Zouave was the title given to certain light infantry regiments in the French Army, normally serving in French North Africa between 1831 and 1962. The name was also adopted during the 19th century by units in other armies, especially volunteer regiments raised for service in the American Civil War. The chief distinguishing characteristics of such units were the zouave uniform, which included short open-fronted jackets, baggy trousers and often sashes and oriental headgear.
French Zouaves 
The Zouaves of the French Army were first raised in Algeria in 1831 with one and later two battalions, initially recruited solely from the Zouaoua (or Zwāwa), a tribe of Berbers located in the mountains of the Jurjura Range (see Kabyles). The Zouaoua had formerly provided soldiers for the deys of Algiers and in August 1830 the commander of the French expeditionary force which had occupied the city recommended their continued employment in this role. The existence of the new corps was formally recognised by a Royal decree dated 7 March 1833. In 1838 a third battalion was raised, and the regiment thus formed was commanded by Major de Lamoriciere. Shortly afterwards the formation of the Tirailleurs algériens, the Turcos, as the corps for Muslim troops, changed the enlistment for the Zouave battalions, and they became a purely French body.
The Zouaves saw extensive service during the French conquest of Algeria, initially at the Mouzaia Pass action (March 1836), then at Mitidja (September 1836) and the siege of Constantine (1837). Recruited through voluntary enlistment or transfer from other regiments of men with at least two years service, the Zouaves quickly achieved the status of an elite amongst the French Army of Africa.
The Second Empire 
By 1852, the French Army included three regiments of Zouaves. Each of the three line regiments of Zouaves was allocated to a different province of Algeria, where their depots and peace-time garrisons were located. The Crimean War was the first service which the regiments saw outside Algeria. They subsequently served in the Franco-Austrian War of 1859, the Mexican Intervention (1864–66) and the Franco-Prussian War (1870). The distinctive dress and dash of the Zouaves made them well known outside France and they were frequently portrayed in the illustrated publications of the period. The 2nd Zouaves (popularly known as "the Jackals of Oran") had their eagle decorated with the Legion d' Honneur following the Battle of Magenta in 1859.
On 23 December 1854 a fourth regiment was created, the Zouaves of the Imperial Guard. The actual formation of this unit was delayed until 15 March 1855 when detachments from the Zouave regiments already serving in the Crimea were brought together for this purpose. The Zouaves of the Imperial Guard served through the remainder of the Crimean War and subsequently in all the campaigns of the Second Empire. Their peace-time garrisons were initially at Saint-Cloud and then Versailles from 1857. This regiment wore the classic zouave uniform but with yellow braiding and piping substituted for the red of the line regiments.
The Third Republic 
After 1871 the Zouaves lost their status as an elite corps of long service volunteers and became a force mainly composed of conscripts from the French settlers in Algeria and Tunisia, undertaking their compulsory military service. Shortfalls in numbers were made up by recruiting and conscription from the southern régions militaires of mainland France (Métropole).
Two zouave battalions (chefs de bataillon Simon and Mignot) served in Tonkin during the closing weeks of the Sino-French War (August 1884 to April 1885). One of these battalions was roughly handled on 23 March 1885 in the Battle of Phu Lam Tao. A third zouave battalion (chef de bataillon Metzinger) joined the Tonkin Expeditionary Corps shortly after the end of the war, and took part in operations against Vietnamese insurgents.
In 1899 the law of that year created for each regiment of Zouaves a 5th Battalion, "to be stationed in France" in groupes des 5e bataillons de Zouaves. The 5th battalions of the 1st and 4th Zouaves were stationed as part of the Gouvernement militaire de Paris. The 5th battalions of the 2nd and 3rd Zouaves were stationed in the région militaire de Lyon. Upon mobilisation for war in France, these battalions would form the nucleus of Régiments de Marche de Zouaves , each of 3 battalions.
