Ali Hassan Salameh
|Ali Hassan Salameh|
Ali Hassan Salameh
Qula, British Mandate for Palestine
|Died||22 January 1979
|Years of service||1958–1979|
|Rank||Chief of operations|
|Battles/wars||Munich Massacre, Sabena Flight 571|
Ali Hassan Salameh (Arabic: علي حسن سلامة, ʿAlī Ḥasan Salāmah) (1940 – 22 January 1979) was the chief of operations—code name Abu Hassan—for Black September, the organization responsible for the 1972 Munich massacre and other attacks. He was also the founder of Force 17. He was assassinated by Mossad in January 1979.
Salameh was born in the Palestinian town of Qula during the British mandate, near the city of Jaffa, to a wealthy family in 1940. He was the son of Shaykh Hassan Salameh, who was killed in action by the Israel Defense Forces during the 1948 Arab–Israeli War, north of Jaffa. Ali Salameh was educated in Germany and is thought to have received his military training in Cairo and Moscow.
He was known for flaunting his wealth, being surrounded by women and driving sports cars, and had a very popular appeal among Palestinian young men; his nickname underlined his popularity — the "Red Prince." He served as the secretary chief of Fatah. After the Munich Massacre during the 1972 Olympic Games, he was hunted by the Israeli Mossad during Operation Wrath of God. In 1973, Mossad killed an innocent Moroccan waiter, Ahmed Bouchiki, in what became known as the Lillehammer affair in Norway, mistaking Bouchiki for Salameh, and resulting in the arrest of some of the Israeli agents.
As a result of the failure of Lillehammer and his alleged CIA protection, Salameh felt relatively safe, and hence did not act like a man on the run. Having lived under cover in various parts of the Middle East and Europe, in 1978 he married Georgina Rizk, a Lebanese celebrity who had been Miss Universe seven years earlier in 1971. The couple spent their honeymoon in Hawaii and then stayed at Disneyland, California. When Rizk became pregnant, she returned to her flat in Beirut where Salameh also rented a separate apartment. Rizk was six months pregnant at the time of his death. By a prior marriage he was a grandson-in-law of Mohammad Amin al-Husayni. He had two sons from his first marriage to Um Hassan.
According to several sources, Salameh served as a secret contact between the Palestine Liberation Organisation (PLO) and the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) from 1970 until his death, guaranteeing not to assassinate US citizens in exchange for financial and political support. However, when asked by the Israelis, the relationship was denied by US officials. He helped protect US citizens in Beirut, and his role was to facilitate contacts between the Palestinians and the US, in hope of obtaining US support for the Palestinians.
It is believed a Mossad agent, pseudonymously known as "Erika Chambers", a British citizen, took part in Salameh's assassination. She travelled to the Middle East with a charity supporting Palestinian refugees and arranged a meeting with Salameh in Beirut, where Salameh was being harbored by the Lebanese government. Chambers learned Salameh's daily routine.
On 22 January 1979, Salameh was in a convoy of two Chevrolet station wagons headed from Rizk's flat to his mother's for a birthday party. Chambers was on her balcony painting, with her red Volkswagen parked below on Rue Verdun. As Salameh's convoy passed the Volkswagen at 3:35 pm and turned onto Rue Madame Curie, 100 kg of explosive attached to the car by a fellow Mossad agent was remotely exploded, either by Chambers or on her notification to another Mossad agent.
The detonation left Salameh conscious, but severely wounded and in great pain, having pieces of steel shrapnel embedded in his head and throughout his body. He was rushed to the American University Hospital, where he died on the operating table at 4:03pm. Salameh's four bodyguards were also killed in the explosion. Four bystanders were also killed. In addition, at least 16 people were injured in the blast. Immediately following the operation, the three Mossad officers escaped as well as up to 14 other Mossad agents believed to have been involved in the operation.
Salameh was buried in Beirut after a public funeral ceremony attended by Yasser Arafat and about 20,000 Palestinians on 24 January 1979.
In popular culture
- Ali Hassan Salameh was featured in the plot of the Steven Spielberg film Munich as one of the assassination targets. He is seen twice but was not assassinated until after the events of the film.
- He appears as the character named Jamal Ramlawi in the spy novel Agents of Innocence by David Ignatius, a thinly disguised account of his recruitment by the CIA.
- He is briefly mentioned in the Robert Ludlum novel The Janson Directive, where his alleged links to the CIA are cited as an example of shady deals the United States makes.
- Daniel Silva borrowed from the exploits of Ali Hassan Salameh and his relatives to create the background for his fictional spy novel Prince of Fire, 2005.
- Ali Hassan Salameh is repeatedly referenced in the book By Way of Deception by Victor Ostrovsky in his account of his own recruitment and training to become an officer in Mossad.
- Bar-Zohar, Michael; Eitan Haber (1983). The Quest for The Red Prince: The Israeli Hunt for Ali Hassen Salameh the PLO leader who masterminded the Olympic Games Massacre. Weidenfeld & Nicolson. ISBN 0-297-78063-8. which includes black-and-white photographic plates and which also include Yasser Arafat, together with an index.
- Michael Bar Bar-Zohar and Eitan Haber (1 December 2005). Massacre in Munich: The Manhunt for the Killers Behind the 1972 Olympics Massacre. The Lyons Press. ISBN 978-1592289455.
- Noam Shalev (24 January 2006). "The hunt for Black September". BBC News Online.
- Ali Baghdadi (27 March 1998). "Other Voices: Time for Arafat to retire". Arab American News. Retrieved 3 October 2013. – via Highbeam (subscription required)
- "An Eye For An Eye". CBS News. 11 February 2009. Retrieved 17 August 2012.
- "How MOSSAD got the Red Prince". The Montreal Gazette. Retrieved 3 October 2013.
- Simon Reeve (2000). One Day in September: The Full Story of the 1972 Munich Olympics Massacre and the Israeli Revenge Operation "Wrath of God". Arcade Publishing. p. 189. ISBN 978-1-55970-547-9.
- David Ignatius (12 November 2004). "In the end, CIA-PLO links weren't helpful". U-T San Diego.
- David Ignatius (16 September 2001). "Penetrating Terrorist Networks". Washington Post. p. B07.
- "Munich (3): BBC set to name woman agent who killed Olympics massacre mastermind". 24 January 2006.
- University of Southampton New Reporter. People 9 (17). 8 March 1992.
- John Weisman (18 July 2006). "Conspiracy Theory". Retrieved 18 July 2012.
- "Death of a Terrorist". Time Magazine. 5 February 1979. Retrieved 17 August 2012.
- Simon Reeve (2000-09-01). One day in September. Arcade Publishing. ISBN 978-1559705479.
- "Munich massacre leader killed in Beirut explosion". Observer Reporter (Beirut). AP. 23 January 1979. Retrieved 18 December 2012.
- "Funeral held for Salameh". The Leader Post (Beirut). 25 January 1979. Retrieved 18 December 2012.
- David Ignatius (17 September 1997). Agents of Innocence. W. W. Norton & Company. ISBN 978-0393317381.
- Robert Ludlum (1 July 2008). The Janson Directive. St. Martin's Paperbacks. p. 581. ISBN 978-0312945152.