|Stylistic origins||The fusion of soul music, rhythm and blues with Cuban mambo and son.|
|Cultural origins||1960s New York City|
|Typical instruments||Piano – Conga – Trumpet – Trombone – Bass guitar – Double bass – Guitar – Bongos – Saxophone – Güiro – Timbales|
|New York and Puerto Rico|
Boogaloo or Bugalú (also: Shing-a-ling, Latin Boogaloo, Latin R&B) is a genre of Latin music and dance that was popular in the United States in the 1960s. Although it came to prominence after the rise of Bossa nova and was greatly influenced by the new drumbeat of modern samba, arguably one of the most remarkable influences in popular music, from the second half of the 1950s, boogaloo originated in New York City among teenage Cubans, Puerto Ricans, and others. The style was a fusion of popular African American R&B and Soul, with Mambo and Son Montuno, boogaloo employed English as well as Spanish lyrics, and entered the American mainstream primarily through the American Bandstand television program. Boogaloo dance is distinct from the "Electric Boogaloo", a style of dance which developed decades later under the influence of Funk music and Hip-hop dance.
In the 1950s and '60s, African Americans in the United States listened to various styles of music, including jump blues, R&B and doo-wop. Puerto Ricans in New York City shared these tastes, but they also listened to genres like mambo or chachachá and Bossa Nova. There was a mixing of Puerto Ricans, Cubans, African Americans and others in clubs, whose bands tried to find common musical ground. Boogaloo was a result of this search, a marriage of many styles including Cuban son montuno, guaguancó, guajira, guaracha, mambo, and American R&B and soul.
Boogaloo can be seen as "the first Nuyorican music" (René López), and has been called "the greatest potential that Cuban rhythms had to really cross over in terms of music" (Izzy Sanabria). Styles like doo wop also left a sizable influence, through Tony Pabón (of Pete Rodríguez Band), Bobby Marín, King Nando, Johnny Colón and his vocalists Tony Rojas and Tito Ramos.
Though boogaloo did not become mainstream nationwide until later in the decade, two early Top 20 hits came in 1963: Mongo Santamaría's performance of the Herbie Hancock piece Watermelon Man and Ray Barretto's El Watusi. Inspired by these two successes, a number of bands began imitating their infectious rhythms (which were Latinized R&B), intense conga rhythms and clever novelty lyrics. Boogaloo was the only Cuban-style rhythm which acquired English lyrics – some of the time. Established Cuban-influenced orchestras also recorded the occasional boogaloo, including Pérez Prado, Tito Rodríguez and Tito Puente. Most of the other groups were young musicians – some were teenagers – the Latin Souls, the Lat-Teens, Pucho & His Latin Soul Brothers, Joe Bataan and the Latinaires.
Use of the term boogaloo in referring to a musical style was probably coined in about 1966 by Richie Ray and Bobby Cruz. The biggest boogaloo hit of the '60s was "Bang Bang" by the Joe Cuba Sextet, which sold over one million copies in 1966. El Pito was another hit by this popular combo. Hits by other groups included Johnny Colón's "Boogaloo Blues", Pete Rodríguez's "I Like It like That", and Héctor Rivera's "At the Party".
The same year as Joe Cuba's pop success, 1966, saw the closing of New York City's Palladium Ballroom, when the venue, the home of big band mambo for years, lost its liquor license. The closing marked the end of mainstream mambo, and boogaloo ruled the Latin charts for several years before salsa began to take over. At the same time several other rhythmical inventions were going the rounds: the dengue, the jala-jala and the shing-a-ling were all offshoots of the mambo and chachachá.
The older generation of Latin musicians have been accused of using their influence to repress the young movement, for commercial reasons. There was certainly pressure on booking agents by the established bands. The craze was mostly over by 1970, perhaps because of the hostility of established bands and key booking agents; the reason is uncertain. Almost every major and minor Latin dance artist of the time had recorded at least a few boogaloos on their albums. It had been an intense, if brief, musical movement, and the music is still highly regarded today.