The four Zouave regiments of the French Army wore their traditional colorful dress during the early months of the First World War. The development of the machine gun, rapid fire artillery and improved small arms obliged them to adopt a plain khaki uniform from 1915 on. From 1927 to 1939 the "oriental dress" of red fez ("chechia"), blue sash, braided blue jackets with waistcoats and voluminous red trousers was reintroduced as off-duty dress for re-enlisted NCOs and other long service regulars in the Zouave regiments. It was also worn by colour guards and other detachments on ceremonial occasions. White trousers of the same style had earlier been worn as an item of hot weather dress. The four regiments were distinguished by the colours (red, blue, white and yellow) of the "tombeaus" or false pockets on the front of their open fronted jackets
The Zouaves played a major role in the 1914-18 War with their numbers being expanded to nine regiments de marche. These units retained much of their traditional panache, especially in the attack. They were however less conspicuous in World War II, seeing service mainly during the opening stages of the War (1940) and in the course of the liberation of France (1944).
Post 1945 
As predominantly conscript units the Zouaves did not serve in Indochina between 1945 and 1954. They were however employed extensively during the Algerian War, before being finally disbanded in 1962 following Algerian independence. This was inevitable since their recruitment base was the European population of Algeria, which dispersed with the ending of French rule.
The traditions of the zouave regiments were maintained until 2006 by the French Army's Commando Training School (CEC), which occasionally paraded colour parties and other detachments in zouave dress. With the closure of the CEC school that year and the putting into store of the flag of the former 9th Zouaves in 2010, any direct link between the former zouaves and active units of the modern French Army ceased. While other branches of the old Armée d'Afrique have either survived or been reestablished as representative units in recent years (notably the Foreign Legion, Chasseurs d' Afrique, Tirailleurs and Spahis) France does not have any plans to recreate one of its most distinctive and best known military corps.
Papal Zouaves 
The Papal Zouaves were formed in defence of the Papal States. The Zouaves evolved out of a unit formed by Lamoricière in 1860, the Franco-Belgian Tirailleurs. On January 1, 1861 the unit was renamed the Papal Zouaves.
The Zuavi Pontifici were mainly young men, unmarried and Roman Catholic, who volunteered to assist Pope Pius IX in his struggle against the Italian Risorgimento. They wore a similar style of uniform to that of the French Zouaves but in grey with red trim. A grey and red kepi was substituted for the North African fez.
All orders were given in French, and the unit was commanded by a Swiss Colonel, M. Allet. Nonetheless, the regiment was truly international, and by May 1868 numbered 4,592 men including 1,910 Dutch, 1,301 French and 686 Belgians. 500 volunteers were raised from Canada. The Irish were to raise a battalion, the Battalion of St. Patrick.
The Papal Zouaves assisted in the notable Franco/Papal victory at the Battle of Mentana on November 3, 1867 suffering the brunt of the fighting, sustaining 81 casualties in the battle, including 24 killed (the Papal forces suffered only 30 dead in total) and 57 wounded, with the official report of the battle prepared by the French commander, General de Failly citing their bravery. They were also mentioned in Victor Hugo's poem Mentana.
The Zouaves also played a role in the final engagements against the forces of the newly united Kingdom of Italy in September 1870, in which the Papal forces were outnumbered almost seven to one. The Zouaves fought bravely before surrender. Several Zouaves were executed or murdered by the Italian forces following the surrender.
The French contingent of the Papal Zouaves regrouped as the Volontaires de l'Ouest (Volunteers of the West) to fight on the French side in the Franco-Prussian War, where they kept their grey and red Papal uniforms. The Zouaves saw action outside Orléans, Patay and the Battle of Loigny. The Volontaires de l'Ouest were disbanded after the entrance of Prussian troops into Paris.
An English veteran, Joseph Powell, published his account of his service with the Papal Zouaves, Two Years in the Pontifical Zouaves
Polish Zouaves of Death 
In 1863, during the Polish uprising against the Russian Empire, a French ex-officer who had served previously in one of the French zouave regiments, François Rochebrune, organised the Zouaves of Death. Members of this Polish unit swore "to conquer or to die" and not to surrender. They wore a black uniform with white cross and red fez.
The unit's baptism by fire occurred at the Battle of Miechów, where under the command of adjutant Wojciech Komorowski, they successfully charged Russian forces defending the local cemetery. However, the overall engagement was a defeat for the Poles. On February 17, 1863. Lt. Tytus O'Brien de Lacy escaped with 400 zouaves to Galicia in March 1863. In the Battle of Chroberz the Zouaves covered the retreat of the main body of Polish forces under Marian Langiewicz. They also fought at the follow-up Battle of Grochowiska where they captured Russian artillery positions but suffered very high casualties.
