Banknotes of the Norwegian krone

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Norwegian banknotes are circulated, in addition to Norwegian coins, with a denomination of Norwegian kroner, as standard units of currency in Norway. From 1877, after the establishment of the Scandinavian Monetary Union, Norwegian banknotes of 1000, 500, 200, 100, 50, 10 and 5 kroner have been put into circulation. The first 200 kroner banknote was first published in 1994. The others have been in used since 1877. Banknotes of 5 and 10 kroner were in use until 1963 and 1983 when they were replaced by coins.

From 1917-1925 and 1940-1950 there was a shortage of small change, and 1 and 2 kroner banknotes were printed as "arbitration coins banknotes." The first edition was canceled in 1926, while the second edition was formally valid right up to 1999.

History[edit]

From 1877, after the establishment of the Scandinavian Monetary Union, and until present day, Norwegian banknotes have included 1000, 500, 100, and 50 kroner notes. In 1994 the first 200 kroner note was issued. 5 and 10 kroner notes were also used from 1877, but these were replaced by coins in 1963 and 1983 respectively.

During World War I and World War II and war aftermaths of 1917–1925 and 1940–1950, there was a shortage of change, and so 1 krone and 2 kroner notes were printed as "coin notes". The WWI edition was rendered invalid in 1926, whereas the WWII edition was technically valid until 1999. For more details see the section on historical Norwegian banknotes below.

Series VII notes[edit]

50 kroner note[edit]

50 kroner (2003), obverse
50 kroner note (2003), reverse

The 50 kroner note (1997) portrays Peter Christen Asbjørnsen (1812–1885), writer and collector of Norwegian folktales. Since 1999 the serial number has been printed with ultraviolet fluorescence. The previous edition (1984), no longer valid, portrays Aasmund Olavsson Vinje (1818–1879), poet, author, and proponent of Nynorsk. This was the first Norwegian banknote featuring the Nynorsk name of Norway, Noreg (compare with Bokmål: Norge).

The wear and tear on the 50 kroner notes has become so harsh in recent years, possibly from people not regarding them as very valuable any more, so that their maintenance cost is becoming a problem for the Bank of Norway. The 50 kroner note may well be replaced by a 50 kroner coin in the not too distant future.

100 kroner note[edit]

100 kroner (1995), obverse
100 kroner (1995), reverse

The 100 kroner note (1997) portrays Kirsten Flagstad (1895–1962), opera singer and first director of the Norwegian National Opera. In 2003 this note was upgraded with a holographic metal foil stripe. The previous edition (1979), no longer valid, was the first Norwegian banknote featuring a woman: Camilla Collett (1813–1895), author, feminist activist, sister of Henrik Wergeland (author and poet), and daughter of Nicolai Wergeland (priest and co-founder of the Norwegian constitution). Camilla actually replaced her brother on the 100 kroner note, where he had been the motif since 1949.

200 kroner note[edit]

200 kroner (2002), obverse
200 kroner (2002), reverse

After considerable inflation during the 1970s and 1980s,[1] there was need for a denomination between 100 kroner and 1000 kroner in addition to 500 kroner, and so the first Norwegian 200 kroner note was issued in 1994. It portrays Kristian Birkeland (1867–1917), magnetism researcher, inventor, and co-founder of Norsk Hydro. In 2002 this note was upgraded with a holographic metal foil stripe.

The front of the 200 kroner note shows a portrait of Kristian Birkeland against a stylized pattern of the aurora borealis and a very large snowflake. Birkeland's terrella experiment, which consisted of a small, magnetized sphere representing the Earth suspended in an evacuated box, is shown on the left. When subjected to an electron beam a glow of light would appear around the magnetic poles of the terrella, simulating the aurora.

The back of the 200 kroner note shows a map of the north polar regions including Scandinavia to the right and northern Canada to the left. A ring encircling the magnetic dip pole (located near Resolute, Canada) symbolizes the location of auroral phenomena including the satellite-determined statistical location of Birkeland currents. Birkeland's original depiction of field-aligned currents published in 1908 is shown in the lower right corner.

500 kroner note[edit]

500 kroner (1999), obverse
500 kroner (1999), reverse

The 500 kroner note (1999) portrays Sigrid Undset (1882–1949), author and winner of the Nobel Prize in literature in 1927. The note features a holographic metal foil stripe and other security measures. The previous edition (1991), no longer valid, portrays Edvard Grieg (1843–1907), world-renowned national romantic composer and pianist.

