Anabasis (Xenophon)

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Anabasis
Author Xenophon
Country Greece
Language Ancient Greek

Anabasis (/əˈnæbəsɪs/; Greek: Ἀνάβασις [anábasis] "An Ascent"/"Going Up")[1] is the most famous work, in seven books, of the Greek professional soldier and writer Xenophon.[2] The journey it narrates is his best known accomplishment and "one of the great adventures in human history," as Will Durant expressed the common assessment.[3]

Content[edit]

Xenophon accompanied the Ten Thousand, a large army of Greek mercenaries hired by Cyrus the Younger, who intended to seize the throne of Persia from his brother, Artaxerxes II. Though Cyrus' mixed army fought to a tactical victory at Cunaxa in Babylon (401 BC), Cyrus himself was killed in the battle, rendering the actions of the Greeks irrelevant and the expedition a failure.

Stranded deep in enemy territory, the Spartan general Clearchus and the other Greek senior officers were subsequently killed or captured by treachery on the part of the Persian satrap Tissaphernes. Xenophon, one of three remaining leaders elected by the soldiers, played an instrumental role in encouraging the Greek army of 10,000 to march north across foodless deserts and snow-filled mountain passes towards the Black Sea and the comparative security of its Greek shoreline cities. Now abandoned in northern Mesopotamia, without supplies other than what they could obtain by force or diplomacy, the 10,000 had to fight their way northwards through Corduene and Armenia, making ad hoc decisions about their leadership, tactics, provender and destiny, while the King's army and hostile natives constantly barred their way and attacked their flanks.

Ultimately this "marching republic" managed to reach the shores of the Black Sea at Trabzon (Trebizond), a destination they greeted with their famous cry of joyous exultation on the mountain of Theches (now Madur) in Sürmene : "thálatta, thálatta", "the sea, the sea!".[4] "The sea" meant that they were at last among Greek cities, but it was not the end of their journey, which included a period fighting for Seuthes II of Thrace, and ended with their recruitment into the army of the Spartan general Thibron. Xenophon related this story in Anabasis in a simple and direct manner.

The Greek term anabasis referred to an expedition from a coastline into the interior of a country. The term katabasis referred to a trip from the interior to the coast. While the journey of Cyrus himself is indeed an anabasis from Ionia on the eastern coast of the Aegean Sea to the interior of Asia Minor and Mesopotamia, most of Xenophon's narrative is taken up with the return march of Xenophon and the Ten Thousand from the interior of Babylon to the coast of the Black Sea. Socrates makes a cameo appearance when Xenophon asks whether he ought to accompany the expedition. The short episode demonstrates the reverence of Socrates for the Oracle of Delphi.

Xenophon's account of the exploit resounded through Greece, where, two generations later, some surmise, it may have inspired Philip of Macedon to believe that a lean and disciplined Hellene army might be relied upon to defeat a Persian army many times its size.[5]

Besides military history, the Anabasis has found use as a tool for the teaching of classical philosophy; the principles of leadership and government exhibited by the army can be seen as exemplifying Socratic philosophy.

Cultural influences[edit]

Traditionally Anabasis is one of the first unabridged texts studied by students of classical Greek because of its clear and unadorned style; similar to Caesar's Commentarii de Bello Gallico for Latin students. Perhaps not coincidentally, they are both autobiographical tales of military adventure told in the third person.

Xenophon's book inspired Anabasis Alexandri, by the Greek historian Arrian (86 – after 146 AD), about Alexander the Great (336–323 BC).

The cry of Xenophon's soldiers when they meet the sea is mentioned by the narrator of Jules Verne's Journey to the Center of the Earth, when their expedition discovers an underground ocean.

The famous cry provides the title of the Booker Prize-winning novel by Iris Murdoch, The Sea, the Sea.

The cry of Xenophon's soldiers is mentioned by Buck Mulligan in James Joyce's novel Ulysses, "Ah, Dedalus, the Greeks! I must teach you. You must read them in the original. Thalatta! Thalatta! She is our great sweet mother."