Commanding officers of the regiment were:
- Colonel François Rochebrune;
- Lieutenant Count Wojciech Komorowski;
- Lieutenant Tytus O'Brien de Lacy;
- Lieutenant Antoni Wojcicki; and
- Lieutenant Tenente Bella.
Chronology of the Zouaves of Death:
- clashed with Russian dragoons at the Battle of Chroberz on March 17, 1863;
- captured six cannon at the Battle of Grochowiska on March 18, 1863;
- following the Battle of Grochowiska 400 zouaves escaped to Galicia.
- twenty-one remaining zouaves were killed in the Battle of Igołomia on May 5, 1863.
See January Uprising
Zouaves of the American Civil War 
Numerous Zouave regiments were organized from soldiers of the United States of America who adopted the name and the North African–inspired uniforms during the American Civil War. The Union army had more than 70 volunteer Zouave regiments throughout the conflict, while the Confederates fielded about 25 Zouave companies. A feature of some American zouave units, at least in the opening stages of the American Civil War was the light infantry tactics and drill they employed. Zouaves "utilised light infantry tactics that emphasised open-order formations, with several feet between soldiers, rather than the customary close order, with its characteristic 'touch of elbows.' They moved at double time, rather than marching at a stately cadence, and they lay on their backs to load their rifles rather than standing to do so. To fire they rolled prone and sometimes rose on one knee."
Arguably the most famous Union Zouave regiments were from New York and Pennsylvania: the 5th New York Volunteer Infantry, "Duryee's Zouaves" (after its first colonel, Abram Duryee), the 114th Pennsylvania Infantry, "Collis's Zouaves" (after their colonel, Charles H. T. Collis) and the 11th New York Volunteer Infantry, "Fire Zouaves". The 11th New York was initially led by Col. Elmer E. Ellsworth, until his death in 1861. The 11th New York was badly mauled during the First Battle of Bull Run in July 1861 as it acted as the rear guard for the retreating Army of the Potomac. The 5th New York was considered one of the elite units of the Army of the Potomac and was only one of two volunteer regiments brigaded with the regular division commanded by George Sykes. At the Second Battle of Bull Run, the 5th New York, along with another Zouave regiment, the 10th New York "National Zouaves", held off the flanking attack of James Longstreet's Corps for ten crucial minutes before it was overrun. The 5th New York thus suffered the highest percentage of casualties in the shortest amount of time of any unit in the Civil War (of 525 men, approximately 120 were killed and 330 were wounded in less than 10 minutes).
In 1863 and 1864 three Union regiments (146th New York, 140th New York and 155th Pennsylvania) were issued with Zouave uniforms to reward their proficiency in drill and battlefield performance. Difficulties in supply and replacement meant that Zouave and other exotic militia uniforms tended to be replaced by standard issue uniforms throughout the conflict. However, the tradition remained strong and the last Union casualty of the fighting in Virginia was reported to be a Zouave of the 155th Pennsylvania, killed at Farmville, Virginia on the morning of April 9, 1865.
There were a number of Confederate Zouave units. In contrast to the many Federal units, most Confederate Zouaves were not full "regiments": many were companies within larger units. The cognomen "Louisiana Tiger" dates from the Mexican War, and refers to any Louisiana state trooper [and more recently, to the state's athletic teams]. But none of the Mexican War Louisiana "Tigers" were Zouaves. The earliest, and most famous Louisiana Zouave unit was r White's Company B (the "Tiger Rifles") of Major Chatham Roberdeau Wheat's First Special Battalion, Louisiana Volunteers, aka "Louisiana Tigers".
Winters notes too that a group of itinerant actors who claimed to have served in European wars stimulated the Zouave craze. The actors attracted large crowds and inspired the formation of military companies. They visited several New Orleans companies and instructed the men in a new manual of arms. They toured the river towns and played to an overflow audience in Plaquemine. In Alexandria in Central Louisiana, the actors performed "a bloody drama of the Crimean War."
Among the Louisiana Zouaves were the "Louisiana Tigers" or "Coppen's Zouaves." These names have been confused with "Louisiana Tigers at Gettysburg." Coppen's Zouaves were at Gettysburg, but they were not then known as "Louisiana Tigers." Captain White's Company B, "Louisiana Tigers", of Major Wheats's First Special Battalion, were not at Gettysburg, having been disbanded after Wheat's death at Gaines Mill in 1862.
