The Adaptation Fund
The Adaptation Fund is an international fund that finances projects and programs aimed at helping developing countries to adapt to the harmful effects of climate change. It is set up under the Kyoto Protocol of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC).
The Adaptation Fund was officially launched in 2007, although it was established in 2001 at the 7th Conference of the Parties (COP7) to the UNFCCC in Marrakech, Morocco to finance concrete adaptation projects and programmes that reduce the adverse effects of climate change facing communities, countries, and sectors. It is intended to finance climate adaptation projects and programmes in developing countries that are parties to the Kyoto Protocol.
At its conception, the Adaptation Fund was forecast to be primarily financed by a share of proceeds from clean development mechanism (CDM) project activities and also with funds from other sources. The share of proceeds amounts to 2% of certified emission reductions (CER) issued for a CDM project activity. As of Sept. 30, 2013, the Fund had accrued US$ 188.6 million in proceeds from CER sales. As of November 30, 2013, the Fund had US$ 156 million available to allocate to climate adaptation projects. By early November 2013, the AFB had allocated approximately US$ 200 million to support climate adaptation in 29 countries.
As the market for carbon credits plunged, other funding sources became more critical for the Adaptation Fund, and include donations from Annex 1 countries. These amounted to US$ 151 million as of Sept. 30, 2013. In a major fundraising push, the Adaptation Fund Board and secretariat surpassed its goal for pledged donations by the end of 2013, with over US$ 100 million pledged and donated by governments.
The Adaptation Fund is managed by the Adaptation Fund Board (AFB). The secretariat of the Adaptation Fund Board provides research, advisory, administrative, and an array of other services to the Board, and consists of an international staff based in Washington, DC. The World Bank serves as the trustee of the Adaptation Fund. The AFB is composed of 16 members and 16 alternates representing Annex I countries, Non-Annex I countries, Least Developed Countries (LDCs), Small Island Developing States (SIDSs), and regional constituencies. The AFB meets three times per year in Bonn, Germany. The German Parliament has conferred legal capacity to the AFB.
One unique feature of the Adaptation Fund is its direct access mechanism, which enables accredited national implementing entities (NIEs) and regional implementing agencies (RIEs) in developing countries to directly access climate adaptation financing.
Accredited Implementing Entities
By November 2013, the AFB had accredited the following implementing entities:
- Planning Institute of Jamaica - Jamaica
- Centre de Suivi Ecologique – Senegal
- Agencia Nacional de Investigacion e Innovacion – Uruguay
- National Environmental Fund - Benin
- South African National Biodiversity Institute - South Africa
- Protected Areas Conservation Trust (PACT) - Belize
- Ministry of Planning and International Cooperation - Jordan
- Ministry of Natural Resources (MINIRENA) - Rwanda
- National Environment Management Authority (NEMA) - Kenya
- Mexican Institute of Water Technology (IMTA) - Mexico
- Unidad para el Cambio Rural (Unit for Rural Change - UCAR) - Argentina
- National Bank for Agriculture and Rural Development - India
- Fundecooperación para el Desarrollo Sostenible - Costa Rica
- Agency for Agricultural Development - Morocco
- Agencia de Cooperación Internacional de Chile - Chile
- Observatoire du Sahara et du Sahel (OSS)
- Secretariat of the Pacific Regional Environment Programme (SPREP)
- West African Development Bank (BOAD)
- African Development Bank (AfDB)
- Asian Development Bank (ADB)
- International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD)
- Inter-American Development Bank (IDB)
- United Nations Development Programme (UNDP)
- United Nations Environmental Programme (UNEP)
- United Nations World Food Programme (WFP)
- United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO)
- The World Bank (International Bank for Reconstruction and Development)
- World Meteorological Organization (WMO)
- Decision 1/CMP.3: Adaptation Fund
- Decision 10/CP.7: Funding under the Kyoto Protocol
- Operational policies and guidelines for Parties to access resources from the Adaptation Fund
- Adaptation Fund Secretariat
- Adaptation Fund official website
- Adaptation Fund FAQ
- Adaptation Fund Accredited National Implementing Entities
- Adaptation Fund Accredited Regional Implementing Entities
- Adaptation Fund Accredited Multilateral Implementing Entities