Amanita fulva

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Amanita fulva
Amanita fulva lowpx.jpg
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Fungi
Division: Basidiomycota
Class: Agaricomycetes
Order: Agaricales
Family: Amanitaceae
Genus: Amanita
Species: A. fulva
Binomial name
Amanita fulva
(Schaeff.) Secr.
Synonyms[1]
Amanita fulva
View the Mycomorphbox template that generates the following list
Mycological characteristics
gills on hymenium
cap is umbonate
hymenium is free
stipe has a volva
spore print is white
ecology is mycorrhizal

edibility: edible

but not recommended

Amanita fulva, commonly called the tawny grisette, is a basidiomycete mushroom of the genus Amanita. It is found frequently in deciduous and coniferous forests of Europe, and possibly North America.

Taxonomy and naming[edit]

Amanita fulva was first described by Jacob Christian Schäffer in 1774.[1] Historically, both the tawny grisette and the grisette (A. vaginata) were placed in the genus Amanitopsis due to their lack of a ring, unlike other Amanita species. However this distinction is now seen as insufficient to warrant a separate genus. Nowadays, A. fulva and similar ringless species of Amanita are placed in the section Vaginatae ss according to the classification of Bas.[2]

Description[edit]

Emergent
Emergent
Immature
Immature
Mature
Mature
Maturation of A. fulva in three stages - an emergent (far left), an immature (middle) and a mature specimen (right). Note the glistening brown caps, smooth white stems and brown-tinged volvas.

The cap is orange-brown, paler towards the margin, and darker (even very dark brown) in the center, up to 10 cm in diameter. It develops an umbo when expanded, and has a strongly striated margin. Its surface is smooth, slightly sticky and slippery when moist and glistens; later it may dry.[3] The gills are free, close, and broad. The flesh is white to cream. The stem or stipe is white and smooth or powdery, sometimes tinged with orange-brown and with very fine hairs. It is slender, ringless, hollow and quite fragile, tapering towards the top; up to 15 cm tall and 1–1.5 cm in thickness.[4] The universal veil which initially encapsulates the fruiting body is torn and develops into a white, sack-like volva with characteristic rusty-brown blemishes. The cap is usually free of volval remnants. Infrequently, roughly polygonal pieces of the veil may remain on the surface.[5] The spores are white, 9 × 12 µm or (9.0-) 10.0 - 12.5 (-19.3) x (8.2-) 9.3 - 12.0 (-15.5) µm in size, globose; nonamyloid.[6]

Distribution and habitat[edit]

Amanita fulva, distributed throughout Europe, occurs in a variety of forests. It is generally found with oak (Quercus), birch (Betula), spruce (Picea), pine (Pinus), chestnut (Castanea) and alder (Alnus), with which it forms mycorrhizae. It is often found with birch in Scandinavia, while collections from southern Europe are usually from forests of oak, chestnut and pine.[2] It grows in acidic soils and fruits from summer to late autumn (May to November in the UK). It is a common to scarce fungus,[7] and is very common in Britain.[8][9]

Amanita fulva is considered to be widely distributed in North America in deciduous and coniferous forests, although collections could possibly be of a different, yet undescribed species.[10] In addition, the name Amanita fulva has in the past been misapplied to other North American taxa, such as A. amerifulva and others.[5]

Edibility[edit]

Amanita fulva is one of the few edible species in the genus Amanita. Though this particular species is considered edible, it must be identified with care as other members of the genus Amanita are poisonous and some are deadly. For this reason, collection for consumption of A. fulva can be dangerous and is not recommended.[7][8][11] Some authors indicate the fungus is potentially toxic when raw, and is suitable for consumption only when cooked.[12][13]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "Synonymy: Amanita fulva". Species Fungorum. CAB International. Retrieved 2011-10-07. 
  2. ^ a b Fraiture A. (1993). Les Amanitopsis d'Europe (in French). Jardin Botanique Nationale de Belgique. pp. 75–8. ISBN 90-72619-09-9. ISSN 0775-9592. 
  3. ^ "Amanita fulva at Rogers Mushrooms.". Rogers Plants Ltd. Retrieved 2011-10-07. 
  4. ^ "Amanita fulva, Tawny Grisette, identification guide". First Nature. Retrieved 2011-10-07. 
  5. ^ a b A. fulva-amanitaceae.org "Amanita fulva - Amanitaceae.org". Retrieved 2011-10-14. 
  6. ^ Rodham E. Tulloss-Amanita fulva (Schaeff.) Fr. http://pluto.njcc.com/~ret/amanita/species/fulva.html
  7. ^ a b Régis Courtecuisse and Bernard Duhem (1995). Mushrooms & Toadstools of Britain and Europe. Harper Collins. pp. 274–75. ISBN 0-00-220025-2. 
  8. ^ a b Jordan M. (1995). The Encyclopedia of Fungi of Britain and Europe. London: David & Charles. p. 197. ISBN 0-7153-0129-2. 
  9. ^ Amanita Fulva: Distribution and populations, asturnatura.com, translated from the original
  10. ^ Kuo, M. (2002, September). Amanita fulva. Retrieved from the MushroomExpert.Com Web site: http://www.mushroomexpert.com/amanita_fulva.html
  11. ^ Phillips, Roger (2010). Mushrooms and Other Fungi of North America. Firefly Books. ISBN 978-1-55407-651-2. 
  12. ^ Houdou, Gérard (2004). Le grand livre des champignons (in French). Editions de Borée. p. 16. ISBN 2-84494-270-9. 
  13. ^ John, Wright (2007). Mushrooms: River Cottage Handbook. Bloomsbury Publishing. p. 68. ISBN 0-7475-8932-1.