Post Civil War 
Zouaves gradually vanished from the U.S. military in the 1870s and 1880s, as the militia system slowly transformed into the National Guard. As an example, the Wisconsin militia still included one zouave unit in 1879 but the following year a standard Wisconsin Guard uniform was adopted and the traditional distinctions of title and dress ceased. After the Civil War, veteran groups sometimes dressed as zouaves during honor guard ceremonies such as funeral processions, since zouave dress was considered colorful and distinctive. Modern American Civil War reenactments often feature zouave units.
American Zouave uniforms 
The zouave uniform was sometimes quite elaborate, to the extent of being unwieldy. Some Zouave regiments wore a fez with a colored tassel (usually yellow, blue, green, or red) and turban, a tight fitting short jacket (some without buttons), a wide 10-foot-long (3.0 m) sash, baggy pantaloons or "chasseur" trousers, white leggings, and a short leather cuff for the calf, called jambieres. The sash was especially difficult to put on, often requiring the help of another zouave. The zouave uniform was better suited for warm climates and rough terrain. The loose pantaloons allowed for greater freedom of movement than trousers, while the short jacket was much cooler than the long wool blouse worn by most armies of the time. One of the reasons for the smaller number of zouave units in the U.S. and Europe was the expense of the specialised uniform over that of mass-produced uniforms of a single color and cut.
Spanish Zouaves 
Spanish zouaves in the Third Carlist War (1872–1876) were created by the pretender to the Spanish throne, Don Alfonso Carlos, who raised the Carlist Zouaves as an honor guard to accompany himself and his wife Maria de las Nieves Braganza. The Carlist Zouaves originated as the sixth company of the second battalion of the Pontifical Zouaves. Don Alfonso Carlos had attained the rank of lieutenant as part of the Pontifical Zouave. The Carlist Zouaves demonstrated their fierceness in battle and were used as shock troops within the army of Catalonia and the Maestrazgo. As the King's honour guard they were envied by other Carlist units. The uniforms of the Carlist Zouaves included the baggy trousers, short jacket, vest and sash of both the French and Pontifical Zouaves. However, the Carlist Zouaves also wore a distinctive feature that differentiated them from existing zouave regiments elsewhere, in the form of a beret of Basque influence with a characteristic tassel. In order to distinguish the troops from the officers, the color of the officer's jacket was a blue gray shade with a darker blue for the other ranks. The beret worn by the troops was white with a yellow tassel while the officers wore a red beret with yellow tassel. The baggy trousers were grayish for all ranks.
Zouave influence elsewhere 
- Features of the zouave dress were widely copied by the colonial units of various European armies during the late 19th and early 20th centuries. These included African regiments raised by Portugal, Britain, Spain, and Italy, as well as West Indian troops in the British service. Amongst the French North African forces the Spahis (Algerian cavalry with French officers) and the Turcos (Algerian infantry) were both dressed in the same style as the Zouaves but with different colours.
- Between 1880 and 1893 the Turkish Imperial Guard included two zouave regiments. The Abdul Hamid II Collection in the US Library of Congress has a number of photographs of these soldiers. They wore a uniform similar to that of the French Zouaves but with green turbans and less widely cut red breeches.
- Morocco and Algeria still have zouave-style dress uniforms for their ceremonial guard units. The Tunisian Presidential Guard retained such a uniform until at least 1969.
- In the Empire of Brazil, during the Paraguayan War (1864–70), a company of black volunteers called the "zuavos baianos" (bahian zouaves) was organised in Bahia Province. This unit was disbanded after a short time because its numbers were severely depleted due to deaths caused by disease and battles.
Zouaves in popular culture 
- A zouave is featured on the packet of Zig Zag cigarette papers.
- In the Buster Keaton film The Playhouse, a zouave drill routine is one of the acts at the theatre. One of the gags involves Buster's boss telling him to get him some Zouaves and Buster first hands him a pack of cigarettes (referring to the above brand). See 12:23 at 
- Used indiscriminately as an insult by Captain Haddock, a character in The Adventures of Tintin. Professor Calculus takes particular offense at the insult in the album Destination Moon.
- In French vernacular speech the phrase "faire le Zouave" can be translated as "to play the goat" i.e. to behave wildly.
- In the film Gods and Generals the 11th New York (Ellsworth's Fire Zouaves) and the 14th Brooklyn (84th New York Infantry) are shown fighting the Stonewall Brigade at First Manassas. The 14th Brooklyn, is shown as an individual regiment, but only as part of a large, mixed regiment (which is inaccurate). In contrast, the 11th New York is shown as a full regiment and is heavily focused on during the struggle for the Union cannons. Later in the film at the battle of Fredricksburg, both the 114th Pennsylvania (Collis Zouaves) and the 5th New York (Duryea's Zouaves) are shown. The 114th is shown defending the pontoon bridges against General Barksdale's Mississippi Brigade as the Union cross, and the 5th New York is briefly shown as the Union are looting Fredricksburg. In the special extended version of the movie, the 14th Brooklyn can be seen fighting at the Battle of Antietam. Side note: Despite being included in the article, the 14th Brooklyn was not a Zouave regiment. Instead, it was a Chasseur regiment (another type of French light infantry.) However, the 14th Brooklyn is usually nicknamed the Brooklyn Zouaves due to the red pants and kepis the regiment wore during the war.
- In the film Gettysburg The 14th Brooklyn are shown during the first day of battle and are heavily focused on when John Reynolds is killed. The 114th Pennsylvania are briefly shown as the Union are building up defenses on the high grounds outside Gettysburg later that night. The 72nd Pennsylvania are seen briefly during Picketts Charge, and when the Confederates try to overrun the Union defenses. The closing scene of the movie also focuses on three Zouaves of the 72nd. In the opening credits for the movie one of the background pictures shows three zouaves of the 5th New York Volunteers guarding a union battery. This is a historical flaw in the movie since Duryee's Zouaves were mustered out of service two months before the Battle of Gettysburg, their terms of enlistment having expired.
- In the film "Glory" the 14th Brooklyn is shown in the beginning and during the Battle of Antietam. The 14th Brooklyn is actually supposed to represent the Zouave d' Afrique (114th Pennsylvania AKA Collis Zouaves later in history) because the scene is showing the assault on the Sunken Road. The 14th Brooklyn in real life did not fight at the Sunken Road (instead, they fought at the Cornfield.) Some zouaves are later in the show when General Strong is talking about the defenses of Fort Wagner, guarding the officers. These zouaves are supposed to represent the 76th Pennsylvania, but the uniform is historically incorrect. The uniform in the movie is that of the 165th New York (2nd Duryea's Zouaves/Smith Zouaves), but the 76th Pennsylvania (Keystone Zouaves) wore a dark blue zouave jacket with red trimming with a false gray vest, a red sash, a dark blue fez with a dark blue tazzle, and Arab style sky blue pantaloons.
- In the mini series, North and South, a company of Union Zouaves are shown during the Battle of First Bull Run. These Zouaves are most likely supposed to represent the 11th New York First Fire Zouaves. However, just like the 14th Brookllyn in Gods and Generals, The Zouaves are shown fighting as part of a regiment instead of an individual regiment. The uniform that the zouaves wear is based on that shown in the Kurz and Alison lithograph of the battle. While both are most likely trying to represent the 11th New York (since it was the only true Zouave regiment present on the field) the uniform is inaccurate. At First Bull Run, the 11th wore red overshirts (most of them discarded the dark blue red trimmed zouave jackets prior to the battle), mid blue sash, blue or red fez with a blue tassel, and leather gaiters.
- In Margaret Mitchell's Gone With The Wind a Zouave, Rene Picard, joins the Confederate Army of Tennessee in Atlanta, Georgia. Picard is remembered for his good humour, charm and optimism. Also, for his inveterate Creole French accent.
- In the 1955 Danny Kaye film The Court Jester the Jackson Zouaves American Legion Drill Team from Jackson, Michigan, is seen performing a humorous drill routine using the traditional Zouave quick-march. The group also made several appearances, in full Zouave uniform, on The Ed Sullivan Show between 1953 and 1960.
See also 
- 114th Pennsylvania Volunteer Infantry
- 14th Brooklyn
- 9th New York Volunteer Infantry Regiment
- 10th New York Volunteer Infantry Regiment
- 11th New York Volunteer Infantry Regiment
- 146th New York Volunteer Infantry Regiment
- 5th New York Volunteer Infantry
- 62nd New York Volunteer Infantry Regiment
- 8th Missouri Volunteer Infantry
- Louisiana Tigers
- January Uprising
- John Surratt - Conspired to kidnap Abraham Lincoln. Served briefly with the Pontifical Zouaves.
- Pont de l'Alma
- Zouave jacket
- 11th Regiment Indiana Infantry
- French colonial flags
- French Colonial Empire
- List of French possessions and colonies
- Jean-Louis Larcade, page 15, "Zouaves et Tirailleurs", ISBN 2-9515171-0-6
- pages 35-38 "La Gazette des Uniformes", September 2005"
- Furlong, Charles Wellington (1914). "Turcos And The Legion: The Spahis, The Zouaves, The Tirailleurs, And The Foreign Legion". The World's Work, Second War Manual: the Conduct of the War: 35–37. Retrieved 2009-08-16.
- Joseph Powell, Two Years in the Pontifical Zouaves (London: R. Washburne, 1871), at p. 1
- Joseph Powell, Two Years in the Pontifical Zouaves, p. 2
- Joseph Powell, Two Years in the Pontifical Zouaves, p. 287
- Howard R. Marraro, "Canadian and American Zouaves in the Papal Army, 1868–1870" CCHA Report, 12 (1944–45), 83-102 at 83, who cites the New York Herald, June 10, 1868 for the numbers. Available online at: http://www.umanitoba.ca/colleges/st_pauls/ccha/Back%20Issues/CCHA1944-45/Marraro.pdf
- Joseph Powell, Two Years in the Pontifical Zouaves, p. 32
- Joseph Powell, Two Years in the Pontifical Zouaves, p. 35-6
- Joseph Powell, Two Years in the Pontifical Zouaves, p. 260, quoting the Evening Freeman, September 29, 1870
- Joseph Powell, Two Years in the Pontifical Zouaves, p. 259
- Joseph Powell, Two Years in the Pontifical Zouaves, p. 260
- Charles A. Coulombe, The Pope's Legion: The Multinational Fighting Force that Defended the Vatican, Palgrave Macmillan, New York, 2008
- Joseph Powell, Two Years in the Pontifical Zouaves, p. 297pp.
- pages 32-33 "French Army 1870-71 Franco-Prussian War - Republican Troops", ISBN 1-85532-135-1,
- Whitewashing Civil War History
- "U.S. Civil War Zouave Uniform Jacket". National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution. Retrieved 2008-06-12.
- page 30 American Civil War Zouaves, Robin Smith ISBN 1-85532-571-3
- page 55 American Civil War Zouaves, Robin Smith ISBN 1-85532-571-3
- Winters, p. 16
- Parade Ground Soldiers, J. Phillip Langellier ISBN 0-87020-174-3
- Rinaldo D. D'Ami, page 46 Volume 2 "World Uniforms in Colour", SBN 85059 040 X
- Harrap's Shorter French and English Dictionary
- Smith, Robin. American Civil War Zouaves. London: Osprey Publishing, 1996. ISBN 1-85532-571-3
- Jean-Louis Larcade. Zouaves & Tirailleurs Vols 1 and 2 Editions des Argonautes ISBN 2-9515171-0-6
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Zouaves|
- Zouave Database Online
- 114th Pennsylvania Volunteer Infantry - Collis' Zouaves d'Afrique
- Van Gogh portrait of a Zouave soldier
- Lithograph of a Zouave soldier by Lucien Lefevre, 1898, for Absinthe Mugnier
- Remington 1863 Zouave Rifle
- "Les Zouaves" (French)
- Photograph of Alfred Laroque, a Canadian Papal Zouave, taken at Montreal, Quebec in 1868 by William Notman (1826–1891), housed in the McCord Museum in Montreal. Laroque is posed seated and wears three medals. 
- The Papal Zouaves
- Texts on Wikisource:
- "Zouaves". New International Encyclopedia. 1905.
- "Zouaves". The Nuttall Encyclopædia. 1907.
- Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Zouave". Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.
- "Zouaves". The New Student's Reference Work. 1914.
- "Zouave". Encyclopedia Americana. 1920.
- "Zouave". Collier's New Encyclopedia. 1921.