Wreath

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For the wreath used in heraldry, see torse.
A Christmas wreath on a house door in England.
A golden wreath and ring from the burial of an Odrysian Aristocrat at the Golyamata Mogila in the Yambol region of Bulgaria. Mid 4th century BC.

A wreath is an assortment of flowers, leaves, fruits, twigs or various materials that is constructed to resemble a ring.[1]

In English-speaking countries, wreaths are used typically as household ornaments, mainly as Christmas decorations to celebrate the birth of Christ. They are also used in ceremonial events in many cultures around the globe. Wreaths have much history and symbolism associated with them. They are usually made from evergreens and symbolize strength, as evergreens last even throughout the harshest winters. Bay laurel may also be used, and these wreaths are known as laurel wreath.

Etymology[edit]

The word wreath comes from Middle English wrethe and from Old English writha, band.[1]

History[edit]

Ancient Etruscan wreaths[edit]

Wreath with ivy leaves and berries, a satyr's head at either end. Gold sheet, Etruscan artwork, 400–350 BC. From a tomb near Tarquinia.

Wreaths were a design used in ancient times in southern Europe. The most well-known are pieces of Etruscan civilization jewelry, made of gold or other precious metals. Symbols from Greek myths often appear in the designs, embossed in precious metal at the ends of the wreath. Ancient Roman writers referred to Etruscan corona sutilis, which were wreaths with their leaves sewn onto a background.[2] These wreaths resemble a diadem, with thin metal leaves being attached to an ornamental band.[3] Wreaths also appear stamped into Etruscan medallions. The plants shown making the wreaths in Etruscan jewelry include ivy, oak, olive leaves, myrtle, laurel, wheat and vines.

Wreaths were worn as crowns by Etruscan rulers. The Etruscan symbolism continued to be used in Ancient Greece and Rome. Roman magistrates also wore golden wreaths as crowns, as a symbolic testament to their lineage back to Rome's early Etruscan rulers. Roman magistrates also used several other prominent Etruscan symbols in addition to a golden wreath crown: fasces, a curule chair, a purple toga, and an ivory rod.[4]

Ancient Greece and Rome[edit]

A replica bust of Apollo wearing a laurel wreath.

In the Greco-Roman world, wreaths were used as an adornment that could represent a person’s occupation, rank, their achievements and status. The wreath that was commonly used was the laurel wreath. The use of this wreath comes from the Greek myth involving Apollo, Zeus’ son and the god of life and light, who fell in love with the nymph Daphne. When he pursued her she fled and asked the river god Peneus to help her. Peneus turned her into a laurel tree. From that day, Apollo wore a wreath of laurel on his head. Laurel wreaths became associated with what Apollo embodied; victory, achievement and status and would later become one of the most commonly used symbols to address achievement throughout Greece and Rome. Laurel wreaths were used to crown victorious athletes at the original Olympic Games.[5]

Other types of plants used to make wreath crowns also had symbolic meaning. For example, oak leaves symbolized wisdom, and were associated with Zeus, who according to Greek mythology made his decisions while resting in an oak grove. The Twelve Tables, dating to 450 BC, refer to funeral wreaths as a long-standing tradition.[6]

Modern wreaths[edit]

A Scandinavian-style harvest wreath made of woven straw.

Harvest wreath[edit]

Harvest wreaths, a common household decoration today, are a custom with ancient roots in Europe. The creation of harvest wreaths in Europe can be traced back to ancient times, and is associated with animistic spiritual beliefs. In Ancient Greece, the harvest wreath was a sacred amulet, using wheat or other harvested plants, woven together with red and white wool thread. The harvest wreath would be hung by the door year-round.[7]

Harvest wreaths were an important symbol to the community in Ancient Greece, not merely to the farmer and his family. The festivals devoted to Dionysus, the Oschophoria and Anthesteria, included a ritual procession called the eiresîonê. A harvest wreath was carried to Pyanopsia and Thargelia by young boys, who would sing during the journey. The laurel or olive wreath would be hung at the door, and then offerings were made to Helios and the Hours. It was hoped that this ritual would bring protection against crop failure and plagues.[8]

In Poland, the harvest wreath (wieniec) is a central symbol of the Harvest Festival, Dozynki. Wreaths are made of different shapes and sizes, using harvested grain plants, fruit and nuts. The wreath is then brought to a church for a blessing by a priest. The tradition includes a procession to the family home from the church, with a girl or young woman leading the procession and carrying the wreath. The procession is followed with a celebration and feast.[9] Ukraine, Hungary, and other Eastern Europe cultures also have similar rituals that began as part of pre-Christian culture.

