Board certification is the process by which a physician (M.D. or D.O.), dentist (DDS or DMD), pharmacist (Pharm.D.) or podiatrist (DPM), in the United States demonstrates through either written, practical, and/or simulator based testing, a mastery of the basic knowledge and skills that define an area of medical specialization. The commonly used acronym BE/BC (board eligible/board certified) refers to a doctor who is certified or is eligible to be certified to practice medicine in a particular field.
The term board certified is also used in the nursing field, where a candidate with advanced mastery of a nursing specialty can also become eligible to be Board Certified. Board certification is also used in the field of pharmacy, where a pharmacist can be recognized in specialized areas of advanced pharmacy practice after fulfilling eligibility requirements and passing a certification examination. Doctoral level psychologists (Ph.D., or Psy.D.) may also be board certified by the American Board of Professional Psychology.
Board certification is available to a licensed attorney (J.D.) in the United States as well. Many state bar associations, including Arizona, California, Florida, Louisiana, New Mexico, North Carolina, Ohio, South Carolina, Tennessee, and Texas, offer board certification in various specialty areas, such as admiralty law, civil trial law, estate planning (or wills, trusts, and estates) law, family (and/or marital) law, immigration law, and tax law. Other organizations also offer certification, with some being accredited by the American Bar Association. The American Bar Association's Standing Committee on Specialization offers extensive resources to attorneys and consumers.
At least one state allows board certified attorneys to use an acronym similar to board certified doctors: The Florida Bar only allows its certified attorneys to use the acronym B.C.S. to identify themselves as board certified, "experts," or "specialists."
Defining a Medical Specialty 
The core body of knowledge that defines an area of medical specialization is referred to as the core competencies for that specialty. Core competencies are developed through detailed review of the medical literature combined with review by recognized experts from established medical specialties, experts within the new area of specialization and experts from outside the medical profession. This list of core knowledge and skills is then compiled into a draft core competency document.
Once the core competency document is drafted, the certifying organization and its associated professional academy, college or society review the document against the existing literature and again solicit expert opinion regarding the domains of competence and areas of competency contained in the document. The core competencies are next formatted using a psychometric taxonomy such as Bloom's Taxonomy based on the core competencies required by physicians practicing in the area of specialization as non-specialists and as specialists or sub-specialists. Development of the first core competency document takes five to ten years and is a prerequisite to creating the certification examination.
Certification Examinations 
Physicians seeking board certification in a given area of specialty must successfully complete and pass an examination process designed to test their mastery of the minimum knowledge and skills contained in the core competency document. Prior to taking the examination, a physician must graduate with a degree, either MD or DO, and meet all other prerequisites to certification as set out by the certifying agency or "board."
The examination itself may consist of one or more parts. Traditionally, an exhaustive written examination is required of all candidates for board certifications in any specialty. While written examinations are adequate measures of basic knowledge, they do not test the mastery of skills or the application of knowledge as well. Many specialties have over the decades attempted to evaluate skills through "practical" examinations using "model" patients (actors) or by observing the physician candidate in a clinical environment. The practical examination has been criticized for being subjective and irreproducible even in the hands of an experienced examiner. As a result, computerized animatronic human patient simulator based examinations are now being adopted. The traditional written examination is also rapidly being replaced by computer-based testing.
The certification application and examination process for physicians is similar to the process for attorneys. Most state bar associations and organizations approved by the American Bar Association to certify attorneys in a particular area of law generally require five or more years of practice in that area, a minimum number of continuing legal education credits in that area, and references from peer attorneys, judges, or others qualified to comment on the attorney applicant's certification candidacy. Examinations vary, but many utilize multiple choice and essay questions to test the attorney's substantive knowledge and experience. For example, the Texas Board of Legal Specialization generally administers a six hour examination consisting of three hours of essay questions in the morning and three hours of multiple choice questions in the afternoon, although the format varies based on the area of specialty.
Certifying Agencies for Physicians 
Board certification is overseen by different agencies and organizations throughout the world. In most cases, these organizations are not only specific to a particular type of physician training (MD vs. DO), but a specific country or group of countries. There are three agencies or organizations in the United States which collectively oversee the certification of M.D.s and D.O.s in the 26 recognized medical specialties. These organizations are the American Board of Medical Specialties (ABMS) and the American Medical Association; the American Osteopathic Association Bureau of Osteopathic Specialists (AOABOS) and the American Osteopathic Association; the American Board of Physician Specialties (ABPS) and the American Association of Physician Specialists. AOABOS and ABPS each have associated with associated national medical organization functions as an umbrella for its various specialty academies, colleges and societies (see table). The American Board of Medical Specialties represents the largest of these organizations, with over 750,000 US physicians having received certification from one or more of its 24 member Boards. The ABMS is not affiliated with any medical society. ABPS is recognized by most states, however, there are some states where physicians are not, by law, allowed to call themselves "board certified" if the specialty designation is from their boards.
|Certifying Board||National Organization||Physician Type|
|ABMS||no-affiliation||M.D. and D.O.|
|AOABOS||American Osteopathic Association||D.O. Only|
|ABPS||AAPS||M.D. and D.O.|
Many, but not all, boards of certification now require that physicians demonstrate, by examination, continuing mastery of the core knowledge and skills for their chosen specialty. The American Board of Radiology, for example, bowing to pressure from the ABMS, amended its policy for lifetime certificates and now requires recipients of ABR certification to recertify after 10 years, while diplomates granted certification prior to 2002 are given lifetime certificates. Recertification varies by specialty between every 7 and every 10 years.
Certifying Agencies for Attorneys 
Most state bar associations restrict their licensed attorneys from advertising that they are certified, experts, or specialists in a particular area of law unless they are either (a) certified by the state bar association or (b) certified by an organization approved by the American Bar Association. This approach generally follows Rule 7.4 of the American Bar Association's Model Rules of Professional Conduct. The American Bar Association's Standing Committee on Specialization lists specialty certification programs, including state bar associations and the specialty areas offered for certification purposes.
Specialty colleges 
Medical specialty colleges are societies that represent specialist physicians. Any physician may join these organizations, though most require board certification in order to become a fellow of the college and use the respective post-nominal letters. Similarly, legal specialty colleges are societies that represent specialist lawyers. Fellows of a particular legal specialty college might or might not be board certified. The American College of Trust and Estate Counsel, which was originally known as the American College of Probate Counsel, is one of the oldest legal specialty colleges, although the American College of Trial Lawyers was founded a year later (1950).
See also 
- American Board of Nursing Specialty
- Board of Pharmaceutical Specialties
- Standing Committee on Specialization
- http://www.floridabar.org/TFB/TFBResources.nsf/Attachments/53249E61C0B0107A85256F73005424F0/$FILE/Board%20Certification%20Q%20&%20A.pdf?OpenElement (Accessed May 15, 2013)
- TBLS Attorney Exam Specifications
- http://docwhisperer.wordpress.com/ (accessed October 11, 2010)
- http://docwhisperer.files.wordpress.com/2009/10/aaps-nysdoh-decision.pdf (Accessed October 11, 2010)
- Rule 7.4: Communication of Fields of Practice & Specialization
- Sources of Certification
- American Association of Physician Specialists, Inc. (AAPS)
- American Board of Medical Specialties (ABMS)
- American Osteopathic Association Bureau of Osteopathic Specialists (AOABOS)
- American Board of Physician Specialties (ABPS)
- American Board of Professional Psychology (ABPP)
- American Board of Medical Psychology (ABMP)
- International Board for Quality in Healthcare (IBQH)
- Board of Pharmacy Specialities (BPS)