument, erected "by 72nd Regt", identifies the regiment as Pennsylvania Volunteers ("P.V.") and "Philadelphia Fire Zouaves".
In 1864, Pennsylvania granted a charter for promoting and protecting "memorial structures" to the Gettysburg Battlefield Memorial Association. The GBMA subsequently claimed to have the exclusive zoning authority to locate all Gettysburg monuments including those not on the small portion of battlefield land owned by the GBMA—e.g., 124 tracts totalling 522 acres (0.8156 sq mi). The initial 1883 "72nd PA Infty" marker was approved and placed on the "Roberts line … where their heavy losses were". The GBMA subsequently had the 72nd's Captain John Reed arrested on December 12, 1888, for trespassing after "he had started men at work laying a foundation for the [2nd] monument of the Seventy-second Regiment". Instead of the GBMA-selected location, a different Pennsylvania commission of 5 state officers had approved the statuary monument 283 ft (86 m) away on the 900 sq ft (84 m2) tract owned by the 72nd.
After the 2nd location approved by the state had "not been accepted" by the GBMA in July 1888, the unit's 1889 history, The Seventy-second regiment, Pennsylvania volunteers, at Bloody Angle, published the unit's actions on July 3 of the Battle of Gettysburg.
- GBMA v. 72nd PA Regiment
- In October 1889, Gettysburg Battlefield Memorial Association v. Seventy-second Pennsylvania Regiment heard testimony regarding the regiment's Pickett's Charge location(s). The Supreme Court of Pennsylvania subsequently "reaffirmed" for the 72nd since the authority of the state commission established by a state act superseded any GBMA organizational authority for monument locations (e.g., for US regulars and other states' units): "the Commonwealth … has the right to designate the position where any of her regiments specially distinguished themselves" (Justice Sterrett). The local Star and Sentinel subsequently editorialized the Commonwealth was "in the position of a cheat" for ruling the PA units didn't have to follow GBMA decisions as other states' units had done.
About 1000 people attended the 1891 statuary dedication, and Edward McPherson accepted the monument for the GBMA (on August 25, the GBMA Executive committee recommended a marker be placed to indicate the GBMA had "no responsibility for the location of the monument as now placed".) Prior to the United States v. Gettysburg Electric Ry. Co. case, the 72nd's association denied a Gettysburg Electric Railway right-of-way across the statuary tract, and in late June 1893 they placed a no trespassing sign, erected a flag pole with the Stars and Stripes (44 stars), and placed marker stakes. The association held the statuary tract until March 20, 1911, when trustees for the survivors' association of the "Seventy-second Regiment Pennsylvania Volunteers" deeded it to the War Department.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Battle of Gettysburg memorials.|
|1904 image of statuary|
|HMdb image & text below statue|
|Both 72nd monuments in 1 image|
- "List of Classified Structures". NPS.gov. p. 5:
- MN226: "72nd Pennsylvania Infantry Monument". Retrieved 2011-05-01. "1 of 110 MN to PA. Dedicated 07/04/1891. Indicates advance post of 72nd PA infty (PA Zouaves) July 3, 1863 during repulse of Armistead's Brigade. … Monument is a two-part stepped polished granite shaft topped by a bronze statuary of a "Fire Zouave" in swinging rifle position and set on a two-part 5.9x4.9 foot rough and finish cut stepped base. The base has bronze tablets. The shaft has an incised inscription. Sculptured by __ Stephens. Located on the former Webb Avenue in the Angle. It is the only monument on the battlefield that’s location was reaffirmed by a Pennsylvania State Supreme Court decision." NOTE: Isbell, 2006, claims the "monument is as designed by Private [sic] John Reed".
- MN227: "72nd Pennsylvania Infantry Monument". Retrieved 2011-05-01. "Indicates position held by 72nd PA Infty Jul 3, 1863 standing in-line, firing volleys into Armistead's line advance. Located junction Webb Ave & Hancock @ copse of trees."
- Philadelphia in the Civil War, 1861-1865. "When the advance of the Confederate column across the valley began the 72d was posted in support and to the rear of the batteries upon Hancock's front. As the enemy drove in the brigade pickets from the Emmitsburg road, [sic] the regiment was rushed to the front line, striking the assailants at the famous stone wall and the “clump of trees.”" NOTE: Several sources identify the 72nd's advance was after the Union line had been breached, e.g., "Just as the Confederate resistance began to crumble, the 72nd lurched into battle. (Isbell, 2006)
- "In Honor of Dead Heroes: Soldiers' Monuments Dedicated on the Field of Gettysburg". New York Times. July 5, 1891. Retrieved 2011-05-01. "About a thousand people witnessed the ceremonies, at which Capt. John Reed presided. The Rev. Charles H. Thomas made the opening prayer and Capt. Reed presented the monument in the name of the committee to the regimental association. Remarks were made by Gen. James C. Lynch, Capt. W. W. Ker, and Capt. W. W. Wiltbank. The monument was unveiled by Mrs. Mary Lee, an old army nurse, aged eighty, and Sergt. Mullin of Cushing Battery fired a salute. A display of day fireworks concluded the exercises."
- "Town and County:Local Flashes" (Google News Archive). Gettysburg Compiler. June 14, 1882. Retrieved 2011-05-07.