The use of the 500 kroner note has increased in recent years, especially after it was introduced to automatic teller machines along with the 200 kroner note. Conversely, the 100 kroner note has been partly displaced from ATMs, and its use has decreased.[2]

1000 kroner note[edit]

1000 kroner (2001), obverse
1000 kroner (2001), reverse

The 1000 kroner note (2001) portrays Edvard Munch (1863–1944), expressionist painter and graphic artist. The note features a holographic metal foil stripe and other security measures. The previous edition (1990), no longer valid, portrays Christian Magnus Falsen (1782–1830), a co-founder of the Norwegian constitution.

The most valuable Norwegian banknote has always been the 1000 kroner note, but its value has been decimated during the years. In 100 years from 1904 to 2004 the value of 1000 kroner has decreased 55−fold, from more than 4000 loaves of bread to less than 70 loaves. (The price of a bread in 2004 was approximately 15 kroner, and the consumer price index in said period increased from 2.0 to 113.3.[3])

Historical Norwegian banknotes[edit]

All Norwegian notes issued since 1877 are listed below in reverse chronological order. The notes have been issued in series starting with series I in 1877 and going on series VII from 1994. As of 2012 only series VII is in circulation, while series VI is convertible at the central bank until November 1, 2012.

The world wars created great need for cash. In 1917 a law was passed to allow for 1 krone and 2 kroner "coin notes" in response to a pledge from the Bank of Norway to the Ministry of Finance:

The board of directors at the Bank of Norway has in writing on the 8th September 1917 informed the Ministry that the shortage of change has now become outright intolerable. One company after another complain that they cannot arrange the agreed salaries for their workers, and the merchants cannot change their customers' banknotes.

Subsequently, coin notes were printed until 1925 but were invalidated already in 1926 when the economy had stabilised after World War I. Coin notes of 1 krone and 2 kroner were also printed during World War II (1940−45) and up until 1950. These were not invalidated after the war. However, the complete series II printed 1901−45 was rendered invalid on 9 September 1945 and those who could not readily justify their amount of cash were only given limited compensation in new money. This was done to diminish the impact of war profiteering.

5 kroner and 10 kroner notes were used from 1877 but were replaced by coins in 1963 and 1983, respectively, based on cost-benefit analyses. Apart from the WWI coin notes in 1926 and the series II notes in 1945, all Norwegian banknotes from series I through series V, including 5 kroner and 10 kroner notes, plus the WWII coin notes, were technically valid – i.e. convertible at the Bank of Norway – all the way until 1998 (series I) and 1999 (series III, IV, V, and the WWII coin notes). The 1000 kroner and 500 kroner notes of series V were valid until 2001 and 2002 respectively.

Series VII notes (1994-)[edit]

Value Printed Invalid Main obverse motif Main reverse motif
1,000 kr 2001− - Edvard Munch, painter Excerpt from Munch's wall painting The Sun
500 kr 1999− - Sigrid Undset, author, Nobel laureate A wreath symbolising volume 1 The Wreath from Undset's trilogy Kristin Lavransdatter
200 kr 1994− - Kristian Birkeland, scientist The north pole region with aurora borealis
100 kr 1995− - Kirsten Flagstad, opera singer Main hall of Folketeatret, formerly the venue of the Norwegian National Opera
50 kr 1996− - Peter Christen Asbjørnsen, folktale collector Water lilies in tarn, inspired by the folktale Summer night in Krogskoven

Series VI notes (1979–2001)[edit]

Value Printed Invalid Main obverse motif Main reverse motif
1,000 kr 1990−2001 2012 Christian Magnus Falsen, constitution co-founder 17th century oven plate
500 kr 1991−2000 2012 Edvard Grieg, composer, pianist Old flower ornament
100 kr 1979−97 2012 Camilla Collett, author 15th century silver buckle
50 kr 1985−97 2012 Aasmund Olavsson Vinje, author, poet Detail from the Hylestad church portal

Series V notes (1962-85)[edit]