Advent Wreath

Advent Wreath[edit]

Further information: Advent Wreath

Since the classical use and symbolism of wreaths, the meaning and representation has taken on differing views, depending on the culture. In Christianity, wreaths are used to prepare for the Advent season or the "coming of Christ."[10] The first known association with these now modern day wreaths dates back to the Lutherans in Germany in the 16th century. In 1839, Johann Hinrich Wichern used a wreath made from a cart wheel to educate children about the meaning and purpose of Christmas, as well as to help them count its approach. For every Sunday of Advent, starting with the fourth Sunday before Christmas, he would put a white candle in the wreath and for every day in between he would use a red candle.[11] The Advent wreath is constructed of evergreens to represent everlasting life brought through Jesus and the circular shape of the wreath represents God, with no beginning and no end. The Advent wreath is now a popular symbol in preparation for the coming of Christ, to mark the beginning of the Christian Church’s year and as décor during the Christmas festivities.

Funeral and memorial wreaths[edit]

Wreaths laid at War Memorials In Australia
Wreaths are mounted on frames near the Moscow grave of Russian intellectual Andrei Sakharov, 1990.

The symbolism of wreaths has been used at funerals since at least the time of Ancient Greece, to represent a circle of eternal life. Evergreen wreaths were laid at the burial place of early Christian virgin martyrs in Europe, the evergreen representing the victory of the eternal spirit over death.[5]

In early modern England, a wreath custom existed for the funerals of "young maidens". A young woman of the same age as the one being mourned would lead the funeral procession, carrying a wreath of white flowers to represent the purity of the deceased, and "that eternal crown of glory reserved for her in heaven".[12]

By the Victorian era, the symbolism of flowers had grown to become an elaborate language, and the symbolism of funeral wreaths was no exception. Flowers represented life and resurrection. Specific flowers were used in funeral wreaths to represent particular sentiments. Cypress and willow were used for crafting wreath frames, and were associated with mourning by the Victorians.[5]

Wreaths are commonly laid at the tombs of soldiers and at memorial cenotaphs during Memorial Day and Remembrance Day ceremonies. Wreaths may also be laid in memory of persons lost at sea, either from an accident or due to navy action. In a memorial service at sea, the wreath is lowered to the water and set adrift.

Wreaths worn as crowns[edit]

See also: Wreath (attire)

A wreath may be used as a headdress made from leaves, flowers and branches. It is typically worn in festive occasions and on holy days. Wreaths originally were made for use with pagan rituals in Europe, and were associated with the changing seasons and fertility. Christianity accepted the symbolism of the wreath based upon its Roman association with honour and moral virtue.[13] During the Middle Ages, Christian art featured depictions of the Virgin Mary and various saints crowned with wreaths, much as figures from Roman and Greek mythology were depicted wearing wreaths, as well as Roman and Greek rulers and heroes.

Maypole wreath[edit]

A Maypole with wreaths, raised for Midsummer celebrations in Östra Insjö, Dalarna, Sweden

Wreath customs in Europe have survived over many centuries. The observance of May Day in England includes Maypole festivities, culminating in a race by young unmarried men to climb to the top of the Maypole to capture the May Day wreath perched at the top of the pole. The winner of this contest would wear the wreath as his crown, and would be recognized as the May Day King for the rest of the holiday. Plants traditionally used to make Midsummer wreaths and garlands include white lilies, green birch, fennel, St. John's Wort, wormwood,[14] vervain and flax. The flowers used in making the Midsummer wreath had to be picked early in the morning before the dew had dried; the belief was that once the dew dried, the magical properties of the plants evaporated with the dew.[15]

Midsummer celebrations are still observed in Germany and Scandinavia as well, with Maypoles and wreaths playing a prominent role, similar to England.

