Atmospheric electricity is the regular diurnal variation of the Earth's atmospheric electromagnetic network or, more broadly, any planet's electrical system in its layer of gases. The normal movement of electric charges among the Earth's surface, the various layers of the atmosphere, and especially the ionosphere, taken together, are known as the global atmospheric electrical circuit. A part of Earth Science, much of the reasoning required to explain these currents can be done within the field of electrostatics. Full understanding requires knowledge of several disciplines, not just electricity.
Eliminating, for the moment, consideration of the extremely dense charge populations that exist in the upper reaches of the atmosphere, a region called the ionosphere, filled with hot, dense, plasma gas whose ions give the ionosphere its name, we note that there is always some amount of unbound positive and negative, but net positive, electric charge in the atmosphere closest to the surface of the negatively charged Earth on a 'fine day'. When days are not so 'fine', the net unbound charge that exists in the clouds of thunderstorms can be exceedingly negative.
The 'fine day' net positive charge sets up an electric field between the negative Earth and the net positive charge in the air, and this electric field stores electrical energy. The positive charge acts by induction on the earth and electromagnetic devices.
Experiments have shown that the intensity of this electric field is greater in the middle of the day than at morning or night and is also greater in winter than in summer. In 'fine weather', the potential, aka 'voltage', increases with altitude at about 30 volts per foot (100 V/m), when climbing against the gradient of the electric field. This electric field gradient continues up into the atmosphere to a point where the voltage reaches its maximum, in the neighborhood of 300,000 volts. This occurs at approximately 30–50 km above the Earth's surface. From that point in the atmosphere up to its outer limit, nearly 1,000 km, the electric field gradient produced in the lower atmosphere either ceases or has reversed.
Some authors hedge by making the following statement. In general, the atmospheric medium, by which the near Earth is surrounded, contains not only electric charges bound in atoms or molecules, or any form of matter, but it also contains a quantity of charge in an unbound state. Sometimes the unbound charges are positive, sometimes negative, but as a general rule most are of an opposite polarity to that of the Earth. Different layers, or strata, of the atmosphere, located at only small distances from each other, are frequently found to be in different electric states.
Global daily cycles, with a minimum and a peak at roughly 16:00 hours later, was researched by Carnegie Institution of Washington in the 20th century. This Carnegie curve variation is the fundamental electrical frequency of the planet.
The phenomena characterizing atmospheric electricity are of at least three kinds. There are thunderstorms, which create lightning bolts that 'instantaneously' discharge huge amounts of atmospheric charge to ground in a rapid release of energy stored in the electric field that built up to a particularly extreme degree in the storm clouds. There is a related phenomenon of continual electrification (re-charging) of the air in the lower atmosphere. A third phenomenon is that of the polar auroras.
Most authorities agree that whatever may be the origin of free electricity and the net unbound positive charge in the atmosphere, the generation of enormous currents (flow of electrons, negative charges), that flow between clouds and ground during a lightning discharge, begins with condensation of water vapor within the clouds; each minute water droplet moving through the air collects upon its surface a certain amount of negative charge by collecting 'free' electrons. As these tiny drops coalesce into larger drops, and still larger drops, there is a corresponding decrease in the total exposed surface upon which the collected electronic charges can be carried, raising the negative voltage as droplets combine. The combined negative electric potential of all the coalescing water drops rises until it overcomes the resistance of the, usually non-conductive, air, and jumps to earth in a flash, moving negative electrons against the electric field gradient. In effect, the lightning, acting as a charge pump, restores the positive charge of the lower atmosphere.
This remark will be more clearly understood when it is considered that, with a given charge, an object's potential rises as the electrical capacity of the object holding the charge is decreased, which is the case when the minute drops coalesce into larger drops. The similarity of lightning to the discharge of accumulated electrons developed on an electrical machine was demonstrated by Franklin in his memorable kite experiments.
- 1 History
- 2 Description
- 3 Research and investigation
- 4 See also
- 5 References and external articles
- 6 Further reading
- 7 External links
The detonating sparks drawn from electrical machines and from Leyden jars suggested to the early experimenters, Hauksbee, Newton, Wall, Nollet, and Gray, that lightning and thunder were due to electric discharges. In 1708, Dr. William Wall was one of the first to observe that spark discharges resembled miniature lightning, after observing the sparks from a charged piece of amber.
In the middle of the 18th century, Benjamin Franklin's experiments showed that electrical phenomena of the atmosphere were not fundamentally different from those produced in the laboratory. By 1749, Franklin observed lightning to possess almost all the properties observable in electrical machines.
In July 1750, Franklin hypothesized that electricity could be taken from clouds via a tall metal aerial with a sharp point. Before Franklin could carry out his experiment, in 1752 Thomas-François Dalibard erected a 40-foot (12 m) iron rod at Marly-la-Ville, near Paris, drawing sparks from a passing cloud. With ground-insulated aerials, an experimenter could bring a grounded lead with an insulated wax handle close to the aerial, and observe a spark discharge from the aerial to the grounding wire. In May 1752, Dalibard affirmed that Franklin's theory was correct.
