BrainGate

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BrainGate is a brain implant system built and previously owned by Cyberkinetics, currently under development and in clinical trials, designed to help those who have lost control of their limbs, or other bodily functions, such as patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) or spinal cord injury. The Braingate technology and related Cyberkinetic’s assets are now owned by privately held Braingate, LLC.[1] The sensor, which is implanted into the brain, monitors brain activity in the patient and converts the intention of the user into computer commands.

Technology[edit]

Dummy unit illustrating the design of a BrainGate interface

In its current form, BrainGate consists of a sensor implanted in the brain and an external decoder device, which connects to some kind of prosthetic or other external object. The sensor uses 100 hair-thin electrodes that sense the electromagnetic signature of neurons firing in specific areas of the brain, for example, the area that controls arm movement. The sensor translates that activity into electrically charged signals, which are then sent to an external device and decoded in software. The decoder connects to and can use the brain signals to control an external device, such as a robotic arm, a computer cursor, or even a wheelchair. In essence, BrainGate allows a person to manipulate objects in the world using only the mind.

In addition to real-time analysis of neuron patterns to relay movement, the BrainGate array is also capable of recording electrical data for later analysis. A potential use of this feature would be for a neurologist to study seizure patterns in a patient with epilepsy.

BrainGate was originally developed by researchers in the Department of Neuroscience at Brown University in conjunction with bio-tech company Cyberkinetics, Inc.. Cyberkinetics later spun off the device manufacturing to Blackrock Microsystems, who now manufactures the sensors and the data acquisition hardware.[1] The BrainGate Company purchased the intellectual property and related technology from Cyberkinetics and continues to own the intellectual property related to BrainGate.[2][3][4]

Research and Experimental Results[edit]

The initial clinical trial of BrainGate, led by researchers at Massachusetts General Hospital, Brown University, and the Department of Veterans Affairs, ran from 2004 to 2006 and studied four patients with tetraplegia. The results, published in a 2006 article in the journal Nature, showed that a human with tetraplegia was able to control a cursor on a computer screen just by thinking, enabling him to open emails, and to operate devices such as a television.[5] One participant, Matt Nagle, had a spinal cord injury, whilst another had advanced ALS.[6]

In July 2009, a second clinical trial (dubbed "BrainGate2") was initiated by researchers at Massachusetts General Hospital, Brown University, and the Providence VA.[7][8] In November 2011, researchers from the Stanford University Neural Prosthetics Translational Laboratory joined the trial as a second site.[9][10] This trial is ongoing.

In May 2012, BrainGate researchers published a study in Nature demonstrating that two people paralyzed by brainstem stroke several years earlier were able to control robotic arms for reaching and grasping.[11] One participant, Cathy Hutchinson, was able to use the arm to drink coffee from a bottle, the first time she was able to drink unaided in 15 years.[12][13][14] This took place on site at The Boston Home in Dorchester, Massachusetts, a specialized residence where Ms. Hutchinson resided.[15] The study included researchers at Brown University, the Department of Veterans Affairs, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, and the German Aerospace Center.[16]

Current Clinical Trials[edit]

As of July 8, 2009, clinical trials are being conducted under the name "BrainGate2 Neural Interface System." [17][18]

As of May 18, 2012, Stanford University and Massachusetts General Hospital are actively recruiting participants for the ongoing BrainGate2 clinical trial.[19][20]

See also[edit]

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