Wreath symbolism in England[edit]

By the Renaissance period, wreaths became symbols of political and religious alliances in England. Protestant reformers such as the Puritans saw wreaths and the holidays they were associated with, such as May Day, as being pagan corrupting influences that destroyed healthy Christian morality. Soldiers confiscated wreaths in Oxford on May Day of 1648.[16] During the Interregnum following the overthrow of Charles I of England, wreaths symbolized Royalist sympathies. In Bath (England), the coronation of Charles II of England was marked with a procession of 400 maidens in white and green, carrying "gilded crowns, crowns made of flowers, and wreaths made of laurel mixed with tulips", and led by the mayor's wife.[16]

Wreath thrown in water on Ivan Kupala Day Feast of St. John the Baptist, in Russia

Saint Lucy's Day crown[edit]

Saint Lucy is traditionally depicted in Christian artwork wearing a wreath as a crown, and on the wreath stand lit candles symbolizing the light of the world represented by Christ. Sweden in particular has a long history of observing Saint Lucy's Day (St. Lucia's Day). "St. Lucia's crowns", made of a brass wreath holding candles, are part of the customs associated with this holiday.[17]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "Wreath". The Free Dictionary By Farlex. Retrieved 2012-05-19. 
  2. ^ Higgins, Reynold Alleyne (1980). Greek and Roman Jewellery. University of California Press. p. 150. ISBN 978-0-520-03601-7. 
  3. ^ Deppert-Lippitz, Barbara; Anne R. Bromberg, John Dennis (1996). Ancient gold jewelry at the Dallas Museum of Art. Dallas Museum of Art in association with the University of Washington Press. p. 39. ISBN 978-0-936227-19-1. 
  4. ^ Hadas, Moses (1952). A History of Latin Literature. Columbia University Press. p. 7. ISBN 978-0-231-01848-7. 
  5. ^ a b c Batchen, Geoffrey (2006). Forget Me Not: Photography and Remembrance. Princeton Architectural Press. p. 92. ISBN 978-1-56898-619-7. 
  6. ^ 12 "The Laws of the Twelve Tables". Retrieved February 14, 2013. Anyone who has rendered himself deserving of a wreath ... shall have a right to have the said wreath placed upon his dead body 
  7. ^ Hastings, James (2003) [1916]. Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics, Part 16. Kessinger Publishing. p. 778. ISBN 978-0-7661-3693-9. 
  8. ^ Mitchell-Boyask, Robin (2008). Plague and the Athenian imagination: drama, history and the cult of Asclepius. Cambridge University Press. pp. 50–1. ISBN 978-0-521-87345-1. 
  9. ^ Zamojska-Hutchins, Danuta (2002). Cooking the Polish Way. Lerner Publications. pp. 16–17. ISBN 978-0-8225-4119-6. 
  10. ^ “Advent”, Harper’s Magazine (New York: Harper and Brothers Publishing, 1896) p. 776
  11. ^ Angie Mosteller, Christmas: Celebrating the Christian History of American Symbols, Songs and Stories (USA: Celebrating Publishing Inc., 2008), p. 154-155
  12. ^ Hulme, Frederick Edward (1877). Bards and blossoms; or, The poetry, history, and associations of flowers. Oxford University: Marcus Ward & Co. pp. 50–1. 
  13. ^ Goody, Jack (1993). The Culture of Flowers. CUP Archive. p. 201. ISBN 978-0-521-41441-8. 
  14. ^ Ferreira, Jorge; Janick, Jules (2009). "Data sheet about Artemisia annua". Purdue University. Retrieved 24 August 2013. 
  15. ^ Simmons, Adelma Grenier (1994). A world of wreaths from Caprilands: the legend, lore, and design of traditional herbal wreaths. JG Press. p. 17. ISBN 978-1-57215-000-3. 
  16. ^ a b Goody, Jack (1993). The Culture of Flowers. CUP Archive. p. 202. ISBN 978-0-521-41441-8. 
  17. ^ Simmons, Adelma Grenier (1994). A world of wreaths from Caprilands: the legend, lore, and design of traditional herbal wreaths. JG Press. p. 69. ISBN 978-1-57215-000-3. 

External links[edit]