Franklin listed the following similarities between electricity and lightning:
- producing light of a similar color;
- rapid motion;
- being conducted by metals, water and ice;
- melting metals and igniting inflammable substances;
- "sulfurous" smell (which is now known to be due to ozone);
- magnetizing needles;
- the similarity between St. Elmo's Fire and glow discharge.
Around June 1752, Franklin reportedly performed his famous kite experiment. The kite experiment was repeated by Romas, who drew from a metallic string sparks 9 feet (2.7 m) long, and by Cavallo, who made many important observations on atmospheric electricity. L. G. Lemonnier (1752) also reproduced Franklin's experiment with an aerial, but substituted the ground wire with some dust particles (testing attraction). He went on to document the fair weather condition, the clear-day electrification of the atmosphere, and the diurnal variation of the atmosphere's electricity. G. Beccaria (1775) confirmed Lemonnier's diurnal variation data and determined that the atmosphere's charge polarity was positive in fair weather. H. B. Saussure (1779) recorded data relating to a conductor's induced charge in the atmosphere. Saussure's instrument (which contained two small spheres suspended in parallel with two thin wires) was a precursor to the electrometer. Saussure found that the fair weather condition had an annual variation, and found that there was a variation with height, as well. In 1785, Coulomb discovered the electrical conductivity of air. His discovery was contrary to the prevailing thought at the time, that the atmospheric gases were insulators (which they are to some extent, or at least not very good conductors when not ionized). His research was, unfortunately, completely ignored. P. Erman (1804) theorized that the Earth was negatively charged. J. C. A. Peltier (1842) tested and confirmed Erman's idea. Lord Kelvin (1860s) proposed that atmospheric positive charges explained the fair weather condition and, later, recognized the existence of atmospheric electric fields.
Over the course of the next century, using the ideas of Alessandro Volta and Francis Ronald, several researchers contributed to the growing body of knowledge about atmospheric electrical phenomena. With the invention of the portable electrometer and Lord Kelvin's 19th century water-dropping condenser, a greater level of precision was introduced into observational results. Towards the end of the 19th century came the discovery by W. Linss (1887) that even the most perfectly insulated conductors lose their charge, as Coulomb before him had found, and that this loss depended on atmospheric conditions. H. H. Hoffert (1888) identified individual lightning downward strokes using early cameras and would report this in "Intermittent Lightning-Flashes". J. Elster and H. F. Geitel, who also worked on thermionic emission, proposed a theory to explain thunderstorms' electrical structure (1885) and, later, discovered atmospheric radioactivity (1899). By then it had become clear that freely charged positive and negative ions were always present in the atmosphere, and that radiant emanations could be collected. F. Pockels (1897) estimated lightning current intensity by analyzing lightning flashes in basalt (c. 1900) and studying the left-over magnetic fields.
Using a Peltier electrometer, Luigi Palmieri researched atmospheric electricity. Nikola Tesla and Hermann Plauson investigated the production of energy and power via atmospheric electricity. Tesla also proposed to use the atmospheric electrical circuit to transceive wireless energy over large distances. The Polish Polar Station, Hornsund, has researched the magnitude of the Earth's electric field and recorded its vertical component. Discoveries about the electrification of the atmosphere via sensitive electrical instruments and ideas on how the Earth’s negative charge is maintained were developed mainly in the 20th century. Whilst a certain amount of observational work has been done in the branches of atmospheric electricity, the science has not developed to a considerable extent. Up to the contemporary day, apparatus which extract industrial energy from atmospheric electricity have not been built and maintained.
Atmospheric electricity abounds in the environment above the surface of Earth with some traces of it are found less than four feet above the surface and water bodies; on attaining greater height, it becomes more apparent. The main concept is that, during fine weather, the air above the surface of Earth is positively charged, i.e., positive with respect to the charge on Earth's surface. That makes Earth's surface charge negative, relatively speaking.
Additionally, the presence of electrical action in Earth's atmosphere, due to the accumulation of static charges, generated by friction of the air upon itself, released to ground in an instant, in a massive down-rush of current (moving electronic charges) the moment the accumulated charge exceeds the breakdown voltage of air, accounts for the phenomenon of lightning.
Other sources of atmospheric charge include, evaporation of water from Earth's surface, chemical reactions which take place upon Earth's surface that release charged particles into the atmosphere, and expansion or condensation of moisture contained in the atmosphere due to variation of temperature.
According to Monsieur Peltier, the terrestrial globe is completely negative, and inter-planetary space positive; the atmosphere itself has no electricity, and is only in a passive state; so that the effects observed are due to the relative influence of these two great stores of electricity. Researchers are disposed to assume that the terrestrial globe possesses, at least on its solid part, an excess of negative electricity, and that it is the same with bodies placed at its surface; but it appears to them to follow, from the various observations made, that the atmosphere itself is positively electrified. This positive electricity evidently arises from the same source as the negative of the globe. It is probable that it is essentially in the aqueous vapors with which the atmosphere is always more or less filled that it resides, rather than in the particles of the air itself; but it does not the less exist in the atmosphere.