Andre Norton's 1955 science fiction novel Star Guard appears to have been the first speculative fiction transliteration of the Anabasis theme, in which a body of human mercenaries hired out of a future Terra to fight in a dynastic war among autochthons on a distant planet are betrayed in much the same way as were the Hellenic mercenaries of Xenophon's account, and left leaderless to negotiate and battle their way across hostile country to safety.

Themes from the Anabasis were used in Sol Yurick's novel The Warriors, which was later adapted into a 1979 cult movie of the same name, and finally a Rockstar Games video game in 2005. Each re-imagining relocates Xenophon's narrative to the gang scene of New York.

Paul Davies' novella Grace: A Story (Toronto: ECW Press, 1996) is a fantasy that details the progress of Xenophon's army through Armenia to Trabzon.

Michael Curtis Ford's 2001 novel The Ten Thousand is a fictional account of this group's exploits.

Harold Coyle's 1993 novel The Ten Thousand shows the bulk of the US Forces in modern Europe fighting their way across and out of Germany, instead of laying down their weapons, after the Germans steal nuclear weapons that are being removed from Ukraine. The operational concept for the novel was based on Xenophon's account of the Ten Thousand.

The 1996 David Drake novel The Forlorn Hope draws on the March of the Ten Thousand for its inspiration, as well as the 1996 novel Redliners, though the enemy of the second novel is an adaptive jungle environment somewhat derivative of Harry Harrison's Deathworld stories.

Shane Brennan's In the Tracks of the Ten Thousand: A Journey on Foot through Turkey, Syria and Iraq (London: Robert Hale, 2005) is an account of his 2000 journey to re-trace the steps of the Ten Thousand.

Paul Kearney's 2008 novel The Ten Thousand is directly based on the historical events but transplants the action to a fictional fantasy world named Kuf, where ten thousand Macht mercenaries are hired to fight on the behalf of a prince trying to usurp the throne of the Assurian Empire. When he dies in battle, the Macht have to march home overland through hostile territory.

Valerio Massimo Manfredi's 2008 novel "The Lost Army" is a fictional account of Xenophon's march with the Ten Thousand.

John Ringo's 2008 novel "The Last Centurion" involves a similar anabasis from the Persian Gulf to the Black Sea, by US Army troops abandoned in Iran during a global catastrophe.

John Ringo and David Weber's "March Upcountry" series is a military SF story involving the march of a prince and his bodyguards across a hostile planet in order to return to their home world.

The 2005 Parkway Drive song "Anasasis (Xenophontis)", from the album Killing with a Smile, is a reference to the Anabasis text.

The 2006 Military science fiction series The Lost Fleet, by John G. Hemry (writing as Jack Campbell) combines the structure of the Anabasis with the myth of the King in the mountain. In the series, a space fleet is led home by a commander retrieved from hibernation, a hundred years after a battle that made him a revered historical and mythical figure.

In 2011 Eric Baudelaire made an installation with 66 minutes of film and 9 screenprints for the MACBA in Barcelona and published the text to go with them with the title "The ANABASIS of May and Fusako Shigenobu, Masao Adachi, and 27 years without images"

The second track on Anastasis, a studo album by Dead Can Dance from 2012, is entitled Anabasis.

T.E. Lawrence (Lawrence of Arabia) was said to have read Anabasis during the 1916 Arab Revolt and that it influenced both his leadership during that time and his writing of The Seven Pillars of Wisdom.[6]

Editions and translations[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ ἀνάβασις, Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, A Greek-English Lexicon, on Perseus
  2. ^ The text was composed around the year 370 BC. In translations, Anabasis is rendered The March of the Ten Thousand or The March Up Country.
  3. ^ Durant, The Life of Greece, 1939:460–61.
  4. ^ The cry, written in Greek as θαλασσα, θαλασσα, is conventionally rendered "thalassa, thalassa!" in English. Thalatta was the Attic pronunciation, which substituted -tt- where the written language, as well as spoken Ionic, Doric, and Greek, has -ss-.
  5. ^ Jason of Pherae's plans of a "panhellenic conquest of Persia" (following the Anabasis), which both Xenophon, in his Hellenica, but also Isocrates, in his speech addressed directly to Phillip, recount, probably had an influence on the Macedonian king.
  6. ^ Meyers, J. 1977, Xenophon and the Seven Pillars of Wisdom

External links[edit]