Ardanuç

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Ardanuç
Ardanuc.jpg
Ardanuç is located in Turkey
Ardanuç
Ardanuç
Coordinates: 41°07′43″N 42°03′33″E / 41.12861°N 42.05917°E / 41.12861; 42.05917Coordinates: 41°07′43″N 42°03′33″E / 41.12861°N 42.05917°E / 41.12861; 42.05917
Country Turkey
Province Artvin
Government
 • Mayor Yıldırım Demir (CHP)
 • Kaymakam Cüneyt Epçim
Area[1]
 • District 989.18 km2 (381.92 sq mi)
Elevation 558 m (1,831 ft)
Population (2012)[2]
 • Urban 6,332
 • District 11,406
 • District density 12/km2 (30/sq mi)
Post code 08300

Ardanuç (Georgian: არტანუჯი) is a town and district of Artvin Province in the Black Sea region of Turkey located 32 km east of Artvin.

Geography[edit]

Ardanuç is a mountainous district, rising from 250 m in the Şavşat River basin (Şavşat district) up to the highest point, 3050 m Mount Çadır. Other high mountains are Kürdevan, Yalnızçam and Mount Horasan. The town of Ardanuç is on the western side of Yalnızçam Mount and at the conjunction of Bulanık, Aydın and Horhot streams.

Climate[edit]

Ardanuç has an oceanic climate (Köppen: Cfb).

Climate data for Ardanuç
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Daily mean °C (°F) −0.2
(31.6)
1.5
(34.7)
5.5
(41.9)
10.9
(51.6)
14.9
(58.8)
18.1
(64.6)
20.9
(69.6)
21.0
(69.8)
17.7
(63.9)
12.9
(55.2)
7.4
(45.3)
2.4
(36.3)
11.1
(52)
Precipitation mm (inches) 80
(3.15)
70
(2.76)
56
(2.2)
63
(2.48)
63
(2.48)
67
(2.64)
49
(1.93)
54
(2.13)
67
(2.64)
88
(3.46)
91
(3.58)
101
(3.98)
849
(33.43)
Source: Climate-Data.org[3]

Villages[edit]

History[edit]

The history of this area goes back to the settlement of the banks of the Çoruh River by the Hurri and Mitanni branches of the Hittites in 2000 BC. The first mention of Ardanuç was in a Urartu monument to the defeat of the local people in battle by King Sarduri II in 753 BC. Then in the 7th century BC the Saka or Scythians are known to have settled and they dominated Ardanuç. The castle of Artanuji was built by Georgian king Vakhtang Gorgasali (5th century AD).[4] The castle was besieged by Arab caliph Marwan II (688-750) Ummayad in 744 AD. and was restored by Ashot I (Bagrationi dynasty) in the 8th century. He also founded a city, which became the center of the "Kingdom of Georgians" (ქართველთა სამეფო in Georgian) of Tao-Klarjeti.[5][6]

Fighting between the Bagrationi and Anatolian beyliks began in 1080. Ardanuç being a mountain stronghold was hard to capture, although it did fall to the Mongols during their wars with the Turks and Georgians in the 13th century and was brought into the Ottoman Empire in 1551 by Suleiman the Magnificent following yet another siege, this time to overturn the local ruler, Atabeg of Samtskhe Jakeli.

Following the Russo-Turkish War (1877-1878) Ardanuç was ceded to Russia and after the Russian Revolution was returned to the Ottomans and a plebscite was planned to decide its final status.

The short lived, newly independent Democratic Republic of Georgia tried to claim the area but withdrew in 1921. with the Soviet invasion and a petition by the newly formed republic of Turkey.

İskender Pasha Mosque[edit]

The most famous sight of Ardanuç is the İskender Pasha Mosque and Tombs (İskender Paşa Camii ve Türbeleri). The mosque was commissioned by İskender Pasha and opened in 1553. It is built in classic Ottoman style and has four domes. Its also contains the tombs of Hatice Hanım, Ali Pasha and Süleyman Pasha.

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Area of regions (including lakes), km²". Regional Statistics Database. Turkish Statistical Institute. 2002. Retrieved 2013-03-05. 
  2. ^ "Population of province/district centers and towns/villages by districts - 2012". Address Based Population Registration System (ABPRS) Database. Turkish Statistical Institute. Retrieved 2013-02-27. 
  3. ^ "Climate:Ardanuç". Climate-Data.org. Retrieved 11 April 2014. 
  4. ^ Джуаншер Джуаншериани, Жизнь Вахтанга Горгасала, перевод, введение и примечания Г.В. Цулая, Тб., 1986, p. 79 (in Russian).
  5. ^ Сумбат Давитис-дзе, История и повествование о Багратионах, пер. М. Д. Лордкипанидзе, р. 31 (in russian)
  6. ^ Д. Л. Мусхелишвили, Основные вопросы исторической географии Грузии, II, p. 174-176 (in russian)

External links[edit]