The measurements of atmospheric electricity can be seen as measurements of difference of potential between a point of the Earth's surface, and a point somewhere in the air above it. The atmosphere in different regions is often found to be at different local potentials, which differ from that of the earth sometimes even by as much as 3000 Volts within 100 feet (30 m). The electrostatic field and the difference of potential of the earth field according to investigations, is in summer about 60 to 100 volts and in winter 300 to 500 volts per meter of difference in height, a simple calculation gives the result that when such a collector is arranged for example on the ground, and a second one is mounted vertically over it at a distance of 2000 meters and both are connected by a conducting cable, there is a difference in potential in summer of about 2,000,000 volts and in winter even of 6,000,000 volts and more.
In the upper regions of the atmosphere the air is highly rarefied, and conducts like the rarefied gases in Geissler's tubes. The lower air is, when dry, a non-conductor. The upper stratum is believed to be charged with positive electricity, while the Earth's surface is itself negatively charged; the stratum of denser air between acting like the glass of a Leyden jar in keeping the opposite charges separate. The theory of atmospheric electricity explains equally many phenomena; free electricity, which is manifested during thunder-storms, being the cause of the former; and electricity of a lower tension, manifested during a display of the aurora borealis, causing the latter.
The electric atmosphere is the most frequent cause which deters or prevents electrical transmissions. During storms, it is seen that the some apparatus works irregularly, interrupting the passage of strong currents instantaneously, and often produces upon the apparatus in the offices, between metallic points, bright sparks; in telegraphic systems the armatures of the electro-magnets are drawn up with great force, and the wires and other metallic substances about the instruments fused. It is also observed, but more rarely, currents, which continue for a longer or shorter time, that prevent working of communication systems.
There have been various speculative conjectures regarding the origin of these semi-diurnal meteorological periods, but they have been usually of a secondary character. A primary cause is clearly to be ascribed to the many complex processes which are due to the thermodynamics of radiation. It is thought that with sufficient experience the formulas that have been deduced here, and illustrated, can be made to yield other valuable data regarding the atomic and subatomic activities which are concerned in the variations of the fundamental terms and their very numerous derivatives.
Diurnal variations found by the daily indications (during fine weather) showed two maxima occurring in summer at roughly twelve hours apart and two minima which in summer were at the hours of which were roughly nine hours apart. The maxima correspond fairly with hours of changing temperature, the minima with those of constant temperature. Atmospheric electricity, considered in a general manner, attains its maximum in January, then decreases progressively until the month of June, which presents a minimum of intensity; it increases during the following months to the end of the year. The difference between the maximum and minimum is much more sensibly felt during serene weather than during cloudy weather. During the different months, the electricity of the air is more powerful when the sky is serene than when it is cloudy, except toward the months of June and July, when the electricity attains a maximum, the value of which is nearly the same, whatever be the state of the sky.
The electric intensity observed during fogs has, at a mean, almost exactly the same value as that observed during snows. This value is very high, and corresponds to the mean maxima observed for the former and the latter months of the year. A very remarkable fact, which appears from recent observation, is that moisture acts in a manner altogether different in the cold months and in the hot ones; it increases the electricity in the winter months, it diminishes it in the summer months. The fundamental fact is, that humidity acts in two manners, the effects of which tend to oppose each other. On the one hand, it facilitates the escape of the electricity accumulated in the upper regions of the atmosphere to the stratum in which the observation is made; on the other hand, it facilitates the escape into the ground of the electricity which this stratum possesses: thus, on the one hand it increases the intensity of the electric manifestations of the instrument, on the other hand it diminishes them.
Outer space and near space
In outer space, the magnetopause flows along the boundary between the region around an astronomical object (called the "magnetosphere") and surrounding plasma, in which electric phenomena are dominated or organized by this magnetic field. Earth is surrounded by a magnetosphere, as are the magnetized planets Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune. Mercury is magnetized, but too weakly to trap plasma. Mars has patchy surface magnetization. The magnetosphere is the location where the outward magnetic pressure of the Earth's magnetic field is counterbalanced by the solar wind, a plasma. Most of the solar particles are deflected to either side of the magnetopause. However, some particles become trapped within the Earth's magnetic field and form radiation belts. The Van Allen radiation belt is a torus of energetic charged particles (i.e. a plasma) around Earth, trapped by Earth's magnetic field.
At elevations above the clouds, atmospheric electricity forms a continuous and distinct element (called the electrosphere) in which the Earth is surrounded. The electrosphere layer (from tens of kilometers above the surface of the earth to the ionosphere) has a high electrical conductivity and is essentially at a constant electric potential. The ionosphere is the inner edge of the magnetosphere and is the part of the atmosphere that is ionized by solar radiation. (Photoionisation is a physical process in which a photon is incident on an atom, ion or molecule, resulting in the ejection of one or more electrons.)