The Latin boogaloo bands were mostly led by young, sometimes even teenage musicians from New York's Puerto Rican community. These included, but weren’t limited to, Bataan, Cuba, Bobby Valentín, The Latin Souls, The Lat-Teens, Johnny Colón, Willie Colón and The Latinaires. As such, Latin boogaloo can be seen as "the first Nuyorican music" (René López), and has been called "the greatest potential that (Latinos) had to really cross over in terms of music" (Izzy Sanabria). However, Latino musicians and composers also made a big contribution to doo-wop.
Latin boogaloo also spread throughout the wider Latin music world, especially in Puerto Rico, where top band El Gran Combo released many boogaloos. Latin music scenes in Peru, Colombia, Panama and elsewhere also embraced the boogaloo. Though the dance craze only lasted until 1968/69, Latin boogaloo was popular enough that almost every major and minor Latin dance artist of the time recorded at least a few boogaloos on their albums. That included boogaloos by long-time veteran, mambo-era musicians such as Eddie Palmieri and his Aye Que Rico or Tito Puente's Hit the Bongo.
The boogaloo faded from popularity by the end of 1969.p168 What caused the fairly rapid end of the boogaloo's reign is in doubt. According to several sources, jealous older Latin music artists colluded with record labels (in particular, Fania), radio DJs, and dance hall promoters to blacklist boogaloo bands from venues and radio. Alternatively, it was a fad that had run out of steam.p168 Its demise allowed older musicians to make a comeback on the New York scene. The explosive success of salsa in the early 1970s saw former giants like Puente and the Palmieri Brothers return to the top, while most Latin boogaloo bands went out of business (Joe Bataan and Willie Colón being two notable exceptions).
Latin boogaloo remains popular to this day in Cali, Colombia, where the genre is played extensively, along with salsa and pachanga, in various FM and AM radio stations and hundreds of dance clubs. The Caleños prefer their boogaloo sped up, from 33 to 45 RPM, to match the city's fast dance style. However, the term `Boogaloo was used as the name for the Kent Harris combo on the 1955 Crest 78 rpm issue, as by "Boogaloo And His Galiant Crew" on the titles "Cops And Robbers and "Clothes Line".
- Ray Barretto, Viva Watusi! (UA Latino, 1965)
- Ricardo Ray, Se soltó (On the loose) (Tico, 1966)
- Ricardo Ray, Jala Jala y Boogaloo (Tico, 1967)
- Joe Cuba Sextet, Bang! Bang! & Push, push, push (Tico, 1967)
- Pete Rodríguez, "I Like It Like That" (Alegre, 1967)
- Pucho and His Latin Soul Brothers, The Best of Pucho and the Latin Soul Brothers (Ace, 1966–1970)
- Johnny Colón, Boogaloo Blues (Fania, 1967)
- Willie Colón, El Malo (Fania, 1967)
- Joey Pastrana, Let's ball (Cotique, 1967)
- El Gran Combo, Boogaloos (Gema, 1967)
- Bigbadboogaloo: Latin boogaloo from the Big Apple (Harmless HURTLP044). Double album compilation includes the Lebrón Brothers, the Tico All Stars, El Gran Combo, Johnny Rivera and The Tequila Brass and Pete Rodríguez. Jack Costanzo & Gerry Woo with Cannonball Adderley's Jive Samba (arranger: Héctor Rivera) and Dianne and Carole's The Fuzz (written and arranged by Louie Ramírez) are stand-outs.
- Willie Rodriguez, At the Happening (Fonseca, 1965)
- Steward, Sue 1999. Salsa: the musical heartbeat of Latin America. Thames & Hudson, London. p60
- Roberts, John Storm. 1979. The Latin Tinge. Oxford.
- Flores, Juan (2000). "Cha-Cha With a BackBeat." ‘’From Bomba to Hip-Hop: Puerto Rican Culture and Latino Identity.’’ Columbia University Press. p.107.
4) Boggs, Vernon W. (1939-1994) Salsiology (Published by Excelsior Music Pub. Co., 1992) ISBN 0-935016-63-5