Brominated vegetable oil

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Brominated vegetable oil (BVO) is a complex mixture of plant-derived triglycerides that have been reacted to contain atoms of the element bromine bonded to the molecules. Brominated vegetable oil is used primarily to help emulsify citrus-flavored soft drinks, preventing them from separating during distribution. Brominated vegetable oil has been used by the soft drink industry since 1931, generally at a level of about 8 ppm.[1][2] BVO had also been patented as a flame retardant.[3][4]

Careful control of the type of oil used allows bromination of it to produce BVO with a specific density (1.33 g/mL). As a result, it can be mixed with less-dense flavoring agents such as citrus flavor oil to produce a resulting oil whose density matches that of water or other products. The droplets containing BVO remain suspended in the water rather than separating and floating at the surface.[2]

Alternative food additives used for the same purpose include sucrose acetate isobutyrate (SAIB, E444) and glycerol ester of wood rosin (ester gum, E445).

Chemical structure of a representative constituent of BVO, featuring, from the top, brominated linoloate, linolenoate, and oleate esters.[5]

Regulation and use[edit]

United States[edit]

In the United States, BVO was designated in 1958 as generally recognized as safe (GRAS),[2] but this was withdrawn by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration in 1970.[6] The U.S. Code of Federal Regulations currently imposes restrictions on the use of BVO as a food additive in the United States, limiting the concentration to 15 ppm,[7] limiting the amount of free fatty acids to 2.5 percent, and limiting the iodine value to 16.[8] BVO is used in Mountain Dew, manufactured by PepsiCo;[9] Powerade, Fanta Orange and Fresca made by Coca-Cola; and Squirt, Sun Drop and Sunkist Peach Soda, made by the Dr Pepper Snapple Group.[10] Numerous generic citrus sodas also use it, including "Clover Valley"/Dollar General sodas and Stars & Stripes.[citation needed] On May 5, 2014, Coca-Cola and PepsiCo said they will remove BVO from their products.[11]

BVO is one of four substances that the U.S. Food and Drug Administration has defined as interim food additives;[12][13] the other three are acrylonitrile copolymers, mannitol, and saccharin.[14]

Canada[edit]

BVO is currently permitted as a food additive in Canada.[15]

Europe[edit]

In the European Union, BVO is banned from use as a food additive.[16] In the EU, beverage companies commonly use glycerol ester of wood rosin or locust bean gum as an alternative to BVO.

Australia[edit]

In Australia BVO is banned as a food ingredient.

India[edit]

Standards for soft drinks in India have prohibited the use of BVO since 1990.[17][unreliable source?][18]

Japan[edit]

The use of BVO as a food additive has been banned in Japan since 2010.[2]

Health effects[edit]

The United States Food and Drug Administration considers BVO to be safe for use as a food additive.[8] However, there are case reports of adverse effects associated with excessive consumption of BVO-containing products. One case reported that a man who consumed two to four liters of a soda containing BVO on a daily basis experienced memory loss, tremors, fatigue, loss of muscle coordination, headache, and ptosis of the right eyelid, as well as elevated serum chloride.[19] In the two months it took to correctly diagnose the problem, the patient also lost the ability to walk. Eventually, bromism was diagnosed and hemodialysis was prescribed which resulted in a reversal of the disorder. However, there was no evidence that the symptoms were caused by that particular ingredient.[20]

Online petition[edit]

An online petition at Change.org asking PepsiCo to stop adding BVO to Gatorade and other products collected over 200,000 signatures by January 2013.[10] The petition pointed out that since Gatorade is sold in countries where BVO is not approved, there is already an existing formulation without this ingredient. PepsiCo announced in January 2013 that it would no longer use BVO in Gatorade,[9][21] and announced May 5, 2014 that it would discontinue use in all of its drinks, including Mountain Dew.[22]