The Earth, and all living things on it, are constantly bombarded by radiation from outer space. This radiation primarily consists of positively charged ions from protons to iron and larger nuclei derived sources outside our solar system. This radiation interacts with atoms in the atmosphere to create an air shower of secondary radiation, including X-rays, muons, protons, alpha particles, pions, electrons, and neutrons. The immediate dose from cosmic radiation is largely from muons, neutrons, and electrons, and this dose varies in different parts of the world based largely on the geomagnetic field and altitude. This radiation is much more intense in the upper troposphere, around 10 km altitude, and is thus of particular concern for airline crews and frequent passengers, who spend many hours per year in this environment. During their flights airline crews typically get an extra dose on the order of 2.2 mSv (220 mrem) per year.
The Earth is constantly immersed in the solar wind, a rarefied flow of hot plasma (gas of free electrons and positive ions) emitted by the Sun in all directions, a result of the million-degree heat of the Sun's outermost layer, the solar corona. The solar wind usually reaches Earth with a velocity around 400 km/s, density around 5 ions/cc and magnetic field intensity around 2–5 nT (nanoteslas; Earth's surface field is typically 30,000–50,000 nT). These are typical values. During magnetic storms, in particular, flows can be several times faster; the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) may also be much stronger.
The IMF originates on the Sun, related to the field of sunspots, and its field lines (lines of force) are dragged out by the solar wind. That alone would tend to line them up in the Sun-Earth direction, but the rotation of the Sun skews them (at Earth) by about 45 degrees, so that field lines passing Earth may actually start near the western edge ("limb") of the visible sun.
When the solar wind is perturbed, it easily transfers energy and material into the magnetosphere. The electrons and ions in the magnetosphere that are thus energized move along the magnetic field lines to the polar regions of the atmosphere.
Potential difference between the ionosphere and the Earth is maintained by thunderstorms' pumping action of lightning discharges. In the Earth-ionosphere cavity, the electric field and conduction current in the lower atmosphere are primarily controlled by ions. Ions have the characteristic parameters such as mobility, lifetime, and generation rate that vary with altitude.
The Schumann resonance is a set of spectrum peaks in the ELF portion of the Earth's electromagnetic field spectrum. Schumann resonance is due to the space between the surface of the Earth and the conductive ionosphere acting as a waveguide. The limited dimensions of the earth cause this waveguide to act as a resonant cavity for electromagnetic waves. The cavity is naturally excited by energy from lightning strikes.
The electrical conductivity of the atmosphere increases exponentially with altitude. The amplitudes of the electric and magnetic components depend on season, latitude, and height above the sea level. The greater the altitude the more atmospheric electricity abounds. The exosphere is the uppermost layer of the atmosphere and is estimated to be 500 km to 1000 km above the Earth's surface, and its upper boundary at about 10,000 km. The thermosphere (upper atmosphere) is the layer of the Earth's atmosphere directly above the mesosphere and directly below the exosphere. Within this layer, ultraviolet radiation causes ionization. Theories that have been proposed to explain the phenomenon of the polar aurora, but it has been demonstrated by experiments that it is due to currents of positive electricity passing from the higher regions of the atmosphere to the earth.
The mesosphere (middle atmosphere) is the layer of the Earth's atmosphere that is directly above the stratosphere and directly below the thermosphere. The mesosphere is located about 50-80/85 km above Earth's surface. The stratosphere (middle atmosphere) is a layer of Earth's atmosphere that is stratified in temperature and is situated between about 10 km and 50 km altitude above the surface at moderate latitudes, while at the poles it starts at about 8 km altitude. The stratosphere sits directly above the troposphere and directly below the mesosphere. The troposphere (lower atmosphere) is the densest layer of the atmosphere.
The planetary boundary layer (PBL), also known as the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL), is the lowest part of the atmosphere and its behavior is directly influenced by its contact with the planetary surface. It is also known as the "exchange layer". (see also:p-n junction.)
There is a potential gradient at ground level ("Atmosphere ground layer") and this vertical field corresponds to the negative charge in and near the Earth's surface. The negative potential gradient falls rapidly as altitude increases from the ground. Most of this potential gradient is in the first few kilometers. The positive potential gradient rises rapidly as altitude increases from the ground. Volta, over two centuries before the 21st century, discovered with some degree of exactitude that the proportions of the ordinates of the curve or gradient of electric potential increased as the distance from the earth increases, and, more recently, Engel has provided data to calculate the increase (Image to the right).
Thunderstorms and lightning
If the quantity of water that is condensed in and subsequently precipitated from a cloud is known, then the total energy of a thunderstorm can be calculated. In an average thunderstorm, the energy released amounts to about 10,000,000 kilowatt-hours (3.6×1013 joule), which is equivalent to a 20-kiloton nuclear warhead. A large, severe thunderstorm might be 10 to 100 times more energetic.
