Bounded inverse theorem
In mathematics, the bounded inverse theorem is a result in the theory of bounded linear operators on Banach spaces. It states that a bijective bounded linear operator T from one Banach space to another has bounded inverse T−1. It is equivalent to both the open mapping theorem and the closed graph theorem.
It is necessary that the spaces in question be Banach spaces. For example, consider the space X of sequences x : N → R with only finitely many non-zero terms equipped with the supremum norm. The map T : X → X defined by
is bounded, linear and invertible, but T−1 is unbounded. This does not contradict the bounded inverse theorem since X is not complete, and thus is not a Banach space. To see that it's not complete, consider the sequence of sequences x(n) ∈ X given by
converges as n → ∞ to the sequence x(∞) given by
which has all its terms non-zero, and so does not lie in X.
The completion of X is the space of all sequences that converge to zero, which is a (closed) subspace of the ℓp space ℓ∞(N), which is the space of all bounded sequences. However, in this case, the map T is not onto, and thus not a bijection. To see this, one need simply note that the sequence
is an element of , but is not in the range of .