As of May 5, 2014 Coca-Cola is dropping this controversial ingredient from its Powerade sports drink, after a similar move by PepsiCo's Gatorade last year.[23]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Pepsi Product Information: Ingredient Glossary". PepsiCo. Retrieved 2007-09-17. 
  2. ^ a b c d Paul Bendig, Lisa Maier, Walter Vetter (2012). "Brominated vegetable oil in soft drinks – an underrated source of human organobromine intake". Food Chemistry 133 (3): 678–682. doi:10.1016/j.foodchem.2012.01.058. 
  3. ^ Associated Press (May 5, 2014). "Coke, Pepsi dropping controversial 'BVO' from all drinks.". USA Today. Retrieved 2014-05-07. 
  4. ^ WO 9743236, Nuetzel Rainer, "Process for Brominating Natural Unsaturated Oils", published 1997-11-20 
  5. ^ Bendig, Paul; Maier, Lisa; Vetter, Walter “Brominated vegetable oil in soft drinks - an underrated source of human organobromine intake” Food Chemistry 2012, volume 133, 678-682. doi:10.1016/j.foodchem.2012.01.058.
  6. ^ Food additives. Brominated vegetable oils; removal from list of substances generally recognized as safe. Federal Register (1970), 35(18), 1049
  7. ^ D.L. Turner (1972). "Determination of brominated vegetable oil concentrations in soft drinks using a specific ion electrode". Journal of Food Science 37 (5): 791–792. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2621.1972.tb02754.x. 
  8. ^ a b "Code of Federal Regulations, Title 21—Food and Drugs, Chapter I—Food and Drug Administration, Department of Heath and Human Services, Subchapter B—Food for Human Consumption, Part 180—Food Additives Permitted in Food or in Contact with Food on an Interum Basis Pending Additional Study". Title 21 of the Code of Federal Regulations. Retrieved 2007-09-17. 
  9. ^ a b Stephanie Strom (January 25, 2013). "PepsiCo Will Halt Use of Additive in Gatorade" (blog by NYT journalist). The New York Times. Retrieved January 26, 2013. 
  10. ^ a b Strom, Stephanie. "Another look at a drink ingredient, Brominated Vegetable OIl". New York Times. Retrieved 23 December 2012. 
  11. ^ Choi, Candice (May 5, 2014). "Coke, Pepsi dropping 'BVO' from all drinks". Associated Press. Retrieved May 6, 2014. 
  12. ^ "Food Additive Status List". Food and Drug Administration. 
  13. ^ "Enhancing the Regulatory Decision-Making Approval Process for Direct Food Ingredient Technologies". The National Academies Press. 
  14. ^ Enhancing the Regulatory Decision-Making Approval Process for Direct Food Ingredient Technologies. Institute of Medicine. 1999. p. 31. Retrieved 2007-09-17. 
  15. ^ "Food additives permitted for use in Canada". Health Canada. Retrieved October 19, 2012. 
  16. ^ "Brominated vegetable oil: Why is BVO in my drink?". April 5, 2013. Retrieved 17 February 2014. 
  17. ^ "Campaign on BVO". CUTS International. 
  18. ^ "DIRECTORS' REPORT 1990-91". Ministry of Food Processing Industries. 
  19. ^ Horowitz BZ (1997). "Bromism from excessive cola consumption". Journal of Toxicology: Clinical Toxicology 35 (3): 315–320. doi:10.3109/15563659709001219. PMID 9140329. 
  20. ^ Matthew Alice (1999-07-29). "Straight from the Hip: What is Brominated Vegetable Oil?". San Diego Reader. Retrieved 2007-09-17. 
  21. ^ "Gatorade to remove controversial ingredient". AP. Retrieved 2013-01-26. 
  22. ^ "Mtn. Dew latest to drop controversial ingredient". http://www.sfgate.com/. Retrieved 2014-05-05. 
  23. ^ Jordan, Janelle (5 May 2014). "Brominated vegetable oil removed from Powerade ingredient list". CBC.ca. Retrieved 5 May 2014. 

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