How lightning initially forms is still a matter of debate: Scientists have studied root causes ranging from atmospheric perturbations (wind, humidity, and atmospheric pressure) to the impact of solar wind and accumulation of charged solar particles. Ice inside a cloud is thought to be a key element in lightning development, and may cause a forcible separation of positive and negative charges within the cloud, thus assisting in the formation of lightning.
An average bolt of lightning carries a negative electric current of 40 kiloamperes (kA) (although some bolts can be up to 120 kA), and transfers a charge of five coulombs and 500 MJ, or enough energy to power a 100-watt lightbulb for just under two months. The voltage depends on the length of the bolt, with the dielectric breakdown of air being three million volts per meter; this works out to approximately one gigavolt (one billion volts) for a 300 m (1000 ft) lightning bolt. With an electric current of 100 kA, this gives a power of 100 terawatts. However, lightning leader development is not a simple matter of dielectric breakdown, and the ambient electric fields required for lightning leader propagation can be a few orders of magnitude less than dielectric breakdown strength. Further, the potential gradient inside a well-developed return-stroke channel is on the order of hundreds of volts per meter or less due to intense channel ionization, resulting in a true power output on the order of megawatts per meter for a vigorous return-stroke current of 100 kA .
Electrification in the air
Electrostatics involves the buildup of charge on the surface of objects due to contact with other surfaces. Although charge exchange happens whenever any two surfaces contact and separate, the effects of charge exchange are usually only noticed when at least one of the surfaces has a high resistance to electrical flow. This is because the charges that transfer to or from the highly resistive surface are more or less trapped there for a long enough time for their effects to be observed. These charges then remain on the object until they either bleed off to ground or are quickly neutralized by a discharge: e.g., the familiar phenomenon of a static 'shock' is caused by the neutralization of charge built up in the body from contact with nonconductive surfaces.
St. Elmo's Fire is an electrical phenomenon in which luminous plasma is created by a coronal discharge originating from a grounded object. Ball lightning is often erroneously identified as St. Elmo's Fire. They are separate and distinct phenomena. Although referred to as "fire", St. Elmo's Fire is, in fact, plasma. Saint Elmo's fire is another phase of atmospheric electricity to be considered in this connection. It is otherwise known as the fire of Saint Elias, of Saint Clara, of Saint Nicholas and of Helena, as well as composite, composant or corposant (that is, corpus sanctum [ed., holy body]). The phenomenon is observed, usually during a thunderstorm, at the tops of trees, spires, etc., or on the heads of animals, as a brush or star of light.
The electric field around the object in question causes ionization of the air molecules, producing a faint glow easily visible in low-light conditions. Approximately 1,000 – 30,000 volts per centimetre is required to induce St. Elmo's Fire; however, this number is greatly dependent on the geometry of the object in question. Sharp points tend to require lower voltage levels to produce the same result because electric fields are more concentrated in areas of high curvature, thus discharges are more intense at the end of pointed objects. St. Elmo's Fire and normal sparks both can appear when high electrical voltage affects a gas. St. Elmo's fire is seen during thunderstorms when the ground below the storm is electrically charged, and there is high voltage in the air between the cloud and the ground. The voltage tears apart the air molecules and the gas begins to glow. The nitrogen and oxygen in the Earth's atmosphere causes St. Elmo's Fire to fluoresce with blue or violet light; this is similar to the mechanism that causes neon signs to glow.
Research and investigation
To detect the presence of free electricity in the air a pointed metal rod projecting into the air several feet and connected at its lower end to a gold leaf electroscope may be used. When this rod is projected into the air a few feet the leaves diverge. Kites and balloons have also been used to detect and, so to speak, draw down the free electricity of the air. The origin of atmospheric electricity is still unknown. Some physicists have ascribed it to the friction of the air upon the ground, others to the gradual oxidation of plant and animal life, others again to evaporation, to induction from the sun, and to differences of temperature.
For ascertaining the electric state of the atmosphere near the surface of the earth, Volta's electrometer is sufficient. An electrometer is an instrument which serves to indicate and measure electricity. The one just mentioned consists of a glass jar, surmounted by a pointed, metallic rod; and to the lower end of the rod, which enters the jar, two fine straws are loosely attached. The pointed rod, collecting the electricity from the air, the two straws become similarly electrified and recede from each other; the amount of divergence measuring the intensity of the fluid.
Experiments are made in the higher regions of the atmosphere by the aid of kites and balloons. The string of the kite must be wound with fine wire, in order to convey the electricity from the sky; and it must also be insulated, by attaching the lower end either to a silken cord or glass pillar. Small, stationary balloons are sometimes employed, the strings of which are arranged and fastened in the same manner. Occasionally meteorologists ascend in balloons for the purpose of making observations.
A lightning rocket consists of a rocket launcher that is in communication with a detection device that measures the presence of electrostatic and ionic change in close proximity to the rocket launcher that also fires the rocket launcher. This system is designed to control the time and the location of a lightning strike.