- "72nd Pennsylvania Infantry Monument, (sculpture).". Save Outdoor Sculpture, Pennsylvania survey,. SIRIS. 1995. Retrieved January 27, 2012.
- "Gettysburg National Park". The First Battlefield Parks, 1890-1899. Retrieved 2011-05-01.
- "Another Gettysburg Battle: Veterans Opposed in Their Selection of a Monument Site" (Google News Archive). The Philadelphia Record. July 21, 1888. Retrieved 2011-05-01.
- Gettysburg Battlefield Memorial Association (February 4, 1896; recorded June 25), Deed Book XX: Deed [to United States of America], Adams County Courthouse
- "The Seventy-Second Monument Placed" (Google News Archive). The Star and Sentinel (Gettysburg, Pennsylvania). July 7, 1891. Retrieved 2011-04-24. "Pennsylvania has thus been placed, by somebody, before her sisters in the position of a cheat—at which disgrace both the pride and the principle of our Commonwealth will sternly revolt. … It gave the project the sanction of a charter to an Association of [Pennsylvania] citizens for the purpose of promoting and protecting such "memorial structures as a generous and patriotic people may aid to erect in commemoration of the heroic deeds, struggles and triumphs of the brave defenders of the Union." … Of the 22 members of this [Gettysburg Battlefield Memorial Association] all are Grand Army men except four. In the Army, they filled all positions from Major General to private."
- "Row Over A Monument" (Google News Archive). The Philadelphia Record. December 13, 1888. Retrieved 2011-05-01. "Captain Reed, representing the Seventy-second Pennsylvania Regiment, was to-day arrested on a capias in trespass sworn out by the Battlefield Memorial Association, and put under $500 bail. …if every regiment should be allowed to place its memorial wherever it desired there would be nothing historically correct about marking the positions of the various commands, and more monuments would be located on Seminary Ridge, in the midst of the Confederate lines, than on the Union line." (New York Times article)
- "The Gettysburg Monuments" (Google News Archive). Gettysburg Compiler. July 16, 1889. Retrieved 2011-05-01. "…appropriation was made "for the purpose of perpetuating the participation therein and marking by suitable memorial tablets of bronze or granite the position of each of the commands of Pennsylvania volunteers engaged in the battle." … five commissioners … "to select and decide upon the design and material for monuments to mark the position of each Pennsylvania command upon the field." … the survivors of the Seventy-second Regiment … and the commissioners wished to place it at a certain spot on the battlefield and the officers of the Memorial Association designated another spot "283 feet distant therefrom" … But on an appeal to the Supreme Court Justice Sterrett has delivered … "the Commonwealth … has the right to designate the position where any of her regiments specially distinguished themselves"
- Seventy-second Regiment Pennsylvania Volunteers (March 20, 1911), Deed Book 66: Deed [to United States], Adams County Courthouse, p. 442 cited by: "United States military reservations …" (Google Books). 2007-03-16. Retrieved 2011-04-19.)
- Gettysburg Battlefield Memorial Association v. Seventy-second Pennsylvania Regiment (Supreme Court of Pennsylvania January 24, 1896).
- "They Were In The Bloody Angle" (Google News Archive). The Philadelphia Record. October 13, 1889. Retrieved 2011-05-01. "Examiner McClain continued … Acting Sergeant Major Alexander W. Given, of the 114th Regiment, and Private James R. Johnson, Adjutant Charles W. West and Major Samuel Roberts, of the Seventy-second, the evidence of all going to show that the place occupied by the regiment was that claimed by its Memorial Committee."
- "Its Monument Dedicated". The New York Times. September 25, 1891. Retrieved 2011-05-01. "After [other units did] repel Pickett's charge, and had captured a large number of prisoners, the Seventy-second valiantly proceeded to the position which Gen. Webb had ordered them to take. …the monument was erected on the main line to the disgust and indignation… Gettysburg has been considerably agitated over the matter. "
- Buehler, C H; GBMA Exec. Com. chairman (August 25, 1891) (1982 transcription of attachment to GBMA minutes). Report…on the 72nd Penn'a Regiment Case (Report). Gettysburg Battlefield Memorial Association. http://www.gdg.org/Research/Monuments/gbmaminutes.html. Retrieved 2011-07-10.
- Hensel, W. U., PA District Attorney (August 7, 1893), Gettysburg Trolley: Attorney General Hensel Refuses to Interfere (letter), Gettysburg Times (published August 15, retrieved 2011-05-24, "refusal of the Seventy-second Pennsylvania Regiment Association to allow the railway to pass over a small plot of ground owned--but not used--by this association"
- "The Electric Line on the Battlefield: The Seventy-Second's Committee" (Google News Archive). The Star and Sentinel. June 20, 1893. Retrieved 2011-05-02. "W. W. [Captain] Ker, Esq., '[Captain]' John Reed and Sylvester Byrnes, representing the Seventy-second regiment … the regiment's plot of ground … surveyed and the corners distinctly marked with stakes … In the centre a pole was planted and a flag run up. A contract was made with J. W. Flaharty for corner-stones. An iron railing will be erected around the enclosure."
- "The Gettysburg National Military Park Quarter". USMint.gov. Retrieved 2011-04-10.