Value Printed Invalid Main obverse motif Main reverse motif
1,000 kr 1975−81 2001 Henrik Ibsen, playwright Peder Balke's painting Lighthouse at Vardø
500 kr 1978−85 2002 Niels Henrik Abel, mathematician Original main buildings of the University of Oslo
100 kr 1962−77 1999 Henrik Wergeland, author, poet Oscar Wergeland's painting Constituent Assembly at Eidsvoll
50 kr 1966−83 1999 Bjørnstjerne Bjørnson, author, Nobel laureate Borgund stave church
10 kr 1972−84 1999 Fridtjof Nansen, humanist, Nobel laureate Nils Flakstad's sculpture The Fisherman

Series IV notes (1948-76)[edit]

Value Printed Invalid Main obverse motif Main reverse motif
1,000 kr 1949−75 1999 Henrik Ibsen, playwright Edvard Munch's painting The Tale
500 kr 1948−76 1999 Niels Henrik Abel, mathematician Purpose-made industrial motif by Reidar Aulie
100 kr 1949−62 1999 Henrik Wergeland, author, poet Erik Werenskiold's painting Timber Rafters
50 kr 1950−65 1999 Bjørnstjerne Bjørnson, author, Nobel laureate Hugo Lous Mohr's painting Harvesting Cereal
10 kr 1954−73 1999 Christian Michelsen, shipowner, Prime Minister 1905−1907 Ships making headway, from drawing by Henrik Sørensen, and the god Mercury
5 kr 1955−63 1999 Fridtjof Nansen, humanist, Nobel laureate Fishing village in Lofoten, from painting by Axel Revold

Series III notes (1945-55)[edit]

Value Printed Invalid Main obverse motif Main reverse motif
1,000 kr 1945−49 1999 Wilhelm Frimann Koren Christie, Speaker of the Storting 1815 and 1818 Nidaros Cathedral
500 kr (not included)
100 kr 1945−50 1999 Norwegian Coat of Arms «Bank of Norway» and denomination
50 kr 1945−51 1999 Norwegian Coat of Arms «Bank of Norway» and denomination
10 kr 1945−54 1999 Norwegian Coat of Arms Denomination
5 kr 1945−55 1999 Norwegian Coat of Arms «Bank of Norway» and denomination

"Coin notes" (1917-50)[edit]

Value Printed Invalid Main obverse motif Main reverse motif
2 kr 1940−50 1999 «Bank of Norway» and denomination Denomination
1 kr 1940−50 1999 «Bank of Norway» and denomination Denomination
2 kr 1918−25 1926 «Bank of Norway» and denomination Norwegian Coat of Arms on an Olav Rose
1 kr 1917−25 1926 «Bank of Norway» and denomination Norwegian Coat of Arms on an Olav Rose

Series II notes (1901-45)[edit]

Value Printed Invalid Main obverse motif Main reverse motif
1,000 kr 1901−45 1945 Wilhelm Frimann Koren Christie and Peter Wessel Tordenskiold, admiral Nidaros Cathedral in Trondheim
500 kr 1901−45 1945 Christie Akershus Castle in Oslo
100 kr 1901−45 1945 Christie and Tordenskiold Haakon's Hall in Bergen
50 kr 1901−45 1945 Christie Constituent Assembly Building at Eidsvoll
10 kr 1901−45 1945 Christie and Tordenskiold An Olav Rose
5 kr 1901−45 1945 Christie An Olav Rose

Series I notes (1877–1901)[edit]

Value Printed Invalid Main obverse motif Main reverse motif
1,000 kr 1877−1901 1998 Oscar II, king of Sweden and Norway Denomination
500 kr 1877−1901 1998 Oscar II Denomination
100 kr 1877−1901 1998 Oscar II Denomination
50 kr 1877−1901 1998 Oscar II Denomination
10 kr 1877−1901 1998 Oscar II Denomination
5 kr 1877−1901 1998 Oscar II Denomination

Source: Bank of Norway

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Norges Bank. "Withdrawn notes and coins". Norges Bank. Retrieved 12 January 2013. 
  2. ^ "Norges Bank". Norges-bank.no. Retrieved 2011-09-05. 
  3. ^ "Tabell 1. Konsumprisindeksen fra 1865. 1998 = 100" (in Norwegian). Ssb.no. Archived from the original on 5 October 2010. Retrieved 2010-09-19. 

External links[edit]