- Geophysics, Atmospheric sciences, Atmospheric physics, Atmospheric dynamics, Journal of Geophysical Research, Earth system model, Atmospheric chemistry, Ionosphere, Air quality, Sky voltage
- Earth's magnetic field, Sprites and lightning, Whistler (radio), Telluric currents, relaxation time, electrode effect, potential gradient
- Charles Chree Medal, Electrodynamic tethers, Solar radiation
- Egon Schweidler, Charles Chree, Nikola Tesla, Hermann Plauson, Joseph Dwyer
References and external articles
Citations and notes
- See Flashes in the Sky: Earth's Gamma-Ray Bursts Triggered by Lightning
- Richard Spelman Culley, A Handbook of Practical Telegraphy. Longmans 1885. Page 104
- The Encyclopedia Americana; A library of universal knowledge. (1918). New York: Encyclopedia Americana Corp. Page 181.
- Retrieved 9Jan. 2013. Posted by MIT graduate student Jason Goodman on Oct. 27, 2000 on the Mad Scientist Network at http://www.madsci.org/posts/archives/2000-10/972662284.Es.r.html
- Bird, 204
- R. Giles Harrison, The Carnegie Curve. Springer. http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs10712-012-9210-2
- Atmospheric electricity affects cloud height - physicsworld.com http://physicsworld.com/cws/article/news/2013/mar/06/atmospheric-electricity-affects-cloud-height
- Atmospheric charging is best observed when the weather is fair.
- Silvanus Phillips Thompson, Elementary Lessons in Electricity and Magnetism. 1915.
- Sir Francis Ronald constructed an electric telegraph, 8 miles long, in 1816. See Nature, Volume 25 edited by Sir Norman Lockyer, page 515.
- "Ronalds, Sir Francis" Oxford DNB
- He later willed and disposed his personal library to the Society of Telegraph Engineers.
- Linss, Meteorol. Zeitschr. iv. p. 352, 1887; Etektrotechn. Zeitschr. i. 11, p. 506, 1890, 38th issue.
- Ueber einige die Wolken-und Luftelectricitat betreffende Probleme (tr., Over the clouds and some relevant air electricity problems). 17 pp. Contained in Meteorologische Zeitschrift. Herausgegeben Von Der ÖsterreichIschen Gesellschaft Für Meteorologie Und Der Deutschen MeteoroLogischen Gesellschaft. Redigirt von Dr. J. Hann und Dr. W. Koppen. October–December 1887.
- Terrestrial magnetism, Volumes 3-4 edited by Louis Agricola Bauer. Page 65.
- Conduction of electricity through gases By Sir Joseph John Thomson. Page 3.
- Proceedings of the Physical Society: Volumes 9-10. Institute of Physics and the Physical Society, Physical Society (Great Britain), Physical Society of London, 1888. Intermittent Lightning-Flashes. By HH Hoffert. Page 176.
- Alessandro De Angelisa, Atmospheric ionization and cosmic rays: studies and measurements before 1912. http://arxiv.org/pdf/1208.6527.pdf.
- William Ramsay. The Gases of the Atmosphere: The History of Their Discovery. Page 300
- Vladimir A. Rakov, Martin A. Uman. Lightning: Physics and Effects. Page 3.
- Basalt, being a ferromagnetic mineral, becomes magnetically polarised when exposed to a large external field such as those generated in a lightning strike. See Anomalous Remanent Magnetization of Basalt pubs.usgs.gov/bul/1083e/report.pdf for more.
- Nature - Volume 40 - Page 209
- Nikola Tesla, The Problem of Increasing Human Energy.
- The Engineering Index. American Society of Mechanical Engineers, 1921.Page 230
- Thomas Valone Harnessing the wheelwork of nature: Tesla's science of energy
- See his Wardenclyffe Tower and Magnifying Transmitter)
- Polish Polar Station Hornsund, Spitsbergen http://hornsund.igf.edu.pl/index_en.php
- Encyclopedia of Geomagnetism and Paleomagnetism - Page 359
- Atmospheric electricity Lieut. C. D. Stewart R.E., B.Sc., F.R.MetSoc. Article first published online: AUG 15, 2007 DOI: 10.1002/qj.49704318406
- The Earth's Electrical Environment. National Academies, Jan 1, 1986. Page 181.
- Quantitative estimation of global circuit Masahiko MakinoToshio Ogawa Article first published online: SEP 21, 2012 DOI: 10.1029/JD090iD04p05961
- Victor Lougheed, Vehicles of the Air: A Popular Exposition of Modern Aeronautics with Working. The Reilly and Britton Co. 1909
- Wells, 392
- George Bartlett Prescott, History, Theory, and Practice of the Electric Telegraph. Ticknor and Fields, 1860.
- Alfred Daniell, A Text Book of the Principles of Physics, Atmospheric electricity. Macmillan and co. 1884.
- US patent 1,540,998, Conversion of Atmospheric Electricity, issued to Hermann Plauson, June 9, 1925, offers methods of obtaining atmospheric electricity using anchored metallic kite balloons from which extracted electrical energy is converted into electro-dynamic energy in the form of high frequency vibrations.
- Bigelow, 345
- 0.0001 rem = 0.1 mrem = 1 µSv = 0.000001 Sv = 0.001 mSv = 1 µSv
- Comprised of 60 minutes, or 3,600 seconds. It is approximately 1/24 of a mean solar day.
- Except for the equator and tropics (or, the equatorial zone), there is approximately a minimum of 1x10-2 µSv per second
- "Radiation Exposure During Commercial Airline Flights". Retrieved 2011-03-17.
- Solar wind forecast from a University of Alaska website
- Poyser, 157
- Electrical Overstress/Electrostatic Discharge Symposium, EOS/ESD Association., & Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers. (1990). Electrical Overstress/Electrostatic Discharge Symposium proceedings, 1990: Lake Buena Vista, Florida, September 11–13, 1990. Rome, NY (201 Mill Street, Rome 13440: The Association). Page 4.
- Encyclopædia Britannica article on thunderstorms
- Micah Fink for PBS. "How Lightning Forms". Public Broadcasting System. Archived from the original on September 29, 2007. Retrieved September 21, 2007.
- National Weather Service (2007). "Lightning Safety". National Weather Service. Archived from the original on October 7, 2007. Retrieved September 21, 2007.
- Rakov, V; Uman, M, Lightning: Physics and Effects, Cambridge University Press, 2003
- Barry, J.D. (1980a) Ball Lightning and Bead Lightning: Extreme Forms of Atmospheric Electricity. 8–9. New York and London: Plenum Press. ISBN 0-306-40272-6
- Scientific American. Ask The Experts: Physics. Retrieved on July 2, 2007.
- Foster et al., 131
- Foster et al., 132
- Transcript of hand-written article signed by Dr. Mahlon Loomis, January 7, 1872. (from Radio News, November, 1922, pages 974–978 (Loomis lecture extract))
- "Atmospheric electricity", dge.inpe.br.
- Chree, Charles, "Atmospheric electricity", Britannica Encyclopedia. Encyclopædia Britannica, 1926.
- "Chauncy J. Britten’s Atmospheric Electrical Generator", Rex Research.
- Arthur William Poyser, Magnetism and Electricity. Longmans, Green and Co. 1901.
- Jeremiah Joyce, Scientific dialogues, with corrections by O. Gregory. Darton 1846.
- Dionysius Lardner, Popular Lectures on Science and Art, Atmospheric electricity. Henry W. Law 1856.
- Mr Wilson, On a Portable Gold-leaf Electrometer, etc.. Proceedings of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
- Alfred Urbanitzky, Electricity in the Service of Man. Atmospheric electricity. Cassell & Company, Limited 1886.
- Willis Isbister Milham, Meteorology, Atmospheric electricity. The Macmillan Company 1912.
- William Allen Miller, Elements of Chemistry: Theoretical and Practical, Atmospheric electricity.
- Jacques Wardlaw Redway, Handbook of Meteorology: A Manual for Cooperative Observers and Students, Atmospheric electricity.. John Wiley & Sons, inc. 1921.
- Experiments on Atmospheric Electricity. By Dr. L. Weber. Elektrotechnische Zeitschrift, 1889, p. 521.
- Francis Rolt-Wheeler, The Science-history of the Universe, Electrostatics – Atmospheric electricity. The Current Literature Publishing Company 1909.
- Golding Bird, Elements of Natural Philosophy, Atmospheric electricity. Lea and Blanchard 1848.
- George Carey Foster, Alfred William Porter, Jules François Joubert, Elementary Treatise on Electricity and Magnetism, Atmospheric electricity. Longmans, 1909.
- John Brocklesby Elements of Meteorology, Atmospheric electricity. Sheldon and company 1869.
- Terrestrial electricity, Year Book – Carnegie Institution of Washington.
- Frank Hagar Bigelow, A Treatise on the Sun's Radiation and Other Solar Phenomena, Atmospheric Electricity and the Diurnal Convection. John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 1918.
- Louis Agricola Bauer, John Adam Fleming, Terrestrial Magnetism and Atmospheric Electricity. University of Cincinnati 1919.
- David Ames Wells, Wells's Natural Philosophy, Atmospheric electricity. Ivison, Blakeman, Taylor & co. 1876.
- Karl Friedrich Peschel, Ebenezer West (Tr.), Elements of Physics, Atmospheric electricity and the electrical phenomena of life. Longman, Brown, Green, and Longmans 1846.
- Anderson, F. J., and G. D. Freier, "Interactions of the thunderstorm with a conducting atmosphere". J. Geophys. Res., 74, 5390–5396, 1969.
- Brook, M., "Thunderstorm electrification", Problems of Atmospheric and Space Electricity. S. C. Coroniti (Ed.), Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp. 280–283, 1965.
- Farrell, W. M., T. L. Aggson, E. B. Rodgers, and W. B. Hanson, "Observations of ionospheric electric fields above atmospheric weather systems", J. Geophys. Res., 99, 19475-19484, 1994.
- Fernsler, R. F., and H. L. Rowland, "Models of lightning-produced sprites and elves". J. Geophys. Res., 101, 29653-29662, 1996.
- Fraser-Smith, A. C., "ULF magnetic fields generated by electrical storms and their significance to geomagnetic pulsation generation". Geophys. Res. Lett., 20, 467–470, 1993.
- Krider, E. P., and R. J. Blakeslee, "The electric currents produced by thunderclouds". J. Electrostatics, 16, 369–378, 1985.
- Lazebnyy, B. V., A. P. Nikolayenko, V. A. Rafal'skiy, and A. V. Shvets, "Detection of transverse resonances of the Earth-ionosphere cavity in the average spectrum of VLF atmospherics". Geomagn. Aeron., 28, 281–282, 1988.
- Ogawa, T., "Fair-weather electricity". J. Geophys. Res., 90, 5951–5960, 1985.
- Sentman, D. D., "Schumann resonance spectra in a two-scale-height Earth-ionosphere cavity". J. Geophys. Res., 101, 9479–9487, 1996.
- Wåhlin, L., "Elements of fair weather electricity". J. Geophys. Res., 99, 10767-10772, 1994.
- Richard E. Orville (ed.), "Atmospheric and Space Electricity". ("Editor's Choice" virtual journal) – "American Geophysical Union". (AGU) Washington, DC 20009-1277 USA
- Schonland, B. F. J., "Atmospheric Electricity". Methuen and Co., Ltd., London, 1932.
- MacGorman, Donald R., W. David Rust, D. R. Macgorman, and W. D. Rust, "The Electrical Nature of Storms". Oxford University Press, March 1998. ISBN 0-19-507337-1
- Cowling, Thomas Gilbert, "On Alfven's theory of magnetic storms and of the aurora", Terrestrial Magnetism and Atmospheric Electricity, 47, 209–214, 1942.
- H. H. Hoffert, "Intermittent Lightning-Flashes". Proc. Phys. Soc. London 10 No 1 (June 1888) 176–180.
- Volland, H., "Atmospheric Electrodynamics", Springer, Berlin, 1984.
- Bateman, Monte, "Atmospheric Electricity Homepage".
- "International Commission on Atmospheric Electricity". Commission of the International Association of Meteorology And Atmospheric Physics.
- "Lightning and Atmospheric Electricity". Global Hydrology and Climate Center, NASA.
- Kieft, Sandy, "The Langmuir Laboratory for Atmospheric Research". New Mexico Institute of Mining & Technology.
- "Power from the Air". Science and invention (Formerly Electrical Experimenter), Feb. 1922, no. 10. Vol IX, Whole No. 106. New York. (nuenergy.org)
- "Power from the Air". Science and invention (Formerly Electrical Experimenter), March 1922. (nuenergy.org).
- "RF Energy via Ionosphere". RF Energy Concepts Sec. 101 Rev. Nov., 2003
- Peter Winkler, "Early observations of and knowledge on air electricity and magnetism at Hohenpeißenberg during the Palatina". German Weather Service, Meteorological Observatory. (PDF)
- "Atmospheric Electricity". Meridian International Research.
- "Atmospheric Electricity and Plants"
- Do cosmic rays cause lightning? Ask the Experts – sciam.com January 24, 2008
- "The Earth's Electrical Environment". CPSMA, USA National Academies Press.
- Auguste de La Rive, Explanation of the Diurnal Variations of the Magnetic Needle, and of theAurora Borealis (1894)
- James R. Wait, Some basic electromagnetic aspects of ULF field variations in the atmosphere. Journal Pure and Applied Geophysics, Volume 114, Number 1 / January, 1976 Pages 15–28 Birkhäuser Basel ISSN 0033-4553 (Print) 1420-9136 (Online) DOI 10.1007/BF00875488
- Charles Chree, Observations on Atmospheric Electricity at the Kew Observatory. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, Vol. 60, 1896–1897 (1896–1897), pp. 96–132
- G. C. Simpson, C. S. Wrigh, Atmospheric Electricity over the Ocean. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series A, Containing Papers of a Mathematical and Physical Character, Vol. 85, No. 577 (May 10, 1911), pp. 175–199
- National Research Council (U.S.)., & American Geophysical Union. (1986). The Earth's electrical environment. Washington, D.C: National Academy Pres
- Solar Dynamics and Its Effects on the Heliosphere and Earth By D. N. Baker, International Space Science Institute
- Solar variability, weather, and climate By National Research Council (U.S.). Geophysics Study Committee
- Philosophical magazine.(1839) London: Taylor & Francis. Instruction for the scientific expedition to the arctic region, Electrometers. pg 219.
- Electric Current through the Atmosphere
- The Global Circuit, phys.uh.edu
- Soaking in atmospheric electricity 'Fair weather' measurements important to understanding thunderstorms. science.nasa.gov
- Atmospheric Electricity HomePage, uah.edu
- Tjt, Fair-weather atmospheric electricity. ava.fmi.fi
- ICAE – International Commission on Atmospheric Electricity Homepage