Gaillardia

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Gaillardia
Gaillardia aristata
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
(unranked): Angiosperms
(unranked): Eudicots
(unranked): Asterids
Order: Asterales
Family: Asteraceae
Subfamily: Asteroideae
Tribe: Helenieae
Genus: Gaillardia
Foug.[1]
Species

See text.

Synonyms

Guentheria Spreng.[1]

Gaillardia /ɡˈlɑrdiə/,[2] the blanket flowers,[3] is a genus of flowering plants in the sunflower family, Asteraceae, native to North and South America. It was named after an M. Gaillard de Charentonneau,[4][5] an 18th-century French magistrate who was a patron of botany. The common name may refer to the resemblance of the inflorescence to the brightly patterned blankets made by Native Americans, or to the ability of wild taxa to blanket the ground with colonies.[6] Many cultivars have been bred for ornamental use.

Description[edit]

These are annual or perennial herbs or subshrubs, sometimes with rhizomes. The stem is usually branching and erect to a maximum height around 80 centimeters. The leaves are alternately arranged. Some taxa have only basal leaves. They vary in shape. They are glandular in most species. The inflorescence is a solitary flower head. The head can have 15 or more ray florets, while some taxa lack any ray florets. They can be most any shade of yellow, orange, red, purplish, brown, white, or bicolored. They are sometimes rolled into a funnel shape. There are many tubular disc florets at the center of the head in a similar range of colors, and usually tipped with hairs. The fruit usually has a pappus of scales.[7]

Ecology[edit]

Gaillardia species are used as food plants by the caterpillars of some Lepidoptera species, including Schinia bina (which has been recorded on G. pulchella), Schinia masoni (which feeds exclusively on G. aristata) and Schinia volupia (which feeds exclusively on G. pulchella).

red dome blanketflower (Gaillardia pinnatifida)
Gaillardia 'Fanfare'

Symbolism[edit]

The school colors of Texas State University–San Marcos are maroon and old gold, a combination inspired by the gaillardia.[8]

Species[edit]

There are at least 15[7] to 28[9] valid species in the genus.

Species include:[3][10]

North America
  • Gaillardia aestivalis (Walter) H.Rock – lanceleaf blanketflower
    • Gaillardia aestivalis var. aestivalis
    • Gaillardia aestivalis var. flavovirens (C.Mohr) Cronquist
    • Gaillardia aestivalis var. winkleri (Cory) B.L.Turner – Winkler's blanketflower
  • Gaillardia amblyodon J.Gay – maroon blanketflower
  • Gaillardia aristata Pursh – common gaillardia
  • Gaillardia arizonica A.Gray – Arizona blanketflower
    • Gaillardia arizonica var. arizonica
    • Gaillardia arizonica var. pringlei – Pringle's blanketflower
  • Gaillardia coahuilensis B.L.Turner – bandanna daisy
  • Gaillardia flava – yellow blanketflower
  • Gaillardia multiceps Greene – onion blanketflower
    • Gaillardia multiceps var. microcephala
    • Gaillardia multiceps var. multiceps
  • Gaillardia parryi Greene – Parry's blanketflower
  • Gaillardia pinnatifida Torr. – red dome blanketflower
    • Gaillardia pinnatifida var. linearis
    • Gaillardia pinnatifida var. pinnatifida
  • Gaillardia pulchella Foug. – firewheel
    • Gaillardia pulchella var. australis
    • Gaillardia pulchella var. picta (Sweet) A.Gray
    • Gaillardia pulchella var. pulchella
  • Gaillardia spathulata A.Gray – western blanketflower
  • Gaillardia suavis (A.Gray & Engelm.) Britton & Rusby – perfumeballs
South America

Hybrids[edit]

Formerly placed here[edit]

Gallery[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b "Genus: Gaillardia Foug.". Germplasm Resources Information Network. United States Department of Agriculture. 1998-09-22. Retrieved 2011-02-10. 
  2. ^ Sunset Western Garden Book. 1995. 606–07.
  3. ^ a b "Gaillardia". Integrated Taxonomic Information System. Retrieved 2011-02-10. 
  4. ^ Fougeroux de Bondaroy, Auguste Denis. Observations sur la Physique, sur L'Histoire Naturelle et sur les Arts. 29: 55. 1786. [1]
  5. ^ Fougeroux de Bondaroy, Auguste Denis. Memoires de l'Academie Royale des Sciences Paris 1786: 5. 1788. [2]
  6. ^ Gaillardia × grandiflora. Missouri Botanical Garden.
  7. ^ a b Gaillardia. Flora of North America.
  8. ^ School Colors. Texas State University–San Marcos.
  9. ^ Gaillardia. The Jepson eFlora 2013.
  10. ^ a b c d "GRIN Species Records of Gaillardia". Germplasm Resources Information Network. United States Department of Agriculture. Retrieved 2011-02-10. 

References[edit]

  1. Biddulph, S. F. (1944). "A revision of the genus Gaillardia". Res. Stud. State Coll. Wash. 13: 195–256.