AA-1-class submarine

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USS AA-1 (SS-52).jpg
USS AA-1 (SS-52)
Class overview
Builders: Electric Boat Company (design)
Fore River Shipbuilding
Operators:  United States Navy
Preceded by: USS M-1 (SS-47)
Succeeded by: N-class submarine
Built: 1916-1922
In service: 1920–1927
Completed: USS T-1, USS T-2, USS T-3
Retired: 3
General characteristics
Type: Submarine
Displacement: 1,107 long tons (1,125 t) (surfaced)
1,482 long tons (1,506 t) (submerged)[1]
Length: 268 ft 9 in (81.92 m) overall
Beam: 22 ft 10 in (6.96 m)
Draft: 14 ft 2 in (4.32 m)
Propulsion: (as built) 4 × NELSECO Diesel engines, 1000 hp (746 kW) each
2 × Electro Dynamic electric motors, 675 hp (503 kW) each
1 × NELSECO auxiliary diesel generator
2 × 60-cell Exide batteries
2 × shafts[2]
Speed: 20 kn (23 mph; 37 km/h) surfaced
10.5 knots (19.4 km/h; 12.1 mph) submerged
Range: 3,000 nmi (5,600 km) at 14 kn (26 km/h; 16 mph) (surfaced)
100 nmi (190 km) at 5 kn (9.3 km/h; 5.8 mph) (surfaced)
Test depth: 150 ft (46 m)
Complement: 38[3]
Armament: six 18 inch (457 mm) torpedo tubes (four bow, two external (2 × 1)), 16 torpedoes,[4]
(as built) two 3 inch (76 mm)/23 caliber retractable deck guns

The AA-1 class was a class of three experimental submarines of the United States Navy, built toward the end of World War I, between 1916 and 1919. The design was not a success and none of the submarines saw active service. However, the lessons learned were applied to the design of the later V-boats.

Design[edit]

In the early 1910s, only a dozen years after Holland inaugurated the Navy's undersea force, naval strategists had already begun to wish for submarines that could operate as long range reconnaissance vessels, in closer collaboration with the surface fleet than the Navy's existing classes, which had been designed primarily for coastal defense. These notional "fleet" submarines would necessarily be larger and better armed, but primarily, they would need a surface speed of some 21 knots (39 km/h) to be able to maneuver with the 21-knot battleships the battle fleet was built around. This was the designed speed of the Delaware-class and later battleships, including the standard-type battleships that were under construction and proposed in 1913.

In the summer of 1913, Electric Boat's chief naval architect, former naval constructor Lawrence Y. Spear, proposed two preliminary fleet-boat designs for consideration in the Navy's 1914 program. In the ensuing authorization of eight submarines, Congress specified that one should "be of a seagoing type to have a surface speed of not less than twenty knots." This first fleet boat, laid down in June 1916, was named Schley after Spanish-American War hero Winfield Scott Schley. With a displacement of 1,106 tons surfaced, 1,487 tons submerged, on a length of 270 feet (82 m), Schley (later AA-1, and finally T-1) was twice as large as any previous U.S. submarine. One drawback of the large size was that the design depth was reduced from 200 ft (61 m) to 150 ft (46 m). To achieve the required surface speed, two tandem 1,000-horsepower (0.75 MW) diesel engines on each shaft drove twin screws, and a separate diesel generator was provided for charging batteries. Although Schley and two sisters authorized in 1915 -- AA-2 (later T-2), and AA-3 (later T-3) -- all made their design speed of 20 knots (37 km/h), insoluble torsional vibration problems with their tandem engines made them very troublesome ships. As the engines were clutched together, it was impossible to perfectly synchronize their operation.

The engineering plant included four New London Ship and Engine Company (NELSECO) four-cycle six-cylinder diesels, 1000 hp (746 kW) each in two tandem pairs, and two Electro Dynamic main electric motors, 675 hp (503 kW) each, directly driven by the engines. Two 60-cell Exide batteries provided submerged power. One NELSECO four-cycle four-cylinder auxiliary diesel generator was included to charge batteries while the main engines were operating at high speed. From 1923 to 1927, T-3 was re-engined with two German-built Maschinenfabrik Augsburg Nürnberg AG (MAN) four-cycle ten-cylinder diesels, 2350 hp (1752 kW) each.[5]

In addition to the usual four bow 18 inch (457 mm) torpedo tubes, two single trainable external torpedo tubes were provided in the superstructure, immediately forward and aft of the sail. These could fire on either broadside, but not dead ahead or dead astern. Two 3 inch (76 mm)/23 caliber retractable deck guns were also equipped. As with other contemporary US submarine designs, the AA-1-class was optimized for a high submerged speed, with a small sail and retractable deck guns. Photographs show that at some point T-1 was experimentally rearmed with a single 4 inch (102 mm)/50 caliber non-retractable gun, probably to test the effect of a bigger gun on submerged speed. Larger submarine deck guns were considered because many German U-boats were equipped with guns of up to 105 mm (4.1 inch) and some were equipped with 150 mm (5.9 inch) guns. The 4 inch gun would later become standard on the S-class submarines.[6][7][8][9][10]

History[edit]

They were based out of Hampton Roads, Virginia as part of Submarine Division 15 in the Atlantic Fleet and were used for training and maneuvers. On 23 August 1917, Schley was renamed AA-1 prior to launching, to free the name for DD-103. On 17 July 1920, the three boats were reclassified as Fleet Submarines and given the hull numbers SF-1, SF-2, and SF-3. Their names were changed from the AA-series to T-1, T-2, and T-3 on 22 September 1920.

All three boats had been decommissioned by 1923 and placed into storage at Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Between 1925 and 1927, T-3 was restored to service in order to test German-built diesels (2,350 hp (1,750 kW) MAN engines), then returned to Philadelphia. All three were struck from the Naval Vessel Register on 19 September 1930 and sold for scrap on 20 November 1930.

Ships in class[edit]

USS Schley, AA-1, T-1[edit]

USS AA-2, T-2[edit]

USS AA-3, T-3[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

Citations[edit]

  1. ^ Fitzsimons, Bernard, ed. The Illustrated Encyclopedia of 20th Century Weapons and Warfare (London: Orbis, 1978), Volume 22, p.2442, "T.1".
  2. ^ Alden, John D., Commander, USN (retired). The Fleet Submarine in the U.S. Navy (Annapolis, MD: Naval Institute Press, 1979), p.210-1.
  3. ^ Gardiner, p. 129
  4. ^ Fitzsimons, p.2442, "T.1".
  5. ^ Alden, John D., Commander, USN (retired). The Fleet Submarine in the U.S. Navy (Annapolis, MD: Naval Institute Press, 1979), p.210-1.
  6. ^ Pigboats.com AA-1-class (aka T-boats) page
  7. ^ DiGiulian, Tony Navweaps.com 3"/23 caliber gun
  8. ^ DiGiulian, Tony Navweaps.com 4"/50 caliber gun
  9. ^ DiGiulian, Tony Navweaps.com German 105 mm guns
  10. ^ DiGiulian, Tony Navweaps.com German 150 mm guns

Bibliography[edit]

This article incorporates text from the public domain Dictionary of American Naval